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Undergraduate Honors Theses

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Articles 1 - 30 of 102

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

The Effect Of Cysteine-Reactive Catechol Antioxidants On Alcohol Dehydrogenase As A Model For Oxidative Stress In Neurodegenerative Disease, Rachel Smith May 2019

The Effect Of Cysteine-Reactive Catechol Antioxidants On Alcohol Dehydrogenase As A Model For Oxidative Stress In Neurodegenerative Disease, Rachel Smith

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The cellular mechanisms underlying age-related neurodegeneration, especially in disease states, are poorly understood. Oxidative stress has been heavily implicated as one factor both produced by and contributing to the progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. In particular, it can destroy a cell’s ability to produce energy through aerobic and anaerobic respiration, thus leading to the death of individual cells and brain tissues as a whole. This study focuses on the relationship between oxidative stress and energy production in disease states. In particular, we examine the ability of catechol molecules to take on pro-oxidative properties and modify ...


Principles And Properties Of Rna Self-Assembly, Gabriel Tauber Jan 2019

Principles And Properties Of Rna Self-Assembly, Gabriel Tauber

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules are membraneless assemblies of condensed RNA and protein that form through multivalent interactions between the constituent components. Recently, RNA self-assembly has been shown to contribute to the formation of stress granules, which are RNP granules associated with the stress response and neurodegeneration. However, little is understood about the properties of self-assembled RNA. Here, I show that different RNA sequences can self- assemble into condensates with distinct material properties and partitioning preferences in vitro. Due to interactions that minimize surface free energy, RNA self-assembly can generate the spontaneous self-patterning of RNA assemblies. By reducing surface free energy, thereby ...


Effects Of H-Ras Disease Mutations On Binding To The Ras Binding Domain Of Pi3ky Measured By Micro-Scale Thermophoresis, Justin Martyr Jan 2019

Effects Of H-Ras Disease Mutations On Binding To The Ras Binding Domain Of Pi3ky Measured By Micro-Scale Thermophoresis, Justin Martyr

Undergraduate Honors Theses

H-Ras is a G-protein responsible for the activation of multiple signaling pathways that control cell growth. Our primary interest is examining its role in the regulation of the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling cascade, as H-Ras has been previously shown to recruit PI3K to the plasma membrane where this lipid kinase phosphorylates PIP2 to PIP3, a signal for cellular growth. The H-Ras-PI3K-PIP3 signaling pathway is known to be highly oncogenic, with constitutive activation of H-Ras leading to increased PIP3 production and cell growth. We hypothesize that disease-linked mutations on the binding interface between Ras and PI3K increase the ...


Developmental And Functional Analysis Of Scutes In The Armored Catfish Corydoras Aeneus, Emily Volk Jan 2019

Developmental And Functional Analysis Of Scutes In The Armored Catfish Corydoras Aeneus, Emily Volk

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Fish scales are specialized biological structures of current interest in innovative materials design because of the combination of protective function, flexibility, and light weight they offer. This study presents a developmental and functional investigation of a particular fish scale structure, the scutes (bony external plates) of the armored Bronze Corydoras Catfish (Corydoras aeneus). Scutes in this model fish species were analyzed via three complementary approaches. First, scutes were documented throughout fish development via high-quality microscope images. These images were subsequently used to inform fabrication of synthetic models to characterize the relationship between scute overlap and overall bending stiffness of scute ...


Nanoscale Stiffness Cues Influence Valvular Interstitial Cell Activation To Myofibroblasts, Michaela Wenning Jan 2019

Nanoscale Stiffness Cues Influence Valvular Interstitial Cell Activation To Myofibroblasts, Michaela Wenning

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Surgery is currently the primary treatment option for aortic valve stenosis (AVS) patients, many of whom are ineligible for surgery and are left untreated. AVS is progression is known to differ between males and females, and an understanding of sex-specific mechanisms of disease progression is imperative in developing accurate treatment options for men and women. The development of a nonsurgical therapy for AVS patients requires a deeper understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of AVS progression. Currently, the role of calcium phosphate nanoparticles detected in the aortic valve during early stages of AVS in influencing disease progression and valvular ...


Comparative Analysis Of Dna Isolation Methods For The Human Microbiome, Hannah Chatwin Jan 2019

Comparative Analysis Of Dna Isolation Methods For The Human Microbiome, Hannah Chatwin

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The human microbiome is made up of millions of microbes coexisting in and on us with involvement in health and disease. The exact mechanisms by which this occurs have yet to be fully elucidated. Due to high variability in the composition of each person’s microbiome, it requires large numbers of people to begin to identify some of these processes. A major road block to generating large data sets for analysis is the high cost of DNA isolation from large collections of phenotypically well-characterized human subjects. This study explores the possible application of an inexpensive alternative DNA isolation method utilizing ...


Synthesis Of Candidate Natural Killer T Cell Ligands, Teron Haynie, Shenglou Deng, Paul B. Savage Jun 2018

Synthesis Of Candidate Natural Killer T Cell Ligands, Teron Haynie, Shenglou Deng, Paul B. Savage

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Natural Killer T (NKT) cells are a subset of T cells that express an invariant T cell receptor (TCR) that recognizes lipid antigens in context of the CD1d molecule. CD1d presents both exogenous and endogenous glycolipids on the surface of antigen presenting cells (APCs). Multiple exogenous lipids capable of NKT cell stimulation have been characterized, but confirmed endogenous ligands are relatively few in number. Recently, a-galactosylceramides were shown to be endogenous NKT cell ligands. We have observed that a-galactosylceramides cyclize in acidic conditions. Since the biosynthetic pathway of lipid presentation via CD1d likely passes through the acidic lysosome, we propose ...


Efficacy Of Intranasal Administration: A Clinical Approach To Attention, Jacob Feldmann May 2018

Efficacy Of Intranasal Administration: A Clinical Approach To Attention, Jacob Feldmann

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Orexins are a class of neuropeptides that are associated with homeostatic functions, such as food intake, sexual behavior, and the sleep/wake cycle. Orexins also play a pivotal role in cognitive processes such as attention and memory. In the present experiment, we employed a visual attention task to assess the effects of intranasal administration of orexin A in rats. This task required the rats to discriminate between trials when a visual light was illuminated from trials when the light was not illuminated. We tested the efficacy of this administration technique to see its viability as a therapeutic in attention disorders ...


Investigations Of Interactions Between The Microtubule Binding Domain Of Centrosomal P4.1 Associated Protein And Polyglutamylated Microtubules, Caroline Rhoads Jan 2018

Investigations Of Interactions Between The Microtubule Binding Domain Of Centrosomal P4.1 Associated Protein And Polyglutamylated Microtubules, Caroline Rhoads

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Microtubules maintain particularly diverse and important functions within the cell despite being polymers made up of two highly conserved proteins: a- and b-tubulin. Some of these diverse roles are explained by the presence of post-translational modifications occurring on the C-terminal tail of tubulin proteins, primarily detyrosination, polyglutamylation and polyglycylation. Misregulation of C-terminal tail post-translational modifications are observed in disease phenotypes and may increase the risk of some forms of cancers; however, the role of these post-translational modifications is not well understood. Working towards a goal of designing in vivo methods to study specific post-translational modifications, this paper examines the specificity ...


A Genome-Wide Association Study Of Common Executive Functioning: Bioinformatic Analyses Of Gwas Summary Statistics, Evann Mitchell Jan 2018

A Genome-Wide Association Study Of Common Executive Functioning: Bioinformatic Analyses Of Gwas Summary Statistics, Evann Mitchell

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Executive functions (EFs) are a group of higher cognitive operations that direct lower-level processes to enable an individual to evaluate and carry out goal-directed behaviors. While EFs have been implicated in several complex cognitive abilities, there is one broad higher order construct that influences all EFs, common EF (cEF). While common EF is known to be heritable (i.e. under genetic influence), little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms. Utilizing genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are an effective method for investigating the genetic basis of complex, polygenic traits, such as cEF, by identifying significantly associated SNPs and genes through a ...


Characterizing The Interaction Between The A-Repeat Region Of Xist And Sharp, Torey Averick Jan 2018

Characterizing The Interaction Between The A-Repeat Region Of Xist And Sharp, Torey Averick

Undergraduate Honors Theses

X-Chromosome silencing is a highly conserved process that is essential for proper gene dosage in female mammalian cells. In humans, the process is initiated early in embryonic development and will persist throughout the organism’s life. Improper gene dosage is manifest in disorders such as Down Syndrome, but in the context of X chromosome inactivation, it is fatal. The process occurs within the nucleus of cells, often on the nuclear lamina, and is facilitated by a long non-coding RNA called Xist. Xist, which stands for X-inactivation specific transcript, works together with a suite of proteins that are involved with and ...


Alk-Eml4-Positive Cancers And Combination Therapy: Probing The Apoptotic Threshold, Teagan Glass Jan 2018

Alk-Eml4-Positive Cancers And Combination Therapy: Probing The Apoptotic Threshold, Teagan Glass

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Of all diseases currently being researched, lung cancer is one of the most pressing due to its worldwide prevalence and high incidence of fatality. More specifically, non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) harboring ALK-EML4 gene fusion mutations are of particular interest to researchers due to their widely documented capability of becoming resistant to specialized treatment, such as kinase inhibition. This project was initiated with the aim of using in vitro combination drug treatment to more efficaciously inhibit the growth and survival of H3122 cells, an ALK-EML4-positive NSCLC cell line. In this study, H3122 cells were subjected to combined ALK and histone ...


Facilitated Binding Of High Mobility Group Box 1 And P53 In Transcriptional Regulation, Emma Steffer Jan 2018

Facilitated Binding Of High Mobility Group Box 1 And P53 In Transcriptional Regulation, Emma Steffer

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Transcription of mRNA is a very important and highly regulated processes necessary for the growth and viability of cells. Human p53 is a transcriptional activator that can act as a tumor suppressor by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. HMGB1 is an architectural protein that can bind and bend DNA to aid transcriptional regulation. This project investigated the potential for HMGB1 to facilitate DNA binding by p53. Various gel shift assays were performed to see if the addition of HMGB1 to reactions containing p53 and DNA would increase the amount of p53/DNA binding observed. On wild-type DNA containing two ...


Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Function In Muscle Stem Cells, Tashi Hackett Jan 2018

Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Function In Muscle Stem Cells, Tashi Hackett

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Skeletal muscle has a remarkable ability to regenerate itself following injury and this is reliant upon a group of stem cells known as muscle stem cells Muscle stem cell dysfunction contributes to variety of muscle wasting diseases and insights into mechanisms that regulate MuSC function could lead to new therapies and further our understanding of stem cell biology in general. Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 (FGF2) is a protein that regulates muscle stem cell behavior through stimulation of cell surface tyrosine receptor kinases known as Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors (Jones, 2001). Activation of the receptors by FGF will induce intracellular signaling ...


Emergence Of New Metabolic Pathways In Escherichia Coli, Michael Kristofich Jan 2018

Emergence Of New Metabolic Pathways In Escherichia Coli, Michael Kristofich

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Catalytic promiscuity provides a starting point for the evolution of new enzymes. Taking this concept further, a series of promiscuous enzymes may assemble to form the basis of a new metabolic pathway (termed “serendipitous pathway”) that may emerge and become more efficient in adapting bacterial cells that require it to grow. The Copley lab at the University of Colorado at Boulder has been observing genetic changes that improve growth of Escherichia coli cells that lack the essential gene pdxB. These genetic changes are believed to improve the flux of metabolites through one or more serendipitous pathways that make up for ...


Potential Synthesis Pathway For Redox-Active Dna Nucleoside, Nicole Broda Jan 2018

Potential Synthesis Pathway For Redox-Active Dna Nucleoside, Nicole Broda

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Science has failed those who die from the treatment of an illness rather than the illness itself. DNA nanomachines hold the promise of improving the site specificity of drug delivery, which can combat the toxicity of the drug to healthy cells and in turn, decrease unnecessary patient deaths due to treatment. We have found a novel synthesis pathway for a reversible redox- active nucleoside (n-nucleoside) that has the promise to be incorporated in and create redox- active DNA. Synthesis of 5’-deazalloxazine-ribonolactone was achieved via sodium hydride catalyzed glycosylation of 1-a-chloro-3,5-ditoluoyl-2-deoxy-D-ribose (5’,3’-protected-chloro- ribose). We were not able ...


Investigating The Molecular Mechanism Of Glut4 Trafficking, Jessica Miller Jan 2018

Investigating The Molecular Mechanism Of Glut4 Trafficking, Jessica Miller

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The insulin-stimulated glucose transporter GLUT4 is essential to maintaining metabolic homeostasis in mammalian cells. Regulated trafficking of GLUT4 to and from the plasma membrane relies on a complex molecular mechanism integrating insulin signaling and vesicle transport. Understanding this pathway becomes increasingly crucial as Type II Diabetes, a disease characterized by insulin resistance, becomes more prevalent in the population. Despite decades of research, the molecular mechanism of GLUT4 trafficking is not yet fully understood. CRISPR-Cas9 allows for the ablation of individual genes so their role in GLUT4 trafficking can be investigated. A flow cytometry-based assay is used in this study to ...


Design And Synthesis Of Toll-Like Receptor 8 Inhibitors: Optimizing The Potential Drugs For Autoimmune Diseases, Kyoin Koo Jan 2018

Design And Synthesis Of Toll-Like Receptor 8 Inhibitors: Optimizing The Potential Drugs For Autoimmune Diseases, Kyoin Koo

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The first line of defense during infection relies on detecting the presence of pathogens and triggering pro-inflammatory responses by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Among PRRs, Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) have been studied most extensively. TLRs are membrane receptors that recognize molecular patterns associated with pathogens and damaged cells to initiate immune responses. TLRs are good drug research targets because improper activation of TLRs has shown to be correlated with pathogenesis of various autoimmune diseases. TLR8 is an endogenous receptor that recognizes single-stranded RNA from viral infections. When TLR8 is improperly activated by self-RNAs, it can possibly lead to rheumatoid arthritis (RA ...


Altering Parameters Of Crispr/Cas9 Mediated Genome Editing In Escherichia Coli Helps Identify Sources Of Variation In Editing Efficiency, Reilly G. Fankhauser Jan 2018

Altering Parameters Of Crispr/Cas9 Mediated Genome Editing In Escherichia Coli Helps Identify Sources Of Variation In Editing Efficiency, Reilly G. Fankhauser

Undergraduate Honors Theses

CRISPR/Cas9, originating from a bacterial immune system, has been identified as a powerful tool for genome modification (Jinek, et al., 2012). Historically, analyzing genotype-phenotype relationships have been limited by DNA synthesis and sequencing technology. Recent developments in genome editing (CRISPR/Cas9) coupled to improvements in synthesis and sequencing allows mapping these relationships at an entirely new scale. A technique novel to the Gill lab for genome modification that harnesses the CRISPR-Cas system is “CRISPR Enabled Trackable Genomic Engineering” or “CREATE” technology. CREATE technology is one such strategy for simultaneously making hundreds of thousands of single genomic edits, then tracking ...


Liquid Crystal Phases Of Rna Mononucleosides, Emily Hayden Jan 2018

Liquid Crystal Phases Of Rna Mononucleosides, Emily Hayden

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) can form columnar liquid crystal phases in solutions of both short strand, base-pair oligomer solutions, and in solutions of single DNA Nucleoside Tri-Phosphates (dNTP), the molecular constituents that make up helical DNA. The spontaneous phase transition to columnar liquid crystals by the dNTPs occurs without the necessity of the sugar-phosphate backbone of helical DNA, and exhibits key structural elements of biologic nucleic acids including long-range columnar stacking of base-pairs and Watson-Crick selectivity. This spontaneous increase in structural complexity is useful when discussing liquid crystal formation as relevant to the increasingly complexity of prebiotic life.

Ribonucleic acid (RNA ...


Effect Of Variation In An Essential Folding Element On The Cobalamin Riboswitch, Marcus Urquijo Jan 2018

Effect Of Variation In An Essential Folding Element On The Cobalamin Riboswitch, Marcus Urquijo

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Riboswitches are RNA-based genetic regulatory elements that control gene expression without the need for protein cofactors. These RNA motifs are found within the 5’ untranslated regions of mRNA and promote genetic regulation by altering the structure of RNA through binding small molecule effector ligands that cause conformational changes that repress or activate translation/transcription. The env8 cobalamin riboswitch binds cyanocobalamin (CNCbl) to repress gene expression of the downstream mRNA. It accomplishes this through an interplay of two separate domains; an aptamer domain which binds the effector ligand and a regulatory domain which contains the genetic switch. Within the aptamer domain ...


An Analysis Of Oxidative Damage To Lactate Dehydrogenase In Context Of Neurodegeneration And Catechol-Based Phenolic Antioxidant Chemistry, Lydia Boike Dec 2017

An Analysis Of Oxidative Damage To Lactate Dehydrogenase In Context Of Neurodegeneration And Catechol-Based Phenolic Antioxidant Chemistry, Lydia Boike

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Lactate dehydrogenase, a redox-active enzyme with five reactive cysteine residues, reversibly converts pyruvate to lactate during anaerobic glycolysis. In the case of certain disease states, when oxygen levels are low or increased oxidative stress damages mitochondrial respiration, cells must rely heavily on anaerobic glycolysis for ATP production. This is true of Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, ALS, and many cancers. Diseased cells upregulate anaerobic glycolytic enzymes - particularly LDH – to produce enough energy to survive. Upregulated LDH plays a key role because as it produces lactate, it also replenishes NAD+, allowing for high levels of glycolysis to continue uninterrupted. Despite ...


2d Nmr Structural Study Of A Dna Duplex Containing Two Unnatural Base Pairs, Weston Preising May 2017

2d Nmr Structural Study Of A Dna Duplex Containing Two Unnatural Base Pairs, Weston Preising

Undergraduate Honors Theses

DNA is the genetic blueprint responsible for the traits of living organisms. The "genetic alphabet" consists of four molecules called nucleobases, represented by the letters A, T, G, and C strung together in a "strand." A DNA duplex consists of two "strands" held together such that A is across from T and G across from C, referred to A-T and G-C "base pairs". Recently, the genetic alphabet or code has been expanded by synthetic biologists in an effort to unveil new insights to the machinery of DNA replication, and potentially develop new medicines to cure diseases like HIV. The new ...


Investigation Into The Mechanism Of Ion Transport In Rio Negro Characiformes, Vineza D. Reduta May 2017

Investigation Into The Mechanism Of Ion Transport In Rio Negro Characiformes, Vineza D. Reduta

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Four fish species within the Characiform Order [(Rosy tetras (Hyphessobrycon rosaceus), Serpae tetras (Hyphessobrycon eques), Emperor tetras (Nematobrycon palmeri) and Penguin tetras (Thayeria obliqua)] are native to the ion-poor, acidic waters of the Rio Negro. In this paper, we focus on Wood’s revised Na+/NH4+ exchange model to gain better insight into the mechanisms of ion transport within the Characids. We exposed each species to two experimental treatments: (i) 1mM ammonia (high external ammonia [HEA]), to test coupling of Na+ uptake and ammonia excretion, and (ii) 100μM Acetazolamide (carbonic anhydrase inhibitor), to test coupling of Na+ uptake and ...


Oxidative Quenching Of Photoexcited Ru(Ii)-Bipyridine Complexes By Oxygen, Danielle Rebecca Latham May 2017

Oxidative Quenching Of Photoexcited Ru(Ii)-Bipyridine Complexes By Oxygen, Danielle Rebecca Latham

Undergraduate Honors Theses

An experimental approach was taken in determining the quantum yield of Ruthenium(II) with Oxygen using two different Ru complexes. This reaction results in Ruthenium(III) and O2-. The Coulombic interactions caused by a carboxylate functional was found to increase the yield of charge separation. This was done using a diode to measure the intensity of the completed reaction over a certain time frame. The intensities were turned into concentrations. The concentration over time was used to determine the quantum yield. This information is useful in creating more efficient light emitting diodes.


Determination Of The Substrate Specificity Of Citrus Paradisi Flavonol Specific 3-O-Glucosyltransferase Mutant D344p, Nathan R. Spaulding May 2017

Determination Of The Substrate Specificity Of Citrus Paradisi Flavonol Specific 3-O-Glucosyltransferase Mutant D344p, Nathan R. Spaulding

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Plants produce a vast array of secondary metabolites. A group of phenolic compounds, the flavonoids, are metabolites ubiquitous among plants and are known to aid in processes such as plant reproduction, UV defense, pigmentation and development. In relation to human health, flavonoids have been found to possess anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and antioxidant properties. Flavonoid’s ability to participate in so many interactions is due in part to their subclass variation and further chemical modification. One such modification is glucosylation, where a glucose molecule is added to the flavonoid substrate. The enzymes that catalyze these reactions are known as glucosyltransferases (GT). Citrus ...


Beyond "Self-Eating": The Role Of The Pseudophosphatase Mk-Styx In Regulating Autophagy, Patrick Christian May 2017

Beyond "Self-Eating": The Role Of The Pseudophosphatase Mk-Styx In Regulating Autophagy, Patrick Christian

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Cells carry out their day to day functions through the cellular work horses, proteins. Proteins work together like bees in a hive, each having its own specific task to accomplish. This specificity creates a fine-tuned division of labor where different types of proteins work together, completing their own work for the overall functioning of the cell. This division of labor can be mapped out nicely with cellular pathways. One such pathway is the stress response pathway. One of the major “workers” in this pathway is MK-STYX [MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) phosphoserine/threonine/tyrosine-binding protein]. MK-STYX is a pseudophosphatase, a member ...


Plateau Potential Fluctuations And Intrinsic Membrane Noise, Daniel Scott Borrus May 2017

Plateau Potential Fluctuations And Intrinsic Membrane Noise, Daniel Scott Borrus

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This thesis focuses on subthreshold membrane potential fluctuations in the plateau potentials of bistable neurons. Research involved with plateau potentials typically finds one of the resting membrane potentials to be more susceptible to voltage fluctuations. This difference in the amplitude of the membrane potential fluctuations is most often attributed to the voltage-dependent membrane conductance. Occasionally, however, the typically quieter resting membrane potential exhibits larger voltage fluctuations than the expected one. It has been proposed that this increased membrane potential noise is the result of the stochastic gating of the voltage-gated ion channels. In this thesis, we use a simple bistable ...


Metabolism And Oxidative Stress: Understanding The Role Of Reactive Cysteines In Pyruvate Kinase, Mary Cate Duff May 2017

Metabolism And Oxidative Stress: Understanding The Role Of Reactive Cysteines In Pyruvate Kinase, Mary Cate Duff

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a critical role in intracellular signaling mechanisms. These small molecules initiate reversible, post-translational modifications of redox-sensitive proteins. Pyruvate kinase (PK) is a key glycolytic enzyme whose activity is modulated by ROS; oxidation inhibits its catalytic function through a reaction at a critical cysteine near the active site. PK’s central role in moderating glycolytic flux makes it highly regulated through both structural and allosteric effectors. This research explores the extent of cysteine modification of PK under various models of intracellular conditions. PK was treated with oxidants and allosteric regulators, and changes in the enzyme’s ...


Metabolism And Oxidative Stress: Understanding The Role Of Reactive Cysteines In Pyruvate Kinase, Mary Cate Duff May 2017

Metabolism And Oxidative Stress: Understanding The Role Of Reactive Cysteines In Pyruvate Kinase, Mary Cate Duff

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a critical role in intracellular signaling mechanisms. These small molecules initiate reversible, post-translational modifications of redox-sensitive proteins. Pyruvate kinase (PK) is a key glycolytic enzyme whose activity is modulated by ROS; oxidation inhibits its catalytic function through a reaction at a critical cysteine near the active site. PK’s central role in moderating glycolytic flux makes it highly regulated through both structural and allosteric effectors. This research explores the extent of cysteine modification of PK under various models of intracellular conditions. PK was treated with oxidants and allosteric regulators, and changes in the enzyme’s ...