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Articles 1 - 19 of 19

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

The Role Of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Axl In Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma And Its Regulation By Hematopoietic Progenitor Kinase 1, Xianzhou Song Dec 2011

The Role Of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Axl In Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma And Its Regulation By Hematopoietic Progenitor Kinase 1, Xianzhou Song

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is one of the most aggressive malignancies with less than 5% of five year survival rate. New molecular markers and new therapeutic targets are urgently needed for patients with PDA. Oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinase Axl has been reported to be overexpressed in many types of human malignancies, including diffuse glioma, melanoma, osteosarcoma, and carcinomas of lung, colon, prostate, breast, ovary, esophagus, stomach, and kidney. However, the expression and functions of Axl in PDA are unclear. We hypothesized that Axl contributes to the development and progression of PDA. We examined Axl expression in 54 human PDA samples ...


Definition Of The Landscape Of Chromatin Structure At The Frataxin Gene In Friedreich’S Ataxia, Eunah Kim Dec 2011

Definition Of The Landscape Of Chromatin Structure At The Frataxin Gene In Friedreich’S Ataxia, Eunah Kim

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Friedreich’s ataxia (FRDA) is caused by the transcriptional silencing of the frataxin (FXN) gene. FRDA patients have expansion of GAA repeats in intron 1 of the FXN gene in both alleles. A number of studies demonstrated that specific histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) affect either histone modifications at the FXN gene or FXN expression in FRDA cells, indicating that the hyperexpanded GAA repeat may facilitate heterochromatin formation. However, the correlation between chromatin structure and transcription at the FXN gene is currently limited due to a lack of more detailed analysis. Therefore, I analyzed the effects of the hyperexpanded GAA repeats ...


Conformational Changes In The Extracellular Domain Of Glutamate Receptors, Anu Rambhadran Dec 2011

Conformational Changes In The Extracellular Domain Of Glutamate Receptors, Anu Rambhadran

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The family of membrane protein called glutamate receptors play an important role in the central nervous system in mediating signaling between neurons. Glutamate receptors are involved in the elaborate game that nerve cells play with each other in order to control movement, memory, and learning.

Neurons achieve this communication by rapidly converting electrical signals into chemical signals and then converting them back into electrical signals. To propagate an electrical impulse, neurons in the brain launch bursts of neurotransmitter molecules like glutamate at the junction between neurons, called the synapse. Glutamate receptors are found lodged in the membranes of the post-synaptic ...


Developmental Deregulation And Tumorigenesis Inhibition In 14-3-3zeta Knockout Mouse, Jun Yang Aug 2011

Developmental Deregulation And Tumorigenesis Inhibition In 14-3-3zeta Knockout Mouse, Jun Yang

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Cancer is second leading cause of death in the United States. Improving cancer care through patient care, research, education and prevention not only saves lives, but reduces health care cost as well. Breast cancer is the most leading cause of cancer incidence and cancer related death in women of the United States. 14-3-3s are a family of conserved proteins ubiquitously expressed in all eukaryotic organisms. They form complexes with hundreds of proteins by binding to specific phospho-serine/threonine containing motifs. In this way they regulate a variety of cellular processes and are involved in many human diseases especially cancer to ...


Uptake And Metabolism Of 5’-Amp In The Erythrocyte Play Key Roles In The 5’-Amp Induced Model Of Deep Hypometabolism, Isadora Daniels Aug 2011

Uptake And Metabolism Of 5’-Amp In The Erythrocyte Play Key Roles In The 5’-Amp Induced Model Of Deep Hypometabolism, Isadora Daniels

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

UPTAKE AND METABOLISM OF 5’-AMP IN THE ERYTHROCYTE PLAY KEY ROLES IN THE 5’-AMP INDUCED MODEL OF DEEP HYPOMETABOLISM

Publication No. ________

Isadora Susan Daniels, B.A.

Supervisory Professor: Cheng Chi Lee, Ph.D.

Mechanisms that initiate and control the natural hypometabolic states of mammals are poorly understood. The laboratory developed a model of deep hypometabolism (DH) initiated by uptake of 5’-adenosine monophosphate (5’-AMP) into erythrocytes. Mice enter DH when given a high dose of 5’-AMP and the body cools readily. Influx of 5’-AMP appears to inhibit thermoregulatory control. In a 15°C environment ...


Mechanisms Of Adenovirus-Mediated Autophagy, Erin White Aug 2011

Mechanisms Of Adenovirus-Mediated Autophagy, Erin White

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

A patient diagnosed with a glioma, generally, has an average of 14 months year to live after implementation of conventional therapies such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. Glioblastomas are highly lethal because of their aggressive nature and resistance to conventional therapies and apoptosis. Thus other avenues of cell death urgently need to be explored. Autophagy, which is also known as programmed cell death type II, has recently been identified as an alternative mechanism to kill apoptosis- resistant cancer cells. Traditionally, researchers have studied how cells undergo autophagy during viral infection as an immune response mechanism, but recently researchers have discovered ...


Echogenic Liposomes For Nitric Oxide Delivery And Breast Cancer Treatment, Soo Yeon Lee Female Aug 2011

Echogenic Liposomes For Nitric Oxide Delivery And Breast Cancer Treatment, Soo Yeon Lee Female

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Liposomes, also known as nontoxic, biodegradable, and non-immunogenic therapeutic delivery vehicles, have been proposed as a carrier for drugs and antitumor agents in cancer chemotherapy. Echogenic liposomes (ELIP) have the potential to entrap air or bioactive gas to enhance acoustic reflectivity in ultrasound and are used as a contrast agent. The innovative part of this study is based on a novel concept to encapsulate nitric oxide (NO) gas into ELIP, deliver it to breast cancer cells, and control its release via direct ultrasound exposure. Studies on the effect of NO in tumor biology have shown that a high levels of ...


Significance Of Increased Tissue Transglutaminase In Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer, Amy L. Han Aug 2011

Significance Of Increased Tissue Transglutaminase In Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer, Amy L. Han

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The progression of hormone responsive to hormone refractory prostate cancer poses a major clinical challenge in the successful treatment of prostate cancer. The hormone refractory prostate cancer cells exhibit resistance not only to castrate levels of testosterone, but also to other therapeutic modalities and hence become lethal. Currently, there is no effective treatment available for managing this cancer. These observations underscore the urgency to investigate mechanism(s) that contribute to the progression of hormone-responsive to hormone-refractory prostate cancer and to target them for improved clinical outcomes.

Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) is a multifunctional pro-inflammatory protein involved in diverse physiological processes such ...


Downregulation Of Pax2 Suppresses Ovarian Cancer Cell Growth, Huijuan Song Aug 2011

Downregulation Of Pax2 Suppresses Ovarian Cancer Cell Growth, Huijuan Song

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

PAX2 is one of nine PAX genes regulating tissue development and cellular differentiation in embryos. PAX2 promotes cell proliferation, oncogenic transformation, cell-lineage specification, migration, and survival. Unattenuated PAX2 has been found in several cancer types. We therefore sought to elucidate the role of PAX2 in ovarian carcinomas. We found that PAX2 was expressed in low-grade serous, clear cell, endometrioid and mucinous cell ovarian carcinomas, which are relatively chemoresistant compared to high grade serous ovarian carcinomas. Four ovarian cancer cell lines, RMUGL (mucinous), TOV21G (clear cell), MDAH-2774 (endometrioid) and IGROV1 (endometrioid), which express high-levels of PAX2, were used to study the ...


Dissecting The Interaction Between P53 And Trim24, Aundrietta D. Duncan Aug 2011

Dissecting The Interaction Between P53 And Trim24, Aundrietta D. Duncan

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Dissecting the Interaction of p53 and TRIM24

Aundrietta DeVan Duncan

Supervisory Professor, Michelle Barton, Ph.D.

p53, the “guardian of the genome”, plays an important role in multiple biological processes including cell cycle, angiogenesis, DNA repair and apoptosis. Because it is mutated in over 50% of cancers, p53 has been widely studied in established cancer cell lines. However, little is known about the function of p53 in a normal cell. We focused on characterizing p53 in normal cells and during differentiation. Our lab recently identified a novel binding partner of p53, Tripartite Motif 24 protein (TRIM24). TRIM24 is a member ...


The Role Of The Androgen Receptor Cofactor P44/Wdr77 In Astrocyte Activation, Bryce H. Vincent Aug 2011

The Role Of The Androgen Receptor Cofactor P44/Wdr77 In Astrocyte Activation, Bryce H. Vincent

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Astrogliosis is induced by neuronal damage and is also a pathological feature of the major aging-related neurodegenerative disorders. The mechanisms that control the cascade of astrogliosis have not been well established. In a previous study, we identified a novel androgen receptor (AR)-interacting protein (p44/WDR77) and found that it plays a critical role in the control of proliferation and differentiation of prostate epithelial cells. In the present study, we found that deletion of the p44 gene in the mouse brain caused accelerated aging with dramatic astrogliosis. The p44/WDR77 is expressed in astrocytes and loss of p44/WDR77 expression ...


The Role Of Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts In Lung Tumorigenesis, Jonathon D. Roybal Aug 2011

The Role Of Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts In Lung Tumorigenesis, Jonathon D. Roybal

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The extracellular milieu is rich in growth factors that drive tumor progression,but the mechanisms that govern tumor cell sensitivity to those ligands have notbeen fully defined. In this study, we address this question in mice that developmetastatic lung adenocarcinomas through the suppression of the microRNA-200 (miR-200) family. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) enhance tumorgrowth and invasion by secreting VEGF-A that binds to VEGFR1, a processrequired for tumor growth and metastasis in mice and correlated with a poorprognosis in lung adenocarcinoma patients. In this study, we discovered thatmiR-200 blocked CAF-induced tumor cell invasion by directly targetingVEGFR1 in tumor cells. In the context ...


Molecular Mechanism By Which The Escherichia Coli Nucleoid Occlusion Factor, Slma, Keeps Cytokinesis In Check, Nam K. Tonthat May 2011

Molecular Mechanism By Which The Escherichia Coli Nucleoid Occlusion Factor, Slma, Keeps Cytokinesis In Check, Nam K. Tonthat

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Cell division or cytokinesis is one of the most fundamental processes in biology and is essential for the propagation of all living species. In Escherichia coli, cell division occurs by ingrowth of the membrane envelope at the cell center and is orchestrated by the FtsZ protein. FtsZ self-assembles into linear protofilaments in a GTP dependent manner to form a cytoskeletal scaffold called the Z-ring. The Z-ring provides the framework for the assembly of the division apparatus and determines the site of cytokinesis. The total amount of FtsZ molecules in a cell significantly exceeds the concentration required for Z-ring formation. Hence ...


The Role And Mechanism Of The Homeobox Gene Dlx4 In Transforming Growth Factor-B Resistance In Cancer, Bon Q. Trinh May 2011

The Role And Mechanism Of The Homeobox Gene Dlx4 In Transforming Growth Factor-B Resistance In Cancer, Bon Q. Trinh

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Transforming growth factor-b (TGF-b) is a cytokine that plays essential roles in regulating embryonic development and tissue homeostasis. In normal cells, TGF-b exerts an anti-proliferative effect. TGF-b inhibits cell growth by controlling a cytostatic program that includes activation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p15Ink4B and p21WAF1/Cip1 and repression of c-myc. In contrast to normal cells, many tumors are resistant to the anti-proliferative effect of TGF-b. In several types of tumors, particularly those of gastrointestinal origin, resistance to the anti-proliferative effect of TGF-b has been attributed to TGF-b receptor or Smad mutations. However, these mutations are absent from ...


Mechanisms Regulating The P120-Catenin/Kaiso Pathway, Ji Yeon Hong May 2011

Mechanisms Regulating The P120-Catenin/Kaiso Pathway, Ji Yeon Hong

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The Wnt pathways contribute to many processes in cancer and developmental biology, with β-catenin being a key canonical component. P120-catenin, which is structurally similar to β-catenin, regulates the expression of certain Wnt target genes, relieving repression conferred by the POZ/ zinc-finger transcription factor Kaiso. In my first project, employing Xenopus embryos and mammalian cell lines, I found that the degradation machinery of the canonical Wnt pathway modulates p120-catenin protein stability, especially p120 isoform-1, through mechanisms shared with b-catenin. Exogenous expression of destruction-complex components such as GSK3b or Axin promotes p120-catenin degradation, and consequently, is able to rescue developmental phenotypes resulting ...


Regulation Of Set1-Mediated Methylation Of Dam1, John A. Latham May 2011

Regulation Of Set1-Mediated Methylation Of Dam1, John A. Latham

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Eukaryotic genomes exist within a dynamic structure named chromatin in which DNA is wrapped around an octamer of histones forming the nucleosome. Histones are modified by a range of posttranslational modifications including methylation, phosphorylation, and ubiquitination, which are integral to a range of DNA-templated processes including transcriptional regulation. A hallmark for transcriptional activity is methylation of histone H3 on lysine (K) 4 within active gene promoters. In S. cerevisiae, H3K4 methylation is mediated by Set1 within the COMPASS complex. Methylation requires prior ubiquitination of histone H2BK123 by the E2-E3 ligases Rad6 and Bre1, as well as the Paf1 transcriptional elongation ...


The Role Of Il-6 In Adenosine-Mediated Pulmonary Fibrosis, Mesias Pedroza May 2011

The Role Of Il-6 In Adenosine-Mediated Pulmonary Fibrosis, Mesias Pedroza

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Adenosine is a purinergic signaling molecule that regulates various aspects of inflammation and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic lung diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated that adenosine up-regulates IL-6 production through the engagement of the A2B adenosine receptor in various cell types, including alveolar macrophages. IL-6 is elevated in mouse models and humans with chronic lung disease, suggesting a potential role in disease progression. Furthermore, chronic elevation of adenosine in the lungs of adenosine deaminase deficient (Ada-/-) mice leads to the development of pulmonary inflammation, alveolar destruction, and fibrosis, in conjunction with IL-6 elevation. Thus, it was ...


Expression And Regulation Of Human Cytochrome P450 4f Isoforms In Tissue Samples And Under Tnf-Alpha Challenges, Jordan C. Bell May 2011

Expression And Regulation Of Human Cytochrome P450 4f Isoforms In Tissue Samples And Under Tnf-Alpha Challenges, Jordan C. Bell

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

CYP4F (Cytochrome P4504F) enzymes metabolize endogenous molecules including leukotrienes, prostaglandins and arachidonic acid. The involvement of these endogenous compounds in inflammation has led to the hypothesis that changes in the inflamed tissue environment may affect the expression of CYP4Fs during the pro-inflammatory state, which in turn may modulate inflammatory conditions during the anti-inflammatory state. We demonstrated that inflamed tissues have different levels of CYP4F isoform expression profiles in a number of human samples when compared to the average population. The CYP4F isoform expression levels change with the degree of inflammation present in tissue. Further investigation in cell culture studies revealed ...


A Novel Function For Aurora B Kinase In The Regulation Of P53 By Phosphorylation, Chris P. Gully May 2011

A Novel Function For Aurora B Kinase In The Regulation Of P53 By Phosphorylation, Chris P. Gully

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The mitotic kinase Aurora B plays a pivotal role in mitosis and cytokinesis and governs the spindle assembly checkpoint which ensures correct chromosome segregation and normal progression through mitosis. Aurora B is overexpressed in breast and other cancers and may be an important molecular target for chemotherapy. Tumor suppressor p53 is the guardian of the genome and an important negative regulator of the cell cycle. Previously, it was unknown whether Aurora B and p53 had mutual regulation during the cell cycle. A small molecule specific inhibitor of Aurora B, AZD1152, gave us an indication that Aurora B negatively impacted p53 ...