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Articles 1 - 4 of 4

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Dna Polymerase Θ (Polq) And The Cellular Defense Against Dna Damage, Matthew J. Yousefzadeh May 2015

Dna Polymerase Θ (Polq) And The Cellular Defense Against Dna Damage, Matthew J. Yousefzadeh

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

In mammalian cells, DNA polymerase θ (POLQ) is an unusual specialized DNA polymerase whose in vivo function is under active investigation. The protein is comprised of an N-terminal helicase-like domain, a C-terminal DNA polymerase domain, and a large central domain that spans between the two. This arrangement is also found in the Drosophila Mus308 protein, which helps confer resistance to DNA interstrand crosslinking agents. Homologs of POLQ and Mus308 are found in eukaryotes, including plants, but a comparison of phenotypes suggests that not all of these genes are functional orthologs. Flies with defective Mus308 are sensitive to DNA interstrand crosslinking ...


The Role Of The Arched Helicases In Exosome-Mediated Function, A. Alejandra Klauer Dec 2012

The Role Of The Arched Helicases In Exosome-Mediated Function, A. Alejandra Klauer

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

RNA processing and degradation are two important functions that control gene expression and promote RNA fidelity in the cell. A major ribonuclease complex, called the exosome, is involved in both of these processes. The exosome is composed of ten essential proteins with only one catalytically active subunit, called Rrp44. While the same ten essential subunits make up both the nuclear and cytoplasmic exosome, there are nuclear and cytoplasmic exosome cofactors that promote specific exosome functions in each of the cell compartments. To date, it is unclear how the exosome distinguishes between RNA substrates. We hypothesize that compartment specific cofactors may ...


Tet1: A Unique Dna Demethylase For Maintenance Of Dna Methylation Pattern, Chunlei Jin Dec 2012

Tet1: A Unique Dna Demethylase For Maintenance Of Dna Methylation Pattern, Chunlei Jin

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

DNA methylation at the C5 position of cytosine (5-methylcytosine, 5mC) is a crucial epigenetic modification of the genome and has been implicated in numerous cellular processes in mammals, including embryonic development, transcription, X chromosome inactivation, genomic imprinting and chromatin structure. Like histone modifications, DNA methylation is also dynamic and reversible. However, in contrast to well defined DNA methyltransferases, the enzymes responsible for erasing DNA methylation still remain to be studied. The ten-eleven translocation family proteins (TET1/2/3) were recently identified as Fe(II)/2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent 5mC dioxygenases, which consecutively convert 5mC into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine and 5-carboxylcytosine both ...


Elucidating Functional Roles For Myogenin In Adult Skeletal Muscle Metabolism, Exercise Capacity, And Regeneration, Jesse Flynn Dec 2010

Elucidating Functional Roles For Myogenin In Adult Skeletal Muscle Metabolism, Exercise Capacity, And Regeneration, Jesse Flynn

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The four basic helix-loop-helix myogenic transcription factors, myogenin, Myf5, MRF4, and MyoD are critical for embryonic skeletal muscle development. Myogenin is necessary for the terminal differentiation of myoblasts into myofibers during embryogenesis, but little is known about the roles played by myogenin in adult skeletal muscle function and metabolism. Furthermore, while metabolism is a well-studied physiological process, how it is regulated at the transcriptional level remains poorly understood. In this study, my aim was to determine the function of myogenin in adult skeletal muscle metabolism, exercise capacity, and regeneration. To investigate this, I utilized a mouse strain harboring the Myogflox ...