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Articles 1 - 9 of 9

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

The Regulation Of Dna Methylation In Mammalian Development And Cancer, Nicolas Veland May 2018

The Regulation Of Dna Methylation In Mammalian Development And Cancer, Nicolas Veland

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

DNA methylation is an essential epigenetic modification in mammals, as it plays important regulatory roles in multiple biological processes, such as gene transcription, maintenance of chromosomal structure and genomic stability, genomic imprinting, retrotransposon silencing, and X-chromosome inactivation. Dysregulation of DNA methylation is associated with various human diseases. For example, cancer cells usually show global hypomethylation and regional hypermenthylation, which have been implicated in genomic instability and tumor suppressor silencing, respectively. Although great progress has been made in elucidating the biological functions of DNA methylation over the last several decades, how DNA methylation patterns and levels are regulated and dysregulated is ...


Gcn5 Impacts Fgf Signaling At Multiple Levels And Activates C-Myc Target Genes During Early Differentiation Of Embryoid Bodies, Li Wang Aug 2017

Gcn5 Impacts Fgf Signaling At Multiple Levels And Activates C-Myc Target Genes During Early Differentiation Of Embryoid Bodies, Li Wang

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Precise control of gene expression during development is orchestrated by transcription factors, signaling pathways and co-regulators, with complex cross-regulatory events often occurring. Growing evidence has identified chromatin modifiers as important regulators for development as well, yet how particular chromatin modifying enzymes affect specific developmental processes remains largely unclear. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are self-renewing, pluripotent, and have the abilities to generate almost all cell types in adult tissues. The dual capacity of ESCs to self-renew and differentiate offers unlimited potential for studying gene regulation events at specific developmental stages in vitro that parallel developmental events during embryogenesis in vivo.

In ...


Circumventing Cisplatin Resistance In Ovarian Cancers Through Reactivation Of P53 By Non-Cross-Resistant Platinum Analogs, Michelle Martinez-Rivera Aug 2016

Circumventing Cisplatin Resistance In Ovarian Cancers Through Reactivation Of P53 By Non-Cross-Resistant Platinum Analogs, Michelle Martinez-Rivera

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Abstract

CIRCUMVENTING CISPLATIN RESISTANCE IN OVARIAN CANCERS THROUGH REACTIVATION OF P53 BY NON-CROSS-RESISTANT PLATINUM ANALOGS

Michelle Martinez-Rivera, B.S.

Advisory Professor: Zahid H. Siddik, Ph.D.

Cisplatin (cis-Pt), an anticancer platinum (Pt) drug, is used widely in the treatment of several malignancies, such as ovarian cancer. This Pt compound induces DNA damage, which results in p53 activation through post-translational modifications, mainly phosphorylation, culminating in execution of programmed cell-death. However, despite initial therapeutic response to cis-Pt, clinical resistance to this drug emerges leading to disease progression. Pt-resistance phenotypes have been associated with dysfunction in the p53 signaling pathway. Therefore, an effort ...


Normal Glycolytic Enzyme Activity Is Critical For Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1a Activity And Provides Novel Targets For Inhibiting Tumor Growth, Geoffrey Grandjean Phd Dec 2015

Normal Glycolytic Enzyme Activity Is Critical For Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1a Activity And Provides Novel Targets For Inhibiting Tumor Growth, Geoffrey Grandjean Phd

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Normal Glycolytic Enzyme Activity is Critical for Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α Activity and Provides Novel Targets for Inhibiting Tumor Growth

By Geoffrey Grandjean

Advisory Professor: Garth Powis, D. Phil

Unique to proliferating cancer cells is the observation that their increased need for energy is provided by a high rate of glycolysis followed by lactic acid fermentation in a process known as the Warburg Effect, a process many times less efficient than oxidative phosphorylation employed by normal cells to satisfy a similar energy demand [1]. This high rate of glycolysis occurs regardless of the concentration of oxygen in the cell and is ...


Mapping The Human Vasculature By In Vivo Phage Display, Julianna Bronk Aug 2014

Mapping The Human Vasculature By In Vivo Phage Display, Julianna Bronk

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

In vivo phage display screenings by intravenous injection of a random phage-displayed peptide library allow for the selection of peptides that localize to specific vascular beds. At the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, we have had the opportunity to perform phage display screenings in cancer patients in order to select for cancer specific targets directly in humans. These targets serve to define biochemical diversity of endothelial cell surfaces and can be validated and explored towards the design of vascular-targeted pharmacology. In the most recent patient screen, samples were recovered from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as well as 26 additional ...


Increased Geranylgeranylated K-Ras Contributes To Antineoplastic Effects Of Farnesyltransferase Inhibitors., Mandy A. Hall May 2012

Increased Geranylgeranylated K-Ras Contributes To Antineoplastic Effects Of Farnesyltransferase Inhibitors., Mandy A. Hall

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The Ras family of small GTPases (N-, H-, and K-Ras) is a group of important signaling mediators. Ras is frequently activated in some cancers, while others maintain low level activity to achieve optimal cell growth. In cells with endogenously low levels of active Ras, increasing Ras signaling through the ERK and p38 MAPK pathways can cause growth arrest or cell death. Ras requires prenylation – the addition of a 15-carbon (farnesyl) or 20-carbon (geranylgeranyl) group – to keep the protein anchored into membranes for effective signaling. N- and K-Ras can be alternatively geranylgeranylated (GG’d) if farnesylation is inhibited but are preferentially ...


Chemosensitization Of Hepatocellular Carcinoma To Gemcitabine By Non-Invasive Radiofrequency Field-Induced Hyperthermia, Mustafa Raoof May 2012

Chemosensitization Of Hepatocellular Carcinoma To Gemcitabine By Non-Invasive Radiofrequency Field-Induced Hyperthermia, Mustafa Raoof

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Gemcitabine is a potent nucleoside analogue against solid tumors however drug resistance rapidly emerges. Removal of gemcitabine incorporated in the DNA by repair mechanisms could potentially contribute to resistance in chemo-refractory solid tumors. In this study, we evaluated homologous recombination repair of gemcitabine-stalled replication forks as a potential mechanism contributing to resistance. We also studied the effect of hyperthermia on homologous recombination pathway to explain the previously reported synergy between gemcitabine and hyperthermia. We found that hyperthermia degrades and inhibits localization of Mre11 to gemcitabine-stalled replication forks. Furthermore, gemcitabine-treated cells that were also treated with hyperthermia demonstrate a prolonged passage ...


Echogenic Liposomes For Nitric Oxide Delivery And Breast Cancer Treatment, Soo Yeon Lee Female Aug 2011

Echogenic Liposomes For Nitric Oxide Delivery And Breast Cancer Treatment, Soo Yeon Lee Female

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Liposomes, also known as nontoxic, biodegradable, and non-immunogenic therapeutic delivery vehicles, have been proposed as a carrier for drugs and antitumor agents in cancer chemotherapy. Echogenic liposomes (ELIP) have the potential to entrap air or bioactive gas to enhance acoustic reflectivity in ultrasound and are used as a contrast agent. The innovative part of this study is based on a novel concept to encapsulate nitric oxide (NO) gas into ELIP, deliver it to breast cancer cells, and control its release via direct ultrasound exposure. Studies on the effect of NO in tumor biology have shown that a high levels of ...


Specific, Reversible Cytostatic Protection Of Normal Cells Against Negative Effects Of Chemotherapy, Benjamin B. Mull Aug 2010

Specific, Reversible Cytostatic Protection Of Normal Cells Against Negative Effects Of Chemotherapy, Benjamin B. Mull

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Chemotherapy is a common and effective method to treat many forms of cancer. However, treatment of cancer with chemotherapy has severe side effects which often limit the doses of therapy administered. Because some cancer chemotherapeutics target proliferating cells and tissues, all dividing cells, whether normal or tumor, are affected. Cell culture studies have demonstrated that UCN-01 is able to reversibly and selectively arrest normal dividing cells; tumor cells lines do not undergo this temporary arrest. Following UCN-01 treatment, normal cells displayed a 50-fold increase in IC50 for camptothecin; tumor cells showed no such increased tolerance.

We have examined the response ...