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Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Role Of P300 Zz Domain In Chromatin Association And Histone Acetylation, Yongming Xue Dec 2018

Role Of P300 Zz Domain In Chromatin Association And Histone Acetylation, Yongming Xue

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Transcription is strictly regulated by numerous factors including transcription coactivators. The p300 protein and its close paralogue CREB-binding protein (CREBBP, aka CBP) are well-known transcriptional coactivators that have intrinsic lysine acetyltransferase activity. The functions of p300/CBP largely rely on their capabilities to bind to chromatin and to acetylate the histone substrates. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of these processes are not fully understood.

Through combination of various biochemical, biophysical and molecular approaches, we show that the ZZ-type zinc finger (ZZ) domain of p300 functions as a histone reader that specifically binds the N-terminal tail of histone H3 ...


Characterizing The Recognition Motif And Novel Substrates Of Carm1, Sitaram Gayatri Jul 2018

Characterizing The Recognition Motif And Novel Substrates Of Carm1, Sitaram Gayatri

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

A limited pool of proteins attains vast functional repertoire due to posttranslational modifications (PTMs). Arginine methylation is a common posttranslational modification, which is catalyzed by a family of nine protein arginine methyltransferases or PRMTs. These enzymes deposit one or two methyl groups to the nitrogen atoms of arginine side-chains. Elucidating the substrate specificity of each PRMT will promote a better understanding of which signaling networks these enzymes contribute to. Although many PRMT substrates have been identified, and their methylation sites mapped, the optimal target motif for each of the nine PRMTs has not been systematically addressed. Here we describe the ...


Functional Similarity Of Prd-Containing Virulence Regulators In Bacillus Anthracis, Malik Raynor May 2018

Functional Similarity Of Prd-Containing Virulence Regulators In Bacillus Anthracis, Malik Raynor

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Bacillus anthracis produces three regulators, AtxA, AcpA, and AcpB, that control virulence gene expression and are members of an emerging class of regulators termed “PCVRs” (Phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase regulation Domain-Containing Virulence Regulators). AtxA controls expression of the toxin genes; lef, cya, and pag, and is the master virulence regulator and archetype PCVR. AcpA and AcpB are less well studied. AcpA and AcpB independently positively control transcription of the capsule biosynthetic operon capBCADE, and culture conditions that enhance AtxA activity result in capBCADE transcription in strains lacking acpA and acpB. RNA-Seq was used to assess the regulons of the paralogs in strains ...


Nanoscale Organization Of The Small Gtpase Rac1, Kelsey Maxwell May 2018

Nanoscale Organization Of The Small Gtpase Rac1, Kelsey Maxwell

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Rac1 is a small, guanine-nucleotide binding protein that cycles between an inactive GDP-bound and active GTP-bound state to regulate actin-mediated motility, migration, and adhesion. Plasma membrane (PM) localization is essential for its biological activity. Rac1 PM targeting is directed by a C-terminal membrane anchor that encompasses a geranylgeranyl-cysteine-methyl-ester, palmitoyl, and a polybasic domain (PBD) of contiguous lysine and arginine residues. Using high-resolution imaging combined with spatial mapping analysis, I found that Rac1 forms nanoclusters on the PM. Cycling between the GTP- and GDP-bound states, Rac1 forms nanoclusters that are non-overlapping, consequently undergoing guanine nucleotide-dependent spatial segregation. I further found that ...


Insights Into The Therapeutic Potential Of Salt Inducible Kinase 1: A Novel Mechanism Of Metabolic Control, Randi Fitzgibbon Dec 2017

Insights Into The Therapeutic Potential Of Salt Inducible Kinase 1: A Novel Mechanism Of Metabolic Control, Randi Fitzgibbon

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Salt inducible kinase 1 (SIK1) has been considered a stress-inducible kinase since it was first cloned in 1999. Continued efforts since this time have been dedicated to characterizing the structure and function of SIK1. Such research has laid the ground work for our understanding of SIK1 action and regulation in tissue and stimuli dependent manners. The fundamental findings of this dissertation continue in this tradition and include investigations of SIK1 regulatory mechanisms in skeletal muscle cells, the cellular and physiological effects of SIK1 loss of function in vitro and in vivo, and intracellular metabolic and mitochondrial regulation by this kinase ...


Investigating The Role Of Prmt1 And Arginine Methylation Of Hsp70 In Human Pancreatic Cancer, Liang Wang Aug 2017

Investigating The Role Of Prmt1 And Arginine Methylation Of Hsp70 In Human Pancreatic Cancer, Liang Wang

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) is the major arginine methyltransferase, which catalyzes the addition of one or two methyl groups to the arginine residues of its substrate proteins. The best-known substrate for PRMT1 is histone, while more and more non-histone proteins are now found to be methylated by PRMT1. Dysregulation of PRMT1 is reported in several human cancer types. However, its biological roles in human pancreatic cancer initiation and development are still unclear. In the first part of this study, I found that the expression level of PRMT1 was elevated in both human and mouse pancreatic cancer tissues in immunohistochemistry ...


Fret-Based Investigations Of The Structure-Function Relationships In The Nmda Receptor, Drew M. Dolino May 2017

Fret-Based Investigations Of The Structure-Function Relationships In The Nmda Receptor, Drew M. Dolino

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is one member of a class of proteins known as the ionotropic glutamate receptors. Ionotropic glutamate receptors mediate the majority of excitatory neurotransmission in the central nervous system, with the NMDA receptor standing out among these receptors for its requirement of a co-agonist, its magnesium-block-based coincidence detection, its slow kinetics, its calcium permeability, its allosteric modulation, and its especially important functional roles in synaptic plasticity, excitotoxicity, and more. In recent years, a wealth of structural information has come about describing endpoint structures to high resolution, but such structures are unable to fully resolve the movements ...


Analysis Of The Biochemical And Cellular Activities Of Substrate Binding By The Molecular Chaperone Hsp110/Sse1, Veronica M. Garcia May 2017

Analysis Of The Biochemical And Cellular Activities Of Substrate Binding By The Molecular Chaperone Hsp110/Sse1, Veronica M. Garcia

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Molecular chaperones ensure protein quality during protein synthesis, delivery, damage repair, and degradation. The ubiquitous and highly conserved molecular chaperone 70-kDa heat-shock proteins (Hsp70s) are essential in maintaining protein homeostasis by cycling through high and low affinity binding of unfolded protein clients to facilitate folding. The Hsp110 class of chaperones are divergent relatives of Hsp70 that are extremely effective in preventing protein aggregation but lack the hallmark folding activity seen in Hsp70s. Hsp110s serve as Hsp70 nucleotide exchange factors (NEF) that facilitate the Hsp70 folding cycle by inducing release of protein substrate from Hsp70, thus recycling the chaperone for a ...


Role And Regulation Of Sphingosine 1-Phosphate In Erythrocyte, Kaiqi Sun May 2017

Role And Regulation Of Sphingosine 1-Phosphate In Erythrocyte, Kaiqi Sun

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive signaling sphingolipid produced in every mammalian cell. It plays a variety of important roles both in and outside of cells. S1P is highly enriched in mature erythrocytes because of the high enzymatic activity of the S1P-generating enzyme Sphingosine Kinase 1 (Sphk1) and the absence of S1P degrading enzymes. Erythrocytes are considered only a major reservoir for S1P because they supply S1P to the circulation for the regulation of various physiological processes which include but are not limited to immune cell trafficking, endothelial integrity and hematopoietic stem cell mobilization. However, if S1P plays a role ...


Phopsphorylation And Ubiquitin Modification At Dna Damage Sites In Response To Double-Strand Breaks, Atanu Paul May 2017

Phopsphorylation And Ubiquitin Modification At Dna Damage Sites In Response To Double-Strand Breaks, Atanu Paul

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Genomes of all organisms are continuously damaged by numerous exogenous and endogenous sources leading to different kinds of DNA lesions, which if not repaired efficiently may trigger wide-scale genomic instability, a hallmark of cancer development. To overcome this, cells have evolved a sophisticated sensory network called the DNA damage response (DDR) comprised of a large number of distinct protein complexes categorized as sensor, mediator, transducer and effector proteins that amplify the DNA damage signal and activate cell cycle checkpoint to initiate DNA repair or trigger apoptosis where the defect is beyond repair. This intricate signaling pathway is tightly regulated by ...


The Role Of Adenosine Signaling In Mature Erythrocytes And Erythroid Progenitors, Hong Liu May 2017

The Role Of Adenosine Signaling In Mature Erythrocytes And Erythroid Progenitors, Hong Liu

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Adenosine is a ubiquitous nucleoside in almost all the cells throughout our bodies. It is highly induced particularly under hypoxia or energy depletion conditions. Adenosine functions as a critical ligand, after binding to membrane-associated adenosine receptors, adenosine initiates a downstream signaling cascade and subsequently contributes to functions of nervous system, immune response, vascular function and even metabolism.

Hypoxia is a condition with limited O2 availability in the whole body or a region of the body. It is a major consequence of many respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, as well as for people living and working at high altitudes or other ...


Understanding The Mechanism Of Genomic Instability During Replicative Aging In Budding Yeast, Sangita Pal May 2017

Understanding The Mechanism Of Genomic Instability During Replicative Aging In Budding Yeast, Sangita Pal

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Aging brings a gradual decline in molecular fidelity and biological functionality, resulting in age related phenotypes and diseases. Despite continued efforts to uncover the conserved aging pathways among eukaryotes, exact molecular causes of aging are still poorly understood. One of the most important hallmarks of aging is increased genomic instability. However, there remains much ambiguity as to the cause. I am studying the replicative life span (RLS) of the genetically tractable model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or budding yeast using the innovative “mother enrichment program” as the method to isolate unparalleled numbers of aged yeast cells to investigate the molecular changes ...


The Role Of Phosphorylation In Pam2 Motif-Containing Proteins Mediated Messenger Rna Deadenylation, Kai-Lieh Huang Dec 2016

The Role Of Phosphorylation In Pam2 Motif-Containing Proteins Mediated Messenger Rna Deadenylation, Kai-Lieh Huang

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Phosphorylation regulates many cellular processes. However, its role in mRNA deadenylation, a process to remove poly adenosines from the mature mRNA 3’ end tail, is unclear. The length of poly(A) tail determines mRNA stability and translation efficiency. Poly(A)-binding protein (PABP), which binds to newly synthesized poly(A) tails homogeneously and is known as a scaffold protein for PAM2 motif-containing proteins, plays a pivotal role in the shortening of poly (A) tails. This study is to examine the role of phosphorylation of PAM2 motif–containing proteins in regulating their interactions with PABP and mRNA deadenylation function.

The PAM2 ...


Investigating The Roles Of Δnp63 As A Suppressor Of Migration, Invasion, And Metastasis, Ramon E. Flores Gonzalez Aug 2016

Investigating The Roles Of Δnp63 As A Suppressor Of Migration, Invasion, And Metastasis, Ramon E. Flores Gonzalez

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death and disease in the world. Considerable resources are spent to study and understand cancer, with the hope of developing new treatments and eventually cures that will help millions of people. Efforts to understand cancer are hindered by its inherent complexity and instability. Nonetheless, understanding the basics of tumor development and progression are the key to focused on studying the role of ΔNp63 in cancer, a p53 family member known to be involved in epithelial development, microRNA biogenesis, and stem cell maintenance. Using the strength of in vivo mouse models, we found ...


Defining The Functions Of Usp22 And Usp44 In Regulation Of H2bub1 Levels, Xianjiang Lan Aug 2016

Defining The Functions Of Usp22 And Usp44 In Regulation Of H2bub1 Levels, Xianjiang Lan

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Aberrant levels of histone ubiquitination are involved in various human diseases including neurodegenerative disorders and cancers. Particularly, Histone H2B monoubiquitination (H2Bub1) is highly associated with gene regulation in both normal cells and diseases. Many deubiquitinases (mainly USPs) are defined to regulate global H2Bub1 levels. However, how these USPs are regulated and how they contribute to diseases are not well understood.

USP22, part of the deubiquitination module (DUBm) in the SAGA complex, is a well-defined regulator of H2Bub1 levels. ATXN7, another crucial subunit of the SAGA DUBm, is involved in a neurodegenerative disease, spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7), due to a ...


The Roles Of Malt1 In Nf-Κb Activation And Solid Tumor Progression, Deng Pan May 2016

The Roles Of Malt1 In Nf-Κb Activation And Solid Tumor Progression, Deng Pan

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The transcription factor NF-κB plays a central role in many aspects of biological processes and diseases, such as inflammation and cancer. Although it has been suggested thatNF-κB is critical in tumorigenesis and tumor progression, the molecular mechanism by which NF-κB is activated in solid tumor remains largely unknown. In the current work, we focus on growth factor receptor-induced NF-κB activation and tumor progression, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-induced NF-κB in lung cancer and heregulin receptor (HER2)-induced NF-κB in breast cancer. We found that Mucosa-associated lymphoma translocation protein 1 (MALT1), also known as paracaspase, is required for EGFR-induced ...


Cll Metabolism Is Regulated By Prognostic Factors, Modulated By Stroma And Abrogated By Pi3k Inhibition, Hima Vangapandu May 2016

Cll Metabolism Is Regulated By Prognostic Factors, Modulated By Stroma And Abrogated By Pi3k Inhibition, Hima Vangapandu

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Metabolism of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a disease characterized by the relentless accumulation of mature B cells has been little explored. Bone marrow stromal cells provide a survival benefit to CLL cells, in part through PI3K/AKT pathway. Compared with proliferative B-cell lines, metabolic fluxes of oxygen and lactate were low in quiescent malignant B lymphocytes from CLL patients. Glycolysis (extracellular acidification rate, ECAR) was consistently low in CLL samples, but oxygen consumption (OCR) varied considerably. Higher OCR was associated with poor prognostic factors such as ZAP 70 positivity, unmutated IgVH, high β2M levels, and higher Rai stage. Co-culture with ...


Preeclampsia: The Roles Of Acute Inflammation And Intrauterine Stress, Nicholas Parchim May 2016

Preeclampsia: The Roles Of Acute Inflammation And Intrauterine Stress, Nicholas Parchim

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Preeclampsia (PE) is a severe, acute disease of pregnancy affecting approximately 8% of pregnant women after week 20 of gestation. PE is characterized by hypertension and renal damage reflected by proteinuria and has significant morbidity to both mother and fetus. Maternal symptoms range from headaches, nausea, edema, to visual changes, but once maternal symptoms present, damage to the fetus has begun. Mothers who progress untreated through the disease can also experience a condition called eclampsia characterized by seizure, coma, and, ultimately, death. PE-affected newborns experience features similar to prematurity—abnormal lung and renal development, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), and, possibly ...


Mechanisms Of Regulation Of Tau Ires Mediated Translation, Niza Nemkul May 2016

Mechanisms Of Regulation Of Tau Ires Mediated Translation, Niza Nemkul

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The translation of most eukaryotic mRNAs occurs in a cap-dependent manner. However, a subset of mRNAs are capable of initiating translation in a cap-independent manner by utilizing sequences in their 5’ UTR called IRES. It was previously shown that the 5’ UTR of the tau mRNA contains an IRES. In this study I show that IRES dependent translation of tau IRES is regulated at multiple levels in order to regulate the expression of the tau protein.

Tau protein is ubiquitously expressed but is concentrated in the brain. In this study, I utilized neural and non-neural cell lines to show that ...


Normal Glycolytic Enzyme Activity Is Critical For Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1a Activity And Provides Novel Targets For Inhibiting Tumor Growth, Geoffrey Grandjean Phd Dec 2015

Normal Glycolytic Enzyme Activity Is Critical For Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1a Activity And Provides Novel Targets For Inhibiting Tumor Growth, Geoffrey Grandjean Phd

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Normal Glycolytic Enzyme Activity is Critical for Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α Activity and Provides Novel Targets for Inhibiting Tumor Growth

By Geoffrey Grandjean

Advisory Professor: Garth Powis, D. Phil

Unique to proliferating cancer cells is the observation that their increased need for energy is provided by a high rate of glycolysis followed by lactic acid fermentation in a process known as the Warburg Effect, a process many times less efficient than oxidative phosphorylation employed by normal cells to satisfy a similar energy demand [1]. This high rate of glycolysis occurs regardless of the concentration of oxygen in the cell and is ...


Investigating The Interaction Of Aurka And Ube2c In Colorectal Cancer Cells, Apurva M. Hegde Aug 2015

Investigating The Interaction Of Aurka And Ube2c In Colorectal Cancer Cells, Apurva M. Hegde

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the US. Among the many genomic aberrations previously implicated in colorectal cancer, recurrent amplification of chromosome 20q is frequently associated with liver metastasis. Previous research in our lab identified a gene signature on chromosome 20q associated with colorectal cancer progression. In this study, one of the genes in the signature, the ubiquitin conjugating enzyme UBE2C, was identified through preliminary bioinformatics analysis as a candidate for further examination of its role in CRC progression. Co-expression analysis of UBE2C in tumor-normal datasets from the public database Oncomine revealed all the ...


Histone H3 K4 Methylation Regulates The Spindle Assembly Checkpoint Through Direct Binding Of Multiple Checkpoint Components And Cdc20, Andria C. Schibler Aug 2015

Histone H3 K4 Methylation Regulates The Spindle Assembly Checkpoint Through Direct Binding Of Multiple Checkpoint Components And Cdc20, Andria C. Schibler

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Histone H3K4 methylation is conserved across species and is associated with active transcription. By using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we found histone H3K4 methylation has a previously unknown role in regulating mitosis through the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint. The Spindle Assembly Checkpoint ensures duplicated chromosomes are segregated correctly and each daughter cell receives one full copy of the genome. Our data show SET1 mutants and histone H3K4 mutants display a resistance to the mitotic poison, benomyl. Moreover methylated histone H3 directly binds to Spindle Assembly Checkpoint proteins Bub3 and Mad2 as well as the activator of the Anaphase Promoting Complex (APC) protein Cdc20 ...


Regulation Of Cell Adhesion By The Ferm Proteins, Ptpn14 And Merlin, Patty Dimarco Hewitt May 2015

Regulation Of Cell Adhesion By The Ferm Proteins, Ptpn14 And Merlin, Patty Dimarco Hewitt

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Cell-cell adhesion is critical for the control of tissue organization and homeostasis. A family of proteins that regulate cell-cell adhesions is the FERM (4.1 protein, Ezrin, Radixin, Moesin) domain-containing proteins.One FERM domain protein, the non-receptor tyrosine phosphatase PTPN14, is mutated or deleted in several human cancers suggesting that it may be involved in tumor development and/or progression. Additionally, the loss of the FERM domain protein Merlin is associated with tumor development and metastasis.Both PTPN14 and Merlin have been shown to localize and possibly regulate adherens junction (AJ) functions. This work sought to determine ...


Dna Polymerase Θ (Polq) And The Cellular Defense Against Dna Damage, Matthew J. Yousefzadeh May 2015

Dna Polymerase Θ (Polq) And The Cellular Defense Against Dna Damage, Matthew J. Yousefzadeh

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

In mammalian cells, DNA polymerase θ (POLQ) is an unusual specialized DNA polymerase whose in vivo function is under active investigation. The protein is comprised of an N-terminal helicase-like domain, a C-terminal DNA polymerase domain, and a large central domain that spans between the two. This arrangement is also found in the Drosophila Mus308 protein, which helps confer resistance to DNA interstrand crosslinking agents. Homologs of POLQ and Mus308 are found in eukaryotes, including plants, but a comparison of phenotypes suggests that not all of these genes are functional orthologs. Flies with defective Mus308 are sensitive to DNA interstrand crosslinking ...


Selection Methods For Genetically-Modified T Cells: In Support Of Translational Therapy, David Rushworth May 2015

Selection Methods For Genetically-Modified T Cells: In Support Of Translational Therapy, David Rushworth

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

T cells are blood cells which organize the immune system of the host. These cells are necessary for the host to respond appropriately to threats from foreign organisms and cancerous growth. However, in the case of certain infections and cancer, T cells are unable to respond appropriately to a threat and establish immunity. This leads to disease when the infection or cancer is not sufficiently eliminated. On the other hand, T cells can lack tolerance for healthy tissue and perceive healthy tissue as infected. The ensuing over-reactive immune response also leads to disease. A delicate balance must exist between immunity ...


P120-Catenin Regulates Rest And Corest, And Modulates Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation, Moonsup Lee Dec 2014

P120-Catenin Regulates Rest And Corest, And Modulates Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation, Moonsup Lee

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The canonical-Wnt pathway and beta-catenin have been extensively studied to determine their contributions to stem cell biology, but less is known about p120-catenin in the nuclear compartment. P120 is developmentally required as a consequence of its biochemical and functional interactions with cadherins, small-GTPases and transcriptional regulators. We report here that p120-catenin binds to and negatively regulates REST and CoREST, that others have indicated form a repressive complex having diverse key roles in developmental and pathologic gene regulation. We thus provide the first evidence for a direct upstream modulator of REST/CoREST function. Using mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), mammalian cell ...


Mapping The Human Vasculature By In Vivo Phage Display, Julianna Bronk Aug 2014

Mapping The Human Vasculature By In Vivo Phage Display, Julianna Bronk

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

In vivo phage display screenings by intravenous injection of a random phage-displayed peptide library allow for the selection of peptides that localize to specific vascular beds. At the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, we have had the opportunity to perform phage display screenings in cancer patients in order to select for cancer specific targets directly in humans. These targets serve to define biochemical diversity of endothelial cell surfaces and can be validated and explored towards the design of vascular-targeted pharmacology. In the most recent patient screen, samples were recovered from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as well as 26 additional ...


Angiomotin Is A Novel Cadherin-11 Interacting Protein That Mediates Migration In Prostate Cancer Cells, Angelica Ortiz Aug 2014

Angiomotin Is A Novel Cadherin-11 Interacting Protein That Mediates Migration In Prostate Cancer Cells, Angelica Ortiz

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Prostate cancer (PCa), the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among men in the United States, has the proclivity to metastasize to bone resulting in sclerotic lesions. These cancer induced bone growths cause bone pain and fractures. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms contributing to PCa bone metastasis is required in order to find better prognostic tools and suitable targets for metastasis treatment and/ or prevention. Previous work in our laboratory showed increased expression of cadherin-11 (Cad11), a mesenchymal cadherin, during PCa progression. Furthermore, Cad11 expression endows PCa cells with increased migratory potential and metastasis to bone. Deletion of the Cad11 ...


Characterization Of Ftsa-Ftsn Interaction During Escherichia Coli Cell Division, Kimberly.Busiek@Gmail.Com K. Busiek May 2014

Characterization Of Ftsa-Ftsn Interaction During Escherichia Coli Cell Division, Kimberly.Busiek@Gmail.Com K. Busiek

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Division of a bacterial cell into two equal daughter cells requires precise assembly and constriction of the division machinery, or divisome. The Escherichia coli divisome includes nearly a dozen essential cell division proteins that assemble at midcell between segregating sister chromosomes. FtsZ, a homolog of eukaryotic tubulin, is the first essential cell division protein to localize at midcell where it polymerizes into a ring-shaped scaffold (Z ring). Establishment of the Z ring is required for recruitment of downstream cell division proteins including FtsA, a cytoplasmic protein that tethers the Z ring to the inner membrane. Following localization of FtsA and ...


Diabetes And Obesity Induce Transcriptomic And Metabolomic Changes Enhancing Pancreatic Cancer Aggressiveness, Guermarie Velázquez Torres May 2014

Diabetes And Obesity Induce Transcriptomic And Metabolomic Changes Enhancing Pancreatic Cancer Aggressiveness, Guermarie Velázquez Torres

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive types of cancer, with poor prognosis that lacks effective diagnostic markers and therapies. It is expected that in 2014 the incidence and the mortality of pancreatic cancer in the United States will be 46,420 and 39,590 respectively. Diabetes and obesity are modifiable risk factors associated with accelerated pancreatic carcinogenesis and tumor progression, but the biological mechanisms are not completely understood. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate direct evidence for the mechanisms mediating these epidemiologic phenomena. Our hypothesis is that obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) accelerate pancreatic ...