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Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

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Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Experimental And Computational Analysis Of The Synucleins, Agatha Munyanyi Jul 2014

Experimental And Computational Analysis Of The Synucleins, Agatha Munyanyi

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

The synuclein proteins α, β and γ which are located in the brain, have been a subject of intense research. Of particular interest is α-synuclein, which is found in misfolded forms in Lewy bodies that are associated with Parkinson's disease. Despite the efforts of researchers across the world, the physiological structure and function of the synucleins remains elusive. In recent years, highly controversial reports by some investigators indicate that in its natural form, α-synuclein exists as a tetramer instead of as an intrinsically unstructured monomer. This dissertation presents results of the experimental and computational analysis of the synucleins. First ...


New Types Of Morpho-Physiological Changes In Cells Exposed To Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field, Mikhail A. Rassokhin Jul 2013

New Types Of Morpho-Physiological Changes In Cells Exposed To Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field, Mikhail A. Rassokhin

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

Exposure of cells to a pulsed electric field (PEF) is the basis of multiple techniques and treatments. Nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) poses unique characteristics to induce subtle cellular effects while preserving cell integrity. Improving understanding of the mechanisms triggered by nsPEF in cells inspires new applications for the nanosecond pulse technology. Although many effects of nsPEF remain unknown, they can be inferred from morpho-physiologic changes, or cell reshaping, that accompany nsPEF exposure. During the exposure cells undergo reshaping that is manifested in swelling and diffuse blebbing. Recently we identified two new distinct forms of reshaping, pseudopod-like blebbing and microvesiculation ...


Structural And Functional Study Of Multidrug Membrane Transporters, Feng Ding Jan 2013

Structural And Functional Study Of Multidrug Membrane Transporters, Feng Ding

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

Multidrug membrane transporters (efflux pumps) in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes are responsible for ineffective treatment of a wide variety of diseases, including infections and cancer, underscoring the importance of better understanding of their structures and functions for design of effective therapies. Despite extensive studies over decades, their underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this dissertation, we focus on the study of structures and functions of multidrug membrane transporters, including ATP-binding cassette transporter (BmrA) and Resistance-Nodulation-Cell Division transporter (MexA,B-OprM) in gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria ( Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), respectively. We fused EGFP with N-terminus and C-terminus of BmrA ...


Attachment Ability And Melanoma Inhibitory Activity Mrna Expression Level Changes In Murine B16-F10 Melanoma Cells Post Nanosecond Electric Pulses, Hongxia Jia Jan 2013

Attachment Ability And Melanoma Inhibitory Activity Mrna Expression Level Changes In Murine B16-F10 Melanoma Cells Post Nanosecond Electric Pulses, Hongxia Jia

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

The effects of high-voltage nanosecond electric pulses (nsEPs) on metastatic melanoma are still unclear. Hence, we applied one, two, three, and four 300 ns 40 kV/cm pulses to murine B16-F10 melanoma cells. Cell attachment ability was determined by comparing the number of floating cells and the percentage of attached cells. Melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA) is a secretory protein that is highly correlated with the malignancy and metastasis of malignant melanomas. We used MIA as our target to evaluate the effect of nsEPs on metastasis. Pulsed (experimental) and unpulsed (control) cells were incubated at 37°C under a 5% CO ...


New Tools For Real-Time Study Of Embryonic Development, Lauren M. Browning Jan 2013

New Tools For Real-Time Study Of Embryonic Development, Lauren M. Browning

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

Embryonic development represents one of the most complex and dynamic cellular processes in biology, and plays vital roles in understanding of functions of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and design of ESC-based therapy. Conventional assays and fluorescence-based imaging methods have been widely used for the study of embryonic development. These conventional methods cannot effectively provide spatial and temporal resolutions with sufficient sensitivity and selectivity that are required to depict embryonic development in vivo in real-time at single-cell and single-molecule resolutions. In this dissertation, we have developed a wide range of innovative tools for real-time study of embryonic development. These new tools ...


Nano- And Micro-Second Electrical Pulsing Of B16-F10 Mouse Melanoma Cells: Plasma Membrane And Sub-Cellular Organelle Changes, Yiling Chen Apr 2012

Nano- And Micro-Second Electrical Pulsing Of B16-F10 Mouse Melanoma Cells: Plasma Membrane And Sub-Cellular Organelle Changes, Yiling Chen

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

High electric field-treated cells are permeable to molecular dye through either opening of pores in the plasma membrane or other unknown processes which can disturb the membrane in an organized way. However, direct morphological evidence is lacking and responses of intracellular organelles are not clear. We used traditional chemical fixatives and biochemical techniques to capture cell membrane and organelle changes immediately after pulsing with high voltage electric field application. Different pulse durations, nanosecond (ns) and microsecond (µs), and field magnitudes, 60 kV/cm and 1.2 kV/cm, were applied to mouse melanoma B16-F10 cells. Two different ns durations (60 ...


Design Of In Vivo Assays For Study Of Transport, Biocompatibility And Toxicity Of Nanoparticles, Kerry Jean Lee Apr 2012

Design Of In Vivo Assays For Study Of Transport, Biocompatibility And Toxicity Of Nanoparticles, Kerry Jean Lee

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

This dissertation focuses on the design of new in vivo assays for study of transport, biocompatibility and toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) in zebrafish embryos. We synthesized and purified spherical silver (Ag) NPs with diameters, ranging from 12 to 95 nm, that are stable (non-aggregated) in egg-water media. We developed new imaging approaches to characterize the sizes of single Ag NPs in zebrafish embryos at nanometer resolution by measuring their size-dependent plasmonic spectra and scattering intensity using dark-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy (DFOMS). We used single Ag NPs because they exhibit the high quantum yield (QY) of Rayleigh scattering and resist ...


The Dietary Isoprenoid Perillyl Alcohol Inhibits Telomerase Activity In Prostate Cancer Cells, Tabetha Sundin Apr 2012

The Dietary Isoprenoid Perillyl Alcohol Inhibits Telomerase Activity In Prostate Cancer Cells, Tabetha Sundin

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

This is the first evidence that a plant-derived compound–perillyl alcohol regulates telomerase activity via the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in prostate cancer cells. Telomerase–the enzyme responsible for immortalizing cells through telomeric repeats addition–is de-repressed early in an aspiring cancer cell. We hypothesized that perillyl alcohol regulates hTERT (human telomerase reverse transcriptase) at the translational and post-translational levels via its effects on the mTOR pathway. A rapid suppression of telomerase activity was detected in prostate cancer cell lines (PC-3 and DU145) in response to biologically-relevant concentrations and short incubations of perillyl alcohol or the mTOR inhibitor ...


The Effects Of Cocaine And Ecstasy On Cardiac Myocytes And The Intact Myocardium, David A. Tiangco Apr 2010

The Effects Of Cocaine And Ecstasy On Cardiac Myocytes And The Intact Myocardium, David A. Tiangco

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

Cocaine and ecstasy are widely used illicit drugs. Both drugs have undergone intense scrutiny as information regarding their side-effects has become available. One important yet incomplete area of investigation pertains to their effects on the heart. The purpose of the current studies was to test the hypothesis that exposure to cocaine or ecstasy will adversely affect cellular homeostasis and normal heart function. Cultured cardiac myocytes (H9c2) and New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were used to measure the responses to various concentrations of cocaine or ecstasy at both the cellular and intact organ system levels. We observed that cocaine and ...


Comparison Of Immune Correlates, Age Related Changes And Proteomic Profiling Of Healthy Individuals Receiving Influenza Vaccines, Gaurav Basu Apr 2009

Comparison Of Immune Correlates, Age Related Changes And Proteomic Profiling Of Healthy Individuals Receiving Influenza Vaccines, Gaurav Basu

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

The burden of influenza related infections is substantial, both in terms of illness, lives lost and economic impact on society. The degree of impact of influenza related infections is much higher in the elderly population where it is a leading cause of catastrophic disability; greatly affecting the quality of life of elderly persons above 65 years of age. Vaccination is the mainstay for control and prevention of influenza infections. There are two vaccine formulations that are licensed for use at present. The inactivated influenza vaccines (TIIV) which have been used for 60 years in all age groups and the new ...


Role Of The Human Cytomegalovirus Ie2 Protein On Transcriptional Regulation Of Viral Promoters, Siabhon Michelle Harris Apr 2009

Role Of The Human Cytomegalovirus Ie2 Protein On Transcriptional Regulation Of Viral Promoters, Siabhon Michelle Harris

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous pathogen able to cause severe mortality and morbidity in immuno-compromised individuals. Successful infection by HCMV is dependent on expression of viral genes essential for replication. Immediate early (IE) gene products are the first subset of viral genes to be expressed during infection and function as key transcriptional regulators. IE2 is one the most predominantly expressed IE proteins and is essential for HCMV infection. IE2 transactivates several viral promoters, including those of the essential viral DNA polymerase (UL54) and UL112-113 gene regions. IE2 is also able to autoregulate is own expression and repress expression of ...


Phosphorylation Of The Estrogen Receptor Alpha (Erα) At Serine 118 By Phospho-P44/42 Mapk And Regulation By Estrogen And Progesterone In Human Uterine Leiomyoma Tissue And Cells, Tonia Lakisha Hermon Apr 2009

Phosphorylation Of The Estrogen Receptor Alpha (Erα) At Serine 118 By Phospho-P44/42 Mapk And Regulation By Estrogen And Progesterone In Human Uterine Leiomyoma Tissue And Cells, Tonia Lakisha Hermon

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

It is thought that the growth of uterine leiomyomas may be mediated by the interaction of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and growth factor pathways and that phosphorylation of ERα at serine 118 (ERα-phospho-Ser118) is important in this interaction. In tissue, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry were used to investigate the expression of ERα-phospho-Ser118, phosphorylated p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (phospho-p44/42 MAPK), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in human leiomyoma and myometrial tissues during the proliferative and secretory phases of the menstrual cycle. In vitro studies to assess proliferation of uterine leiomyoma (UtLM) and uterine smooth muscle (UtSMC) cells and expression ...


Interdependent Regulation Of Cytomegalovirus Proteins In Complex, Lisa L. Bolin Apr 2009

Interdependent Regulation Of Cytomegalovirus Proteins In Complex, Lisa L. Bolin

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous herpesvirus that causes significant morbidity and mortality in the immune compromised. Using the mutine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) model, we identified two genes, M140 and M141, which are determinants of macrophage tropism. Monocytes/macrophages are a critical cell type for cytomegalovirus (CMV) pathogenesis as sites of viral latency and by supporting viral replication and disseminating virus throughout the body. We previously found that the localization of the M140/M141 gene products (pM140/pM141) is different when the proteins are co-expressed as compared to their individual expression. When the proteins are individually expressed pM141 localizes diffusely throughout ...


Analysis Of N-Linked Oligosaccharides Of Prostate-Specific Antigen And Prostatic Acid Phosphatase In Prostatic Fluids, Krista Yaudes White Jan 2009

Analysis Of N-Linked Oligosaccharides Of Prostate-Specific Antigen And Prostatic Acid Phosphatase In Prostatic Fluids, Krista Yaudes White

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

Presently, prostate cancer is the most common cancer afflicting men in the United States, with serum PSA being the "gold standard" protein biomarker used in the clinic for detecting and diagnosing prostate cancer. Nonetheless, serum PSA levels can also be elevated in non-cancerous conditions as well, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Due to this overlap, many unnecessary biopsies and radical prostatectomies occur, leading to patient distress. Despite recent advances to clinical assays which consider other clinical parameters, there is still a great need for improved clinical detection methodologies for prostate cancer, including improved biomarkers. Therefore, this research project aims ...


Computational Studies On R67 Dihydrofolate Reductase: An Investigation Into Its Unique Binding Patterns, Chuanyin Shi Jan 2009

Computational Studies On R67 Dihydrofolate Reductase: An Investigation Into Its Unique Binding Patterns, Chuanyin Shi

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

R67 dihydrofolate reductase (R67 DHFR) is a plasmid encoded enzyme which catalyzes the reduction of dihydrofolate (DHF) to tetrahydrofolate (THF) using NADPH as a cofactor. R67 DHFR is a homo-tetramer and D2 symmetric. It contains only one active site, which spans the central channel of the enzyme. The active site can bind either two reactants (DHF), two cofactors (NADPH) or one of each (NADPH/DHF), which is the productive ternary complex (i.e. the complex which yields product). In order to favor formation of the productive complex, this enzyme exhibits binding cooperativity. Unlike other allosteric enzymes which achieve binding cooperativity ...


Molecular Dynamics Study Of Single Stranded Peptide Nucleic Acids, Anna K. Manukyan Jan 2009

Molecular Dynamics Study Of Single Stranded Peptide Nucleic Acids, Anna K. Manukyan

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

A PNA molecule is a DNA strand where the sugar-phosphate backbone has been replaced by a structurally homomorphous pseudopeptide chain consisting of N(2-aminoethyl)-glycine units. PNA binds strongly to both DNA and RNA. However, an analysis of the X-ray and NMR data show that the dihedral angles of PNA/DNA or PNA/DNA complexes are very different from those of DNA:DNA or RNA:RNA complexes. In addition, the PNA strand is very flexible. One way to improve the binding affinity of PNA for DNA/RNA is to design a more pre-organized PNA structure. An effective way to rigidify ...


In Vivo Murine Melanoma Tumor Responses To Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field Treatment, Xinhua Chen Jul 2008

In Vivo Murine Melanoma Tumor Responses To Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field Treatment, Xinhua Chen

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

High intensity nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) were applied to melanoma tumors to observe functional and structural biological changes and to investigate the possible molecular mechanisms responsible. An animal model was set up by injecting B16F10 mouse melanoma cells into SKH-1 mice. A treatment (Tx) of 100 pulses: 300 nanosecond duration; 40 kV/cm field strength; at 0.5 Hz rate were delivered to melanoma tumors in 120 mice. The nsPEF Txcaused tumor self-destruction with sharply decreased cell volumes and shrunken nuclei. The apoptotic biochemical tests confirmed nsPEF Tx induced apoptosis in a time-dependent manner. Examination of gross vessel and ...


Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Induce A Mitochondria-Independent Apoptosis In B16f10 Melanoma Cells In Vitro, Wentia Elissa Ford Jul 2008

Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Induce A Mitochondria-Independent Apoptosis In B16f10 Melanoma Cells In Vitro, Wentia Elissa Ford

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) are ultra-short pulses that induce direct electric field and biological effects that initiate apoptosis. Here the application of ten 300ns pulses ranging in electric fields from 12kV/cm-60kV/cm was administered to determine the effects on B16F10 melanoma cells evaluated by in vitro studies. Initial application of nsPEFs demonstrated apoptosis induction in an electric field- and pulse number-dependent manner measured by caspase activation that correlated with decrease in cell viability 24hr post pulse. In addition caspase activity was shown to be independent of calcium mobilization though ions may play a part in other aspects of ...


Gene Therapy Using Tet-Repressor System To Modulate Prostate Tumor Microenvironment, Nazita Yousefieh Jan 2008

Gene Therapy Using Tet-Repressor System To Modulate Prostate Tumor Microenvironment, Nazita Yousefieh

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in men in the United States and is projected to be the third most frequent cause of male cancer-related deaths in 2007 after lung and skin cancers. The initial treatment for prostate cancer at early stages is prostatectomy or radiation, which usually is curative. However, approximately 20% of patients are not cured by such treatments and their cancer recurs, sometimes with long latencies. In other patients prostate cancer is diagnosed only after the cancer has metastasized and there are no effective therapies at this stage. Therefore immunotherapy seems to be a promising ...


Subcellular Localization Of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Tax Oncoprotein, Kimberly Anne Fryrear Jan 2008

Subcellular Localization Of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Tax Oncoprotein, Kimberly Anne Fryrear

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

Human T-cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) is a transforming retrovirus that gives rise to Adult T-cell Leukemia (ATL) and a variety of other subneoplastic conditions such as HTLV-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraperesis (HAM/TSP). In ATL, the transformation and immortalization of T-lymphocytes has been attributed to the expression and activity of a single HTLV-1 viral protein, namely the trans-activating protein Tax. Although the exact mechanism of Tax-mediated transformation is uncertain, current studies support a model in which Tax induces genomic instability in the host cell through interference with DNA repair mechanisms, dysregulation of cell cycle progression, transcriptional activation ...


Maldi Mass Spectrometry Imaging For The Discovery Of Prostate Carcinoma Biomarkers, Lisa Harris Cazares Jan 2008

Maldi Mass Spectrometry Imaging For The Discovery Of Prostate Carcinoma Biomarkers, Lisa Harris Cazares

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

The elucidation of new biological markers of prostate cancer (PCa) should aid in the detection, and prognosis of this disease. Diagnostic decision making by pathologists in prostate cancer is highly dependent on tissue morphology. The ability to localize disease-specific molecular changes in tissue would help improve this critical pathology decision making process. Direct profiling of proteins in tissue sections using MALDI imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) has the power to link molecular detail to morphological and pathological changes, enhancing the ability to identify candidates for new specific biomarkers. However, critical questions remain regarding the integration of this technique with clinical decision ...


Serotype Association And Regulation Of The Hyaluronate Lyase Gene Of Streptococcus Pyogenes, Martha Stokes Jul 2007

Serotype Association And Regulation Of The Hyaluronate Lyase Gene Of Streptococcus Pyogenes, Martha Stokes

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

S. pyogenes expresses many virulence factors, controlled by a complex regulatory network. These include hyaluronate lyase, an enzyme that degrades hyaluronic acid, a major component of the human extracellular matrix. Paradoxically, hyaluronic acid is also the sole component of the bacterium's capsule, a primary defense against the host immune response. The hylA gene, which encodes the enzyme, has been shown to take three structural forms: a full-length gene, one containing a 3' deletion and a gene that produces a prematurely truncated protein. This work was intended to show that the structure of hylA is associated with serotype ...


Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase Protects Cardiomyocytes During Hyperoxia, Mervat Elsayed Ali Jul 2006

Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase Protects Cardiomyocytes During Hyperoxia, Mervat Elsayed Ali

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

Reactive oxygen species are implicated in tissue damage in many cardiovascular diseases. The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that exposure to high inspired oxygen concentrations (100%) damages cardiac mitochondria and that a biogenic response is needed for cell survival. The study was done in mice with a transgene (TG) for extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) or with the EC-SOD gene knockout (KO). Adult EC-SOD mice and their wild type littermates and EC-SOD KO mice and their wild type littermates were exposed to 100% oxygen for 6 hours and for 72 hours, and the hearts were subsequently removed under ...


The Study Of Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression, Function, And Regulation In The Renal Vasculature During Postnatal Renal Development, Brian Blake Ratliff Apr 2006

The Study Of Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression, Function, And Regulation In The Renal Vasculature During Postnatal Renal Development, Brian Blake Ratliff

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

The newborn kidney is vulnerable to vasomotor acute renal failure (ARF) from adverse perinatal events or complications of prematurity. Nitric oxide (NO) vasodilation is vitally protective in this type of ARF, but its relationship with other vasoactive factors, such as angiotensin II (AII) has not been examined. In the immature kidney, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms, specifically eNOS and nNOS, are developmentally regulated, but their specific role and regulation are unknown.

The enhanced vasodilatory role of NO in the immature kidney was hypothesized to be attributed to regulatory, expressional, and functional differences in eNOS and nNOS isoforms from the adult ...


Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field Effects On Cell Cycle And Apoptosis, Emily H. Hall Apr 2006

Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field Effects On Cell Cycle And Apoptosis, Emily H. Hall

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

Apoptosis, programmed cell death, is a highly regulated and complex pathway essential for embryonic development, immune-system function and maintenance of tissue homeostasis where cells induce their own cell death. Cells undergoing apoptosis exhibit a distinctive phenotype characterized by maintenance of membrane integrity, cell shrinkage, phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization at the plasma membrane, caspase protease activation, DNA fragmentation, release of cytochrome c from the mitochondrion, and membrane blebbing. An important regulatory protein in the apoptotic pathway is p53. The p53 protein functions to modulate the cell cycle by arresting cells in the G1 and G 2 phases to repair DNA damage, and ...


Modulation Of Tgfβ-Induced Pai -1 Expression By Changes In Actin Polymerization In Human Mesangial Cells, Keyur Patel Apr 2006

Modulation Of Tgfβ-Induced Pai -1 Expression By Changes In Actin Polymerization In Human Mesangial Cells, Keyur Patel

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

Chronic renal diseases show increased deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the glomerulus (glomerulosclerosis). Glomerulosclerosis is associated with activation of normally quiescent glomerular mesangial cells into myofibroblast-like cells. The overall objective of this study is to delineate cellular mechanism/s of myofibroblast-differentiation in disease states. In cultured mesangial cells certain characteristics of myofibroblast differentiation (α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and hypertrophy) are associated with an increase in polymeric actin microfilaments (stress fibers). It is likely that other genes are also regulated in an actin cytoskeleton-dependent manner during myofibroblast differentiation. In these studies, we therefore examined the hypothesis that changes in the ...


The Use Of Proteomic Technologies To Identify Serum Glycoproteins For The Early Detection Of Liver And Prostate Cancers, Elizabeth Ellen Schwegler Jan 2006

The Use Of Proteomic Technologies To Identify Serum Glycoproteins For The Early Detection Of Liver And Prostate Cancers, Elizabeth Ellen Schwegler

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

The application of proteomic technologies to identify serum glycoproteins is an emerging technique to identify new biomarkers indicative of disease severity. Many of these newly evolving protein-profiling methodologies have evolved from previous global protein expression profiling studies such as those involving SELDI-TOF-MS technologies. Though the SELDI approach could distinguish disease from normal by utilizing protein patterns as shown herein with the HCC study of chapter II, it was unable to offer sequence information on the selected peaks, and did not have the ability to analyze the entire dynamic range of the serum/plasma proteome. To address these deficiencies, new strategies ...


Structure-Function Studies Of The Camp-Dependent Protein Kinase In Vitro And In Intact Cells, Gary Z. Morris Jan 2006

Structure-Function Studies Of The Camp-Dependent Protein Kinase In Vitro And In Intact Cells, Gary Z. Morris

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

There are 518 protein kinase genes in the human genome; this constitutes about 1.7% of all human genes. The cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) serves as the prototypic model for the study of kinases because it contains a conserved catalytic core shared with all eukaryotic kinases, it is the simplest kinase, and it is one of the best-characterized serine/threonine kinases. PKA is ubiquitous in mammals and regulates multiple physiological mechanisms such as the cell cycle, apoptosis, cell motility, energy metabolism, and gene transcription through a well-defined intracellular signaling pathway. While PKA clearly has a central physiological role it is ...


Isolation And Functional Mapping Of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Tax Oncoprotein Dna-Damage Complexes, Sarah Saionz Durkin Jan 2006

Isolation And Functional Mapping Of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Tax Oncoprotein Dna-Damage Complexes, Sarah Saionz Durkin

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

Human T-cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) is a transforming retrovirus which causes Adult T-cell Leukemia (ATL) and HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Cellular transformation can be caused by a single viral trans-activating protein, Tax. Tax may contribute to transformation through interaction with components of the DNA damage response pathway, promoting cellular genomic instability. We examined cellular Tax complexes in an effort to elucidate potential protein-protein interactions that can model the Tax-induced molecular events.

We also investigated the role of post-translational modification in regulating Tax function. We employed a direct physical analysis of Tax complexes isolated ...


Mechanisms Of Cell Death Initiated In Herpes Simplex Virus Thymidine Kinase Expressing Colon Tumor Cells Treated With Ganciclovir And Ucn-01, Christina Elizabeth Ahn Apr 2005

Mechanisms Of Cell Death Initiated In Herpes Simplex Virus Thymidine Kinase Expressing Colon Tumor Cells Treated With Ganciclovir And Ucn-01, Christina Elizabeth Ahn

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

Metastatic colon carcinoma is the second leading cause of death from malignancy in the United States, and development of more effective treatments is essential. Heterologous expression of Herpes Simplex Virus Thymidine Kinase (HSVtk) in combination with the prodrug, ganciclovir (GCV), has shown great promise for the genetic therapy of many cancers, but most patients have had only a partial or minimal response to the therapy. After screening a panel of two drug combinations, our laboratory has shown that the combination of GCV and the protein kinase inhibitor UCN-01 (7-hydroxystaurosporine) enhances tumor cell death more effectively than either drug alone. However ...