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Theses and Dissertations

2015

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Articles 1 - 30 of 71

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Characterization Of Cytidylyltransferase Enzyme Activity Through High Performance Liquid Chromatography, James Brault Dec 2015

Characterization Of Cytidylyltransferase Enzyme Activity Through High Performance Liquid Chromatography, James Brault

Theses and Dissertations

The cytidylyltransferases are a family of enzymes that utilize cytidine 5â?? triphosphate (CTP) to synthesize molecules that are precursors to membrane phospholipids. There are four well known enzymes: CTP: phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase (ECT), CTP: glycerol-3-phosphate cytidylyltransferase (GCT), 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate cytidylyltransferase synthetase (CMS), and CTP: phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CCT). Previously, a radioisotope tagging method was employed to study cytidylyltransferase catalysis. Using CCT as a model, a method utilizing high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed to replace the radioisotope scintillation technique. The development of this new HPLC method is cheaper, more efficient, and more accurate than the previously established method.

The targets of separation ...


Arylboronates As H2o2 Or Photo-Inducible Dna Cross-Linking Agents: Design, Synthesis, Mechanism, And Anticancer Activity, Yibin Wang Dec 2015

Arylboronates As H2o2 Or Photo-Inducible Dna Cross-Linking Agents: Design, Synthesis, Mechanism, And Anticancer Activity, Yibin Wang

Theses and Dissertations

Interest in the development of cancer therapies with improved selectivity and reduced host toxicity has been growing. In this thesis, we designed and synthesized a series of novel non-toxic arylboronic ester and biarylboronic ester derivatives that can be activated by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to induce DNA interstrand cross-link formation. The mechanism of DNA cross-linking induced by these arylboronates involves generation of phenol intermediates 1 followed by departure of leaving group (L) leading to quinone methides (QMs) 2, which directly cross-link DNA via alkylation. The QM formation is the rate-determining step for DNA cross-linking. The activity and selectivity of these compounds ...


Reaction Of Zinc Proteome With Biologically Important Metal Binding Ligands, Kaniz Fatema Dec 2015

Reaction Of Zinc Proteome With Biologically Important Metal Binding Ligands, Kaniz Fatema

Theses and Dissertations

Fluorescent sensors have been widely used as microscopic tools to image Zn2+ on a cellular level. Recently, it has been established that the sensors TSQ and Zinquin form adducts with Zn-proteins and image fractions of the Zn-proteome.1 Since TSQ and Zinquin bind specifically to many Zn-proteins, it is hypothesized that other metal binding ligands, both synthetic and natural, may also bind to the Zn-proteome. Biologically active 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) and related molecules were investigated for their ability to bind to Zn-proteome. Similarly, the cellular tripeptide, glutathione was investigated. It was observed that Phen and some other metal binding, bidentate ...


Theoretical Investigation Of Interactions And Relaxation In Biological Macromolecules, Koki Yokoi Dec 2015

Theoretical Investigation Of Interactions And Relaxation In Biological Macromolecules, Koki Yokoi

Theses and Dissertations

One of the major challenges posed to our quantitative understanding of structure, dynamics, and function of biological macromolecules has been the high level of complexity of biological structures. In the present work, we studied interactions between G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), and also introduced a theoretical model of relaxation in complex systems, in order to help understand interactions and relaxation in biological macromolecules.

GPCRs are the largest and most diverse family of membrane receptors that play key roles in mediating signal transduction between outside and inside of a cell. Oligomerization of GPCRs and its possible role in function and signaling currently ...


Blackberry Virosome: A Micro And Macro Approach, Archana Khadgi Dec 2015

Blackberry Virosome: A Micro And Macro Approach, Archana Khadgi

Theses and Dissertations

Viruses pose a major concern for blackberry production around the world with more than 40 species known to infect the crop. Virus complexes have been identified recently as the major cause of plant decline with blackberry yellow vein disease (BYVD) being the most important disease of the crop in the Southern United States. The objective of this research was to study the blackberry virosome in both the macro and micro scale. The large scale approach involves identification of the major viruses known to be associated with BYVD in the Southern United States as well as the identification of other viruses ...


Autophagy And Its Potential Role In Stress And Feed Efficiency Using Avian Lines, Alissa Laura Piekarski Dec 2015

Autophagy And Its Potential Role In Stress And Feed Efficiency Using Avian Lines, Alissa Laura Piekarski

Theses and Dissertations

Autophagy is a highly conserved cellular mechanism that is responsible for the degradation and recycling of damaged organelles. Recently, autophagy has been involved in critical roles during overall development of the organism and degradation of damaged cellular components. This pathway has witnessed dramatic growth in the last few years and has been extensively studied in yeast and mammals, however, there is a paucity of information in avian (non-mammalian) species. First, we characterized genes involved in the autophagy pathway in male and female Jungle Fowl to determine gender and tissue specific differences. Secondly, tissue and genotype differences in Japanese quail selected ...


Transcriptomics Of Chicken Primordial Germ Cells, Nhung Thi Nguyen Dec 2015

Transcriptomics Of Chicken Primordial Germ Cells, Nhung Thi Nguyen

Theses and Dissertations

Chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) are derived from extraembryonic tissue of the embryo and first appear at stage X of development. They enter the bloodstream and migrate to the genital ridge, unite with somatic tissue to form a developing gonad, and then differentiate to sperm or ova (Fujimoto et al., 1976). Understanding molecular features of both male and female PGCs not only clarify the differentiation mechanism of such cells toward different germ lines, but will also help in selecting for highly productive types of commercial chicken. Most previous studies focused on the location of PGCs (Eyal-Giladi et al., 1981; Swift ...


Porphyrin As A Spectroscopic Probe Of Net Electric Fields In Heme Proteins, Hannah Elizabeth Wagie Dec 2015

Porphyrin As A Spectroscopic Probe Of Net Electric Fields In Heme Proteins, Hannah Elizabeth Wagie

Theses and Dissertations

Heme proteins have diverse functions as well as varied structures but share the same organic, conjugated cofactor. Similarly varied approaches have been taken to deduce how heme can take on different roles based on its protein environment. A unique approach is to view the protein matrix as a constellation of point charges that generates a defined, reproducible, net internal electric field that has influence over the electronic properties of the heme cofactor. This work considers how porphyrins, the basic chromophore building block of heme, can be used as a native spectroscopic sensor of internal electric field at the active site ...


Time-Resolved, Near Atomic Resolution Structural Studies At The Free Electron Laser, Jason James Tenboer Dec 2015

Time-Resolved, Near Atomic Resolution Structural Studies At The Free Electron Laser, Jason James Tenboer

Theses and Dissertations

Time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography (TR-SFX) employs X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) to provide X-ray pulses of femtosecond (fs) duration with 1012 photons per pulse. These XFELs are more than a billion times more brilliant than 3rd generation synchrotron X-ray sources. For structure determination, protein crystals on the micrometer length scale (microcrystals) are injected into the X-ray beam and the resulting diffraction patterns are recorded on fast-readout pixel detectors. Although these intense pulses deposit enough energy to ultimately destroy the protein, the processes that lead to diffraction occur before the crystal is destroyed. This so-called diffraction-before-destruction principle overcomes radiation damage, which ...


In Vivo Periodical Monitoring Of Immune Cell Infiltration In Response To Feathers And Intramuscular Injection Of Ionps Using The Pulp (Dermis) Of Growing Feathers As Test Site Tissue In Chickens, Olfat Taleb Alaamri Dec 2015

In Vivo Periodical Monitoring Of Immune Cell Infiltration In Response To Feathers And Intramuscular Injection Of Ionps Using The Pulp (Dermis) Of Growing Feathers As Test Site Tissue In Chickens, Olfat Taleb Alaamri

Theses and Dissertations

The applications of nanoparticles are growing, but little is known about their interactions with the immune system as most studies did not use suitable in vivo test systems. The purpose of these studies was to investigate the utility of chicken growing feathers as an in vivo test site for iron oxide nanoparticle (IONP) interactions with the immune system. The first objective of this study was to monitor leukocyte infiltration into the growing feather pulp upon the administration of IONP and IO-mIgG preparations. The second objective was to test the utility of IONPs as vaccine adjuvants by monitoring primary and memory ...


Transport Mechanisms For Human Fecal Indicator Bacteria In An Urban Stormwater Basin In Southeastern Wisconsin, Chelsea M. Corson Dec 2015

Transport Mechanisms For Human Fecal Indicator Bacteria In An Urban Stormwater Basin In Southeastern Wisconsin, Chelsea M. Corson

Theses and Dissertations

Discharge of stormwater runoff to receiving waters is a known source of human pathogens; however the primary mechanisms by which these pathogens enter the stormwater system have yet to be quantified. This study builds upon and utilizes prior research findings in an attempt to explain the influence of the age of the pipes within stormwater and sanitary conveyance systems, rainfall and hydrogeological characteristics, and select infrastructure variables that contribute to the observed contamination of an urban stormwater basin in Southeastern Wisconsin.

Over the course of approximately two years from 2012 to 2014, a total of 260 samples from 22 stormwater ...


Optimizing A Luciferase-Based Tool For Studying The Effects Of Fatty Acid Desaturase 7 On Singlet Oxygen Accumulation In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Abeer Muhammedali Alnasrawi Dec 2015

Optimizing A Luciferase-Based Tool For Studying The Effects Of Fatty Acid Desaturase 7 On Singlet Oxygen Accumulation In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Abeer Muhammedali Alnasrawi

Theses and Dissertations

In plants, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated as a byproduct of normal metabolism, as well as in response to adverse conditions such as light stress, extreme temperatures, and exposure to pests and pathogens. Singlet oxygen (1O2) is a ROS that is formed during photosynthesis in photosystem II (PSII) of the chloroplasts. Levels of 1O2 and other ROS are tightly controlled in healthy plants, but some studies suggest that levels of fatty acid desaturase (FAD) activity in Arabidopsis thaliana can influence constitutive and/or stress-responsive ROS accumulation. In this study, a luciferase-based reporter gene that is selectively stimulated by 1O2 ...


Dissection Of Molecular Interactions Of Replication Protein A In Replication And Repair, Ran Chen Dec 2015

Dissection Of Molecular Interactions Of Replication Protein A In Replication And Repair, Ran Chen

Theses and Dissertations

Replication protein A (RPA) is the major eukaryotic single-strand DNA (ssDNA) binding protein. RPA is composed of three subunits, RPA1, RPA2 and RPA3. RPA is essential for replication, repair, recombination, and checkpoint activation, and is required for maintaining genome integrity. In the cell, RPA binds to ssDNA intermediates and ensures that the appropriate pathway correctly processes them. The ssDNA-binding activity of RPA is primarily mediated by two high-affinity domains in the RPA1 subunit. DNA binds to these domains by interacting with polar and aromatic residues in a DNA-binding cleft in each domain. The aromatic residues are highly conserved and when ...


Analysis Of Ac/Ds Activation Tagged Mutants In Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum), Ipeleng Randome Dec 2015

Analysis Of Ac/Ds Activation Tagged Mutants In Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum), Ipeleng Randome

Theses and Dissertations

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is a crop of immense economic and nutritional importance worldwide and also a good model organism for genomic studies of other dicot species. The recent completion of the tomato genome sequence is a great milestone towards learning about the tomato genome. Elucidation of the function of the different genes using different functional genomic tools is therefore important in adding to this resource. To this end, we have developed an Ac-Ds transposon ‘activation tagging’ (ATag) system to be able to transpose transposon inserts, bearing a strong 35S-enhancer element, all around the genome. An Ac-Ds ATag construct was used ...


Leptin Regulates The Expression Of Autophagy-Related Genes In Chickens, Peter Olawale Ishola Dec 2015

Leptin Regulates The Expression Of Autophagy-Related Genes In Chickens, Peter Olawale Ishola

Theses and Dissertations

Autophagy or cellular self-digestion, a lysosomal degradation pathway that is conserved from yeast to human, plays a key role in recycling cellular constituents, including damaged organelles. It also plays a pivotal role in the adaptation of cells to a plethora of distinct stressors including starvation. Autophagy has been extensively studied in mammals and yeast, but little is known in avian species. Thus, the major objective of the present study was to determine the effects of leptin on autophagy-related genes in chicken hypothalamus, muscle and liver. Leptin is an adipocytokine that is mostly produced by white adipose cells in mammals (as ...


Response Of Bacterial Cells To Fluctuating Environment, Sudip Nepal Dec 2015

Response Of Bacterial Cells To Fluctuating Environment, Sudip Nepal

Theses and Dissertations

We have studied morphological and genomic variations occurring in a mesophilic bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli) in a wide range of continuous and fluctuating hydrostatic pressures. For all the studies here the temperature is maintained at 37◦C, the optimal growth tem- perature of E. coli at atmospheric pressure. Cell division is inhibited at high hydrostatic pressures resulting in an increase of cell length. The increase of cell-length depends on the extent and duration of the stress applied on bacterial cells. We have studied the effect of high pressure stress in three different conditions – (i) Wild-type cells (almost no genetic ...


Investigation Of The Inherent Chemical, Structural, And Mechanical Attributes Of Bio-Engineered Composites Found In Nature: Alligator Gar’S Exoskeleton Fish Scales, Wayne Derald Hodo Dec 2015

Investigation Of The Inherent Chemical, Structural, And Mechanical Attributes Of Bio-Engineered Composites Found In Nature: Alligator Gar’S Exoskeleton Fish Scales, Wayne Derald Hodo

Theses and Dissertations

The U.S. Army has determined a huge cost savings of up to 51% can be accomplished by reducing the gross vehicle weight, for their personnel carrier, by 33%. To cut cost, composite materials are needed. Man-made composites can have superior material properties (high-strength, high-fracture toughness, and lightweight), but they are prone to delamination at the glued-layered interface. In contrast, fish scale is a natural composite that has the same material properties and, additionally, tend not to delaminate.

The focus of this study was to learn how nature integrates hard and soft materials at each length scale to form a ...


Understanding The Causal Agent Of Rose Rosette Disease, Patrick Louis Di Bello Dec 2015

Understanding The Causal Agent Of Rose Rosette Disease, Patrick Louis Di Bello

Theses and Dissertations

A number viruses are known to infect roses, ranging from those in the genera Nepovirus, and Ilarvirus, which have been reported since the inception of rose virology, to recently discovered viruses in the genera Carmovirus, Closterovirus, Emaravirus, Luteovirus, Rosadnavirus, and Potyvirus. Of the viral diseases in rose, arguably the most damaging is Rose rosette (RRD), which is associated with the Emaravirus, Rose rosette virus (RRV). The objective of this thesis is to fill in the gaps in knowledge on the epidemiological aspects of RRD and RRV. There has been significant progress in the epidemiology of the RRD agent prior to ...


Image-Charge Detection €“ Novel Instrumentation And Applications, Brandon Lee Barney Oct 2015

Image-Charge Detection €“ Novel Instrumentation And Applications, Brandon Lee Barney

Theses and Dissertations

Image-charge detection is an analytical technique in which a highly-charged particle is detected by the magnitude of the image current that it generates in a detecting electrode. This current is represented as a voltage between the charged particle and the sensing electrode. It is a single particle detection method, ideal for the analysis of large, variable mass particles such as biological cells. Some of the physical properties of Bacillus subtilis spores were explored using different applications of image-charge detection. B. subtilis is a gram-negative spore-forming bacteria that has been shown to exhibit extremophile behavior. The particular extremophile behavior that was ...


Biophysical Properties Of Cellular Membranes In Gram-Positive Bacterial Pathogens And Their Impact On Major Physiological Attributes And Virulence Determinants, Suranjana Sen Sep 2015

Biophysical Properties Of Cellular Membranes In Gram-Positive Bacterial Pathogens And Their Impact On Major Physiological Attributes And Virulence Determinants, Suranjana Sen

Theses and Dissertations

The cytoplasmic membrane of bacterial cells, forming an essential barrier from the surroundings, is a critical component of cellular physiology ensuring proper survival and maintenance of major cellular functions. The integrity of the membrane is an important feature that plays an essential role in the transport of solutes and nutrients through active and passive pathways, functions of membrane-associated proteins, electron transport and ATP synthesis, maintaining turgor pressure and combating environmental stresses, and thus is a crucial factor of a majority of cellular adaptations. The various biophysical properties affecting the integrity of this membrane are mainly determined by the composition and ...


Genomic Deoxyuracil: Targeting, Regulation And Repair, Nate Warren Holton Sep 2015

Genomic Deoxyuracil: Targeting, Regulation And Repair, Nate Warren Holton

Theses and Dissertations

Maintaining genomic integrity is critical to avoid sequence mutations and genetic disease. However the immune system requires genomic rearrangements in order to produce novel antibodies and illicit a full immunological response. The expression of DNA modifying enzymes is essential for antibody production but the off target effects are not well understood. The work presented here was performed to elucidate molecular mechanisms responsible for the regulation and targeting of DNA editing enzymes, as well as characterize repair of these lesions at off target loci.


Mechanistic Study Of Heme Protein-Mediated Nitric Oxide Dioxygenation Using Photolytically Produced Nitric Oxide, Karl Joseph Koebke Aug 2015

Mechanistic Study Of Heme Protein-Mediated Nitric Oxide Dioxygenation Using Photolytically Produced Nitric Oxide, Karl Joseph Koebke

Theses and Dissertations

The previously reported NO precursor [Mn(PaPy2Q)(NO)]ClO4 (1), where (PaPy2QH) is N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-amine-N-ethyl-2-quinoline-2-carboxamide, was synthesized and proven capable of producing as much as 180 µM NO when irradiated by a single 3 mJ 500nm laser pulse, in a 0.15 cm path cell, without the need for additional sacrificial reductants or oxidants. Species 1 was first used to study the reaction of nitric oxide with oxy-myoglobin (oxyMb) to form ferric myoglobin (metMb) and nitrate. This reaction had long been assumed to proceed via the same iron-bound peroxynitrite intermediate (metMb(OONO)) as the metMb-catalyzed isomerization of peroxynitrite ...


Comparison Of Different Modulators That Affect Macrophage Activation In Vitro, Alda Alexa Díaz Pérez Jul 2015

Comparison Of Different Modulators That Affect Macrophage Activation In Vitro, Alda Alexa Díaz Pérez

Theses and Dissertations

Inflammation is known as a mechanism to regulate and control infections as well as promote tissue repair. Macrophages (Mф) are known to be a major cell type in the initiation, sustainability and resolution of inflammation. Moreover, Mф are essential for the remodeling process that is also known as the wound healing response. The objective of this research was to compare five modulators (acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), dexamethasone (DEX), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), iloprost, and resolvin D1 (RvD1) for their anti-inflammatory effects on macrophages in vitro. Then, Mф phenotype in terms of gene expression and secreted cytokine response was determined. Our study compared ...


Production And Characterization Of Islet Amyloid Polypeptide Using Recombinant Technology, Emilio Duverna Jul 2015

Production And Characterization Of Islet Amyloid Polypeptide Using Recombinant Technology, Emilio Duverna

Theses and Dissertations

Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) also called amylin is an amyloid-forming protein; IAPP is a proteinaceous hormone that comprises 37 amino acid residues. It is secreted along with insulin from the pancreatic β-cells to help it regulate the uptake and removal of glucose in the bloodstream. IAPP has been observed in the amyloid deposits found in pancreatic β-cells of most patients suffering from type II diabetes mellitus. This research project aims at producing recombinant amylin peptide. To achieve this goal, we used the pBAD plasmid vector which we introduced into Escherichia coli to express the peptide. Although the vector was successfully ...


Characterization Of The Effects Of Bfgf And Gsk3Β Inhibitors On Embryoid Bodies Derived From Human Pluripotent Stem Cells, Jonathan Earls Jul 2015

Characterization Of The Effects Of Bfgf And Gsk3Β Inhibitors On Embryoid Bodies Derived From Human Pluripotent Stem Cells, Jonathan Earls

Theses and Dissertations

Embryoid body (EB) formation is a common first step in many human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) differentiation protocols. Previous work suggests that EBs are sensitive to growth factor withdrawal if they are derived from hPSCs maintained in feeder independent media such as mTeSR1. To promote cell survival, EBs generated from mTeSR1-adapted hPSCs are sometimes cultured in a medium that contains basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), a trophic factor often used in hPSC cultures to maintain self-renewal. This distinguishes feeder independent hPSCs from feeder dependent hPSCs. The purpose of this study was to characterize the effects of bFGF as well as ...


A Morpho-Physiological Analysis Of Diverse Drought Resistant And Sensitive Rice Genotypes To Identify Distinguishing Anatomical Root Phenes, Clinton Philip Greub Jul 2015

A Morpho-Physiological Analysis Of Diverse Drought Resistant And Sensitive Rice Genotypes To Identify Distinguishing Anatomical Root Phenes, Clinton Philip Greub

Theses and Dissertations

A set of 37 genotypes selected from a survey of over 200 diverse germplasms, for their diverse drought tolerance mechanisms, were analyzed in this study for root physiological traits that are indicative of different drought resistance mechanisms. The genotypes include controls such as the drought sensitive IR64 and Nipponbare, along with the drought resistant Nagina 22 (N22) and Bengal landraces to identify distinguishing phenotypic features of resistant accessions. Anatomical traits studied include total areas of the cross-sections of the stele, cortex, aerenchyma, cortical-cell, and xylem tissue; the number of aerenchyma, xylem vessels, cortical cell file number and size that together ...


Using Peptoids To Build Robust, Efficient Microarray Systems, Dhaval Sunil Shah Jul 2015

Using Peptoids To Build Robust, Efficient Microarray Systems, Dhaval Sunil Shah

Theses and Dissertations

Recent studies have shown microarrays to be indispensable for various biological applications, allowing for high-throughput processing and screening of biological samples such as RNA, DNA, proteins and peptides using a small sample volume (< 1 µL). Peptoids (poly-N-substituted glycine oligomers) can be used as a substitute for antibodies as capture molecules, as well as coatings for slides in antibody microarrays. The ease of synthesis of peptoids, high customizability with desired bioactivity, and speed of synthesis allows us to build a diagnostic system with a large dynamic range that can detect biomolecules from a minimal sample size. In this study, peptoid-based antibody mimics are designed to have both structural and functional features similar to those of antibodies, including a stable constant region (scaffolding) and a variable region for protein recognition. Peptoids previously screened via combinatorial library synthesis to be specific to bind Mdm-2 (mouse double minute 2 homolog) and GST (gluthathione S-transferase), have been synthesized. The protein recognition peptoids have been conjugated to PEG (polyethylene glycol) molecules with modified end groups; an amine group on one end that allows for immobilization and orientation on the slide, and an azide group on the other end that will allow for attachment to the peptoid through “click chemistry”. The number of capture molecules printed on the slides can be increased by making the available surface area of the slide larger via coating with microspheres. We have determined that partially water soluble peptoids that are also helical, can self-assemble into microspheres. Sequences have been developed that can consistently produce uniform microsphere coatings on slides that increase the overall surface area. A high surface area corresponds to a higher number of binding sites, and therefore a more sensitive system. The work done has shown that slides may be successfully coated in order to potentially improve the detection system.


Histone Deacetylase 6 (Hdac6) Is Critical For Tumor Cell Survival And Promotes The Pro-Survival Activity Of 14-3-3Ζ Viadeacetylation Of Lysines Within The14-3-3Ζ Binding Pocket, Jeffrey Benjamin Mortenson Jul 2015

Histone Deacetylase 6 (Hdac6) Is Critical For Tumor Cell Survival And Promotes The Pro-Survival Activity Of 14-3-3Ζ Viadeacetylation Of Lysines Within The14-3-3Ζ Binding Pocket, Jeffrey Benjamin Mortenson

Theses and Dissertations

Our understanding of non-histone acetylation as a means of cellular regulation is in its infancy. Using a mass spectrometry approach we identified acetylated lysine residues and monitored acetylation changes across the proteome as a consequence of metabolic stress (hypoxia). We observed changes in acetylation status of non-histone lysines in tumor cells. Through the use of small molecule inhibitors of histone deacetylase enzymes (HDACs) and siRNA screening identified HDAC6 as a pro-survival regulator of lysine acetylation during hypoxia. The phospho-binding protein 14-3-3ζ acts as a signaling hub controlling a network of interacting partners and oncogenic pathways. We show here that lysines ...


Analytical Approaches In Investigating The Kinetics Of Water-Molecule Complexes In Tropospheric Reactions, William J. Keeton Jul 2015

Analytical Approaches In Investigating The Kinetics Of Water-Molecule Complexes In Tropospheric Reactions, William J. Keeton

Theses and Dissertations

Ozone is a heavily monitored pollutant. Ozone is not directly emitted into the atmosphere, but rather the product of chemical reactions. Ground level ozone occurs when nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) react with each other in the presence of sunlight. The primary precursors of ozone are anthropogenically emitted, and as a result, tropospheric ozone has cost millions of dollars in damages and has hurt the health of countless people. This dissertation is a collection of work that aims to provide insight into atmospheric reactions that result in tropospheric ozone and the instrumentation to study such reactions. While ...


Designing Fret Assays To Study Electrostatic Interactions Pertaining To The Binding Of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins, Ashley Ann Howard Jul 2015

Designing Fret Assays To Study Electrostatic Interactions Pertaining To The Binding Of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins, Ashley Ann Howard

Theses and Dissertations

Fibroblast growth factor receptor plays a major role in several biological processes. Without FGFR, a human cannot live. FGFR is involved in cell differentiation and wound healing. Of course, if FGFR signaling becomes unregulated, it causes severe distress in the body. Several cancers are contributed to high signaling levels, as well as developmental conditions like rickets and Kallmann’s syndrome. FGFR is thought to undergo an auto-inhibition (or self-regulatory) process in order to try to facilitate regulation. The exact method of this inhibition is currently unknown, but is proposed to involve the unstructured acid box region of FGFR. We developed ...