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Theses and Dissertations

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Articles 1 - 30 of 509

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Spatial Reorganization Of Histone-Like Nucleoid Structuring Proteins Caused By Silver Nanoparticles, Meaad Alqahtany May 2019

Spatial Reorganization Of Histone-Like Nucleoid Structuring Proteins Caused By Silver Nanoparticles, Meaad Alqahtany

Theses and Dissertations

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and ions (Ag+) can be the new generation of antibiotics due to their antimicrobial effects against bacteria and other microbes. Many studies have shown that AgNPs and suppress the growth of bacteria and damage the cell walls of the microbes; therefore, treating bacterial cells with AgNPs may be a promising method to terminate multi-resistant bacteria. In this work, the effect of AgNPs with two different surface coatings on the spatial reorganization of histone-like nucleoid structuring (H-NS) proteins in Escherichia coli bacteria was investigated using quantitative super-resolution fluorescence microscopy to understand the toxicity and antimicrobial mechanism of AgNPs ...


Targeting Sec61Α By Ipomoeassin F Leads To Highly Cytotoxic Effect, Zhijian Hu May 2019

Targeting Sec61Α By Ipomoeassin F Leads To Highly Cytotoxic Effect, Zhijian Hu

Theses and Dissertations

Ipomoeassin F is a flagship congener of a resin glycoside family that inhibits growth of many tumor cell lines with only single-digital nanomolar IC50 values. However, biological and pharmacological mechanisms of ipomoeassin F have been undefined. To facilitate exploration of the biological and pharmacological properties, we performed sophisticate SAR (Structure–activity relationship) studies of ipomoeassin F to understand its pharmacophore and structure properties so that we can design favorable probes for further biological investigation. By applying appropriate deviates that possess fluorescent groups and similar bio-activity, the target protein was found to be localized in endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Through biotin affinity ...


Hormone Signaling, Gene Expression, And Mitochondrial Hormone Receptor Expression In Avian Muscle (Cells), Kentu Rushadd Lassiter May 2019

Hormone Signaling, Gene Expression, And Mitochondrial Hormone Receptor Expression In Avian Muscle (Cells), Kentu Rushadd Lassiter

Theses and Dissertations

Mitochondria are vital to the proper growth and function of muscle cells since they’re responsible for the majority of ATP production used for cellular energy. Previous studies have investigated how differences in mitochondrial function affects feed efficiency (FE) in broilers phenotyped for High and Low FE. Low FE broilers have been shown to have increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus contributing to higher levels of oxidative stress and damage seen in these birds. Global gene and protein expression studies conducted on breast muscle of the High FE and Low FE phenotypes have suggested that differences in mitochondrial ...


The Role Of Irf1 In The Brain And In Adaptive Responses Of Astrocytes, Andrew Hoskins Jan 2019

The Role Of Irf1 In The Brain And In Adaptive Responses Of Astrocytes, Andrew Hoskins

Theses and Dissertations

In neurodegenerative diseases, the CNS becomes inflamed through activation of pathways, including the NF-B pathway. Some of the therapies for those diseases target neuroinflammatory pathways. Here, we explore the mechanisms for the upregulation of a subset of genes following a restimulation of the NF-B pathway. We discover that this upregulation occurs independent of IRF1 expression and type 1 interferon signaling. A knockdown of IRF1 using siRNA and an inhibition of JAK proteins using inhibitor AG490 both had no effect on priming. A secreted factor was found to upregulate the expression of both this subset of genes and genes encoding pro-inflammatory ...


River Bank Inducement Influence On A Shallow Groundwater Microbial Community And Its Effects On Aquifer Reactivity, Natalie June Gayner Dec 2018

River Bank Inducement Influence On A Shallow Groundwater Microbial Community And Its Effects On Aquifer Reactivity, Natalie June Gayner

Theses and Dissertations

Placing groundwater wells next to riverbanks to draw in surface water, known as riverbank inducement (RBI), is common and proposed as a promising and sustainable practice for municipal and public water production across the globe. However, these systems require further investigation to determine risks associated with river infiltration especially with rivers containing wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent. Since microbes drive biogeochemical transformations in groundwater and largely affect water quality, it is important to understand how the microbial communities in drinking water wells are affected by river infiltration. This study investigated if, and to what extent, the microbial community in a ...


Renalase As An Intracellular Metabolite Repair Enzyme, Matthew Robert Hoag Dec 2018

Renalase As An Intracellular Metabolite Repair Enzyme, Matthew Robert Hoag

Theses and Dissertations

The human enzyme renalase was discovered in 2005 by nephrologist Gary Desir, who claimed the enzyme is secreted by the kidney into the blood where it was said to catabolize catecholamines in order to modulate blood pressure and heart rate. It has since been shown that the enzyme is expressed in all tissues and does not react with catecholamines. The research detailed in this dissertation led to the discovery that renalase oxidizes two highly toxic isomers of NAD(P)H to form innocuous NAD(P)+. We surmised that such an important cellular function would be pervasive in nature, and our ...


The First In Vivo Human Methionine Sulfide Proteome And The Impact Of Smoking, Abdullah Qassab Dec 2018

The First In Vivo Human Methionine Sulfide Proteome And The Impact Of Smoking, Abdullah Qassab

Theses and Dissertations

Reactive oxygen species are naturally generated within the human body and they are known to modulate signaling pathway and mediate other physiological activities. However, excessive generation of ROS and the inability of body defense system in detoxifying them results in the so called “oxidative stress”. Methionine has powerful antioxidant properties due to the presence of electronegative sulfur in its structure. Therefore, Met is readily oxidized, and methionine sulfoxide has been linked to several pathological conditions.

The urinary proteome is an attractive candidate for the discovery of biomarkers to diagnose and classify health conditions because of the non-invasive collection procedure. However ...


Assessment Of Salmonella Enterica Biofilms And Expression Differences Among Serovars, Zhaohao Shi Dec 2018

Assessment Of Salmonella Enterica Biofilms And Expression Differences Among Serovars, Zhaohao Shi

Theses and Dissertations

Biofilms are communities of microorganisms associated by a matrix of extracellular polymers. In this state, microorganisms occupy an ecological niche distinct from their free-floating, planktonic counterparts. Also, biofilm bacteria become biologically unique as they form communities and lose motility. The acquisition of these physiological attributes enables the biofilm to persist through harsh environmental conditions, including antimicrobial induced stress and to resist sanitization efforts. Because of these features, biofilms can rapidly disseminate across numerous surfaces and as they establish, become challenging to remove. This is a particular issue for the food industry as processing plants offer favorable conditions for biofilm formation ...


Genetic And Epigenetic Investigations On Pulmonary Hypertension Syndrome In Meat Type- Chickens, Khaloud Alzahrani Dec 2018

Genetic And Epigenetic Investigations On Pulmonary Hypertension Syndrome In Meat Type- Chickens, Khaloud Alzahrani

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation presents a collection of studies that investigate the genetic and epigenetic associations to ascites phenotype in broiler chickens. Ascites is a significant metabolic disease associated with fast-growing meat-type chickens (broilers) and is a terminal result of pulmonary hypertension syndrome PHS. It is a multi-factorial syndrome caused by interactions between genetic, physiological, environmental, and managemental factors. It was estimated that ascites accounts for losses of about US$1 billion annually worldwide and for over 25% of broilers mortality. Although traditional and molecular genetic methods in the selection and in performance improvements, has greatly reduced ascites frequency, yet it has ...


The Multifaceted Roles Of Cd177 In Mammary Tissue Development And Breast Cancer, Paige Nicole Kluz Dec 2018

The Multifaceted Roles Of Cd177 In Mammary Tissue Development And Breast Cancer, Paige Nicole Kluz

Theses and Dissertations

Aiming to identify immune molecules with a novel function in cancer pathogenesis, we found the cluster of differentiation 177 (CD177), a known neutrophil antigen, expression to be positively correlated with relapse-free (RFS), metastasis-free (MFS) or overall survival (OS) in several solid cancers including those from breast, prostate, cervix, and lung. To study the role of CD177 in breast cancer, we generated a total body Cd177 knockout mouse. These mice had no profound phenotype at 3 - months of age or younger. The only phenotype found at this age was reduced peripheral neutrophil counts, but no difference in their ability to clear ...


Optimizing Computer Simulation Models For Carbohydrates And Proteins At The Atomistic And Coarse-Grained Level, Wesley K. Lay Dec 2018

Optimizing Computer Simulation Models For Carbohydrates And Proteins At The Atomistic And Coarse-Grained Level, Wesley K. Lay

Theses and Dissertations

Computer simulations allow researchers to study the dynamics and interactions of biological molecules in ways that cannot be currently achieved in experiments. In this work, I have used computer simulations to study the following systems: (1) carbohydrate-carbohydrate and carbohydrate-amino acid interactions using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, and (2) protein-protein interactions using coarse-grained implicit solvent models.

My first studies involved simulating carbohydrate and amino acid systems using atomistic force fields. During my initial simulations, I observed that carbohydrates were interacting too favorably leading them to aggregate in conditions under which they experimentally remain soluble. To alleviate this issue, I surgically modified ...


Epidemiological Studies Of Soybean Vein Necrosis Virus And Potential Resistance Mechanisms To Its Vector Neohydatothrips Variabilis (Beach), Jing Zhou Dec 2018

Epidemiological Studies Of Soybean Vein Necrosis Virus And Potential Resistance Mechanisms To Its Vector Neohydatothrips Variabilis (Beach), Jing Zhou

Theses and Dissertations

Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is one the most important crops in global agriculture with annual production of over 260 million metric tons. As the dependence of a growing global population to soybean has increased, so does the importance of soybean diseases and pests. Over 200 pathogens attack soybean; among them, viruses pose a major threat to the soybean industries accounting for approximately 10% of the annual yield reduction caused by diseases in the past two decades. Soybean vein necrosis virus (SVNV) is a relatively newly discovered virus causing the homonymous disease. The widespread occurrence of the disease in major ...


Ca2+ - Induced Structural Change Of Multi-Domain Collagen Binding Segments Of Collagenases Colg And Colh From Hathewaya Histolytica, Christopher Eric Ruth Dec 2018

Ca2+ - Induced Structural Change Of Multi-Domain Collagen Binding Segments Of Collagenases Colg And Colh From Hathewaya Histolytica, Christopher Eric Ruth

Theses and Dissertations

Hathewaya histolytica, previously renamed as Clostridium histolyticum, secretes at least two collagenases, ColH and ColG, that allow for degradation of extracellular matrices of animal tissue. Hathewaya histolytica virulence factors are proposed to undergo domain rearrangement upon secretion from the bacteria to the host. In order to accomplish this, collagenases seek the least ordered regions in collagen to efficiently disassemble the fibril. Two types of domains, Polycystic Kidney Disease-like (PKD) and Collagen Binding Domain (CBD), direct the collagenases ability to disassemble the fibril. Calcium dependent structural change have been reported to increase in thermal stability and in tighter collagen binding for ...


Structure And Function Of The Disordered Regions Within Translesion Synthesis Dna Polymerases, Kyle Thomas Powers Dec 2018

Structure And Function Of The Disordered Regions Within Translesion Synthesis Dna Polymerases, Kyle Thomas Powers

Theses and Dissertations

Normal DNA replication is blocked by DNA damage in the template strand. Translesion synthesis is a major pathway for overcoming these replication blocks. In this process, multiple non-classical DNA polymerases form a complex at the stalled replication fork called the mutasome. This complex is structurally organized by the replication accessory factor PCNA and the non-classical DNA polymerase Rev1. One of the non-classical DNA polymerases within the mutasome then catalyzes replication through the damage. Each non-classical DNA polymerase has one or more cognate lesions, which the enzyme bypasses with high accuracy and efficiency. Thus, the accuracy and efficiency of translesion synthesis ...


Characterization Of A Variant Of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 2 And Its Interaction With Rheb, Sowmya Sivakumar Aug 2018

Characterization Of A Variant Of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 2 And Its Interaction With Rheb, Sowmya Sivakumar

Theses and Dissertations

Protein-protein interactions are vital in maintaining proper function and homeostasis in cells. Some signaling pathways are regulated by G-proteins that work like switches to activate and deactivate pathways. Mutations in these proteins, their effectors or the interaction between proteins may cause dysregulation of signals that can lead to many diseases.

Rheb, Ras homology enriched in brain, is a Ras family GTPase that is vital in regulation of the mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway that signals cell proliferation and growth. Due to the low intrinsic GTPase activity of Rheb, a GTPase activating protein (GAP), Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 2 (TSC2) down ...


Studies In Molecular Recognition: Non-Proteogenic Amino Acids For Antibiotic Studies And Chemosensors For Recognition And Reporting Of Metal-Ions, Sarah Anne Oehm Aug 2018

Studies In Molecular Recognition: Non-Proteogenic Amino Acids For Antibiotic Studies And Chemosensors For Recognition And Reporting Of Metal-Ions, Sarah Anne Oehm

Theses and Dissertations

The field of molecular recognition focuses on the selective and reversible binding of small guest molecules to larger host molecules. This dissertation describes synthesis of small molecules as binding guests for enzymatic substrates as well as molecules as host chemosensors to detect and identify metal ions. Two approaches to new antibiotic drugs have been explored, and an array of sensors for the quantitation of aqueous metals is being commercialized.

As strains of deadly bacteria emerge with evolved resistance to known antibiotics, new drugs are needed with novel mechanisms of action. Natural product antibiotics containing enduracididine, a non-canonical amino acid derived ...


Use Of Osmotic Coefficient Measurements To Validate And To Correct The Interaction Thermodynamics Of Amino Acids In Molecular Dynamics Simulations, Mark Stephen Miller Aug 2018

Use Of Osmotic Coefficient Measurements To Validate And To Correct The Interaction Thermodynamics Of Amino Acids In Molecular Dynamics Simulations, Mark Stephen Miller

Theses and Dissertations

Molecular dynamics simulations are an increasingly valuable tool to biochemical researchers: advances in computational power have expanded the range of biomolecules that can be simulated, and parameters describing these interactions are increasingly accurate. Despite substantial progress in force field parameterization, recent simulations of protein molecules using state-of-the-art, fixed-charge force fields revealed that the interactions among and within protein molecules can be too favorable, resulting in unrealistic aggregation or structural collapse of the proteins being simulated. To understand why these protein-protein interactions are so over-stabilized, I first assessed the ability of simulation force fields to represent accurately the interactions of individual ...


Rapid And Sensitive Detection Of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 Using A Qcm Sensor Based On Aptamers Selected By Whole-Bacterium Selex And A Multivalent Aptamer System, Xiaofan Yu May 2018

Rapid And Sensitive Detection Of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 Using A Qcm Sensor Based On Aptamers Selected By Whole-Bacterium Selex And A Multivalent Aptamer System, Xiaofan Yu

Theses and Dissertations

Escherichia coli O157:H7 is one of the top five pathogens contributing to foodborne diseases, causing an estimated 2,138 cases of hospitalization in the US each year. The extremely low infectious dose demands for more rapid and sensitive methods to detect E. coli O157:H7. The objective of this study is to select aptamers specifically binding to E. coli O157:H7 using whole-bacterium SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment) and to create a multivalent aptamer system by rolling circle amplification (RCA) with the selected aptamer sequence for sensitive detection of E. coli O157:H7 using a quartz ...


Microbiome Of Commercial Broilers Through Evisceration And Immersion Chilling, John A. Handley May 2018

Microbiome Of Commercial Broilers Through Evisceration And Immersion Chilling, John A. Handley

Theses and Dissertations

The United States poultry industry generated 38.6 billion pounds (17,500 metric ton) of meat in 2014 which averaged to 121 pounds (55 kg) per individual of the U.S that same year. Of that meat generated by the poultry industry, an estimated 1 million cases of Salmonellosis will occur. Out of the 1 million cases approximately 40, 000 to 50,000 will be confirmed cases by the CDC. Recently, the USDA has requested changes in the inspection process and are currently allowing processors more freedom to utilize innovation to drive the increase in safer and more desirable foods ...


State Dependent Function And Dynamics In Cerebral Cortical Networks, Leila Fakhraei May 2018

State Dependent Function And Dynamics In Cerebral Cortical Networks, Leila Fakhraei

Theses and Dissertations

Cerebral cortex exhibits vigorous ongoing, internal neural activity even with no sensory input is present or the animal is minimally engaged in a task or behavior. This internal ongoing activity is not static; the ‘cortical state’ varies ranging from synchronous and highly correlated activity to asynchronous and weakly correlated neural activity. The main goal of the work presented here is to understand how changes in cortical states effect several aspects of cortical function and dynamics.

To meet this goal, we did three separate projects. First, we compared the predictability of neuronal network dynamics across cortical states in somatosensory cortex of ...


Unravelling The Layers Of Cell Wall Synthesis And Function In Rice, Ritu Mihani May 2018

Unravelling The Layers Of Cell Wall Synthesis And Function In Rice, Ritu Mihani

Theses and Dissertations

The plant cell wall is of critical importance to plant growth and survival, functioning in maintaining structural integrity, supporting cell expansion, and acting as the first line of defense in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. The major components of the cell wall are cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, and pectin. Recent focus on the transcriptional machinery regulating cell wall biosynthesis in plants has revealed many key transcription factors responsible for orchestrating cell wall deposition. However, many of these TFs act redundantly and work coherently with a suite of TFs to activate the cell wall biosynthetic machinery. Heterologous expression of TFs is ...


The Heart Of The Madder: An Important Prehistoric Pigment And Its Botanical And Cultural Roots, Michelle Laberge May 2018

The Heart Of The Madder: An Important Prehistoric Pigment And Its Botanical And Cultural Roots, Michelle Laberge

Theses and Dissertations

In recent years, an interest in natural botanical dye sources has prompted new research into the cultivation and processing of prehistoric dye plants. Advances in chemical analyses of ancient European textiles have provided more information about dye plants such as woad (Isatis tinctoria) weld (Reseda luteola) and madder (Rubia tinctorum), which were important sources of color in early textile production. Evidence of madder dye has been reported in the archaeological record of the European Bronze and Iron Ages in textiles preserved in the Hallstatt salt mines, Scandinavian bog sites and other elite European burials but the picture of madder usage ...


Involvement Of The Ino80 Complex In Chromosome Segregation, Jesus Moreno May 2018

Involvement Of The Ino80 Complex In Chromosome Segregation, Jesus Moreno

Theses and Dissertations

Chromatin remodeling complexes are multi-protein complexes that regulate the dynamics of the nucleosomes in the genome. The INO80 chromatin remodeling complex participates in varied biological processes such as: transcription, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosome integrity. It catalyzes the eviction of the H2A.Z variant histone as well as whole nucleosome eviction. This complex is comprised of 15 subunits and the contribution of each to chromosome segregations remains unknown. To evaluate the contribution of each subunit to chromosome segregation, we tested deletion mutants of the non-essential subunits for DNA content and benomyl sensitivity. Also, we assessed members of the SWR1 ...


Interactions Of Viral And Cellular Helicases, Megan Josephine Corby May 2018

Interactions Of Viral And Cellular Helicases, Megan Josephine Corby

Theses and Dissertations

The innate immune system is a part of the first line of defense against virus infection. An important subset of the innate immune system consists of a group of intracellular pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) which recognize conserved features of bacteria and viruses and initiate an interferon response. The RIG-I like receptors (RLRs) are PRRs that bind to RNA viruses (such as hepatitis c virus) and signal through the adaptor mitochondrial anti-viral signaling protein (MAVS).

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a small enveloped RNA virus that belongs to the flaviviridae family of viruses. HCV infects hepatocytes and can cause a persistent ...


New Direct Acting Anti-Virals Inhibiting Hepatitis C Virus Helicase And Insights Into How Atp Fuels Helicase Action, Mark Yerukhimovich May 2018

New Direct Acting Anti-Virals Inhibiting Hepatitis C Virus Helicase And Insights Into How Atp Fuels Helicase Action, Mark Yerukhimovich

Theses and Dissertations

According to the World Health Organization, Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) has infected 130-150 million people worldwide. Approximately 700,000 of those die each year from chronic HCV related causes such as cirrhosis or cancer. Currently, there are numerous HCV drugs on the market; they target the protease, polymerase and NS5A proteins encoded by of HCV. These drugs are expensive and HCV can become resistant, thus there is constant need for new DAAs. The first part of this thesis examines the search for additional drugs that function by inhibiting the NS3 helicase, which have been challenging to develop.

Part of the ...


Mitochondrial Mrna Translation Is Required For Maintenance Of Oxidative Capacity, David Lee May 2018

Mitochondrial Mrna Translation Is Required For Maintenance Of Oxidative Capacity, David Lee

Theses and Dissertations

Oxidative metabolism is required to produce adequate energy to sustain human life. A primary example of deteriorating oxidative capacity is seen in the cardiac musculature during chronic heart failure. This suggests that by improving oxidative potential, chronic heart disease could be mitigated and one approach to accomplish this may be through targeting the mt-mRNA translation system. Purpose: This investigation’s purpose was to characterize disruptions in mt-mRNA translation machinery in multiple forms of cardiomyopathy and to determine if mitochondrial mRNA translation initiation factor (mtIF2) is necessary to maintain oxidative capacity in cardiomyocytes. Methods Using a combination of animal and cell ...


Engineering The Structure Of The Human Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor To Enhance Its Stability And Cell Proliferation Activity, Julie Davis Eberle May 2018

Engineering The Structure Of The Human Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor To Enhance Its Stability And Cell Proliferation Activity, Julie Davis Eberle

Theses and Dissertations

Human acidic fibroblast growth factor (hFGF1) is a protein well known for its role in cell growth and differentiation. To elicit these cell-signaling processes, hFGF1 non-selectively binds to any one of the seven cell surface hFGF receptor isoforms. Due to its significant involvement in tissue repair activity, hFGF1 is a prime candidate for novel wound healing therapeutics. However, one drawback toward its use as a novel wound healing therapeutic is the poor inherent thermal stability of hFGF1, as it has been found to unfold near physiological temperature. The cause of this instability is strong electrostatic repulsion created by a dense ...


Biochemical Techniques For The Study Of Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Auxiliary Subunits, Steven Molinarolo May 2018

Biochemical Techniques For The Study Of Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Auxiliary Subunits, Steven Molinarolo

Theses and Dissertations

Voltage-gated sodium channels auxiliary subunits evolutionary emerged nearly 500 million years ago during the Cambrian explosion. These subunits alter one the most important ion channels to electrical signaling, the voltage-gated sodium channels support the propagation of electric impulses in animals. The mechanism for the auxiliary subunits effects on the channels is poorly understand, as is the stoichiometry between the auxiliary subunit and the channel. The focus of my thesis is to generate assays and to use these approaches to understand the interactions different types of voltage-gated channels and their auxiliary subunits. A biochemical approach was taken to identify novel interactions ...


Progress Towards Molecular Simulations Of Plasmid Segregation System In E. Coli, Venkata R. Sanaboyana May 2018

Progress Towards Molecular Simulations Of Plasmid Segregation System In E. Coli, Venkata R. Sanaboyana

Theses and Dissertations

The bacterium Escherichia coli uses DNA-segregating machinery known as the ParMRC system to ensure the stable inheritance of low copy-number plasmids by daughter cells during cell division. In this system, ParM, an actin-like protein, forms a filamentous spindle between ParR/parC complexes that are assembled on sister plasmids; segregation of the plasmids is achieved by growth of the ParM filaments and the resulting push of plasmids to opposite cell poles. Studies combining in vitro biochemical assays live cell fluorescence microscopy and cryo-electron microscopy has led to deep mechanistic insights into the action of the ParMRC system. It is thought that ...


The Role Of Redox-Active Iron Metabolism In The Selective Toxicity Of Pharmacological Ascorbate In Cancer Therapy, Joshua David Schoenfeld May 2018

The Role Of Redox-Active Iron Metabolism In The Selective Toxicity Of Pharmacological Ascorbate In Cancer Therapy, Joshua David Schoenfeld

Theses and Dissertations

Pharmacological ascorbate, intravenous administration of high-dose vitamin C aimed at peak plasma concentrations ~ 20 mM, has recently re-emerged, after a controversial history, as a potential anti-cancer agent in combination with standard-of-care radiation and chemotherapy-based regimens. The anti-cancer effects of ascorbate are hypothesized to involve the auto-oxidation or metal-catalyzed oxidation of ascorbate to generate H2O2, and preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies in a variety of disease sites demonstrate the efficacy of adjuvant ascorbate. Furthermore, phase I clinical trials in pancreatic and ovarian cancer have demonstrated safety and tolerability in combination with chemotherapy and preliminary results suggest therapeutic efficacy. Both ...