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Articles 1 - 15 of 15

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Ocean Climate Impacts On The Primary And Secondary Metabolites Of A Muricid Mollusc, Roselyn Valles-Regino Jan 2018

Ocean Climate Impacts On The Primary And Secondary Metabolites Of A Muricid Mollusc, Roselyn Valles-Regino

Theses

This study examined the consequences of ocean climate change on the production of bioactive molecules and the lipid composition of Dicathais orbita. Exposure to elevated temperature and CO2 levels resulted in lower concentrations of the muscle relaxing choline ester murexine and the brominated indole tyrindoxyl sulphate, but higher amounts of 6-bromoisatin. The total yield of extract was not affected by elevated temperature or pCO2 treatments, but the composition of fatty acids was impacted, with a reduction in healthy polyunsaturated fatty acids under these conditions. This has potentially important implications for the production of marine secondary metabolites and ...


Discovery Of Bioactive Natural Products From Sugarcane, Rory Patrick Taylor Jan 2018

Discovery Of Bioactive Natural Products From Sugarcane, Rory Patrick Taylor

Theses

This research was undertaken to discover new potential products (with a focus on flavonoids) from sugarcane and sugar production by-products that have pharmaceutical, nutraceutical or functional food applications. Specifically, cytotoxic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory/immune modulation and glycaemic index (GI) activities were surveyed. The results suggest that there are potentially novel anti-inflammatory and α-amylase inhibiting compound(s) present. These extracts or compounds may have use in the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2 or inflammation-related diseases such as arthritis, multiple sclerosis and atherosclerosis. Further research such as compound identification and in vivo testing is warranted.


Analysis Of Rice Grain Protein Composition In The Context Of Rice Grain Quality, Jeanette D. Lescano-Balindong Jan 2018

Analysis Of Rice Grain Protein Composition In The Context Of Rice Grain Quality, Jeanette D. Lescano-Balindong

Theses

Protein (composed of prolamin, glutelin, globulin and albumin) is the second most abundant component in the milled rice grain. It has very diverse properties that may contribute to rice grain quality. Rice grain protein extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography methods were developed and applied into different sets of short, medium and long grain advanced breeding lines. Rice prolamin and albumin were extracted with 60% n-propanol, while the glutelin and globulin were extracted with 5M acetic acid. Analyses of protein extracts revealed differences in rice grain storage protein composition which were associated with rice grain texture and head rice yield.


2-D Electrophoresis Modeling Of Multienzyme Cutting Of Polypeptides, Howard Mayes Oct 2017

2-D Electrophoresis Modeling Of Multienzyme Cutting Of Polypeptides, Howard Mayes

Theses

2-Dimensional Electrophoresis is one of the tools in the identification of proteins by molecular weight and pH. The display of molecular weight allows the researcher to quickly identify whether a specific protein or peptide string is in the sample. The pH measurement allows even better resolution between different species in the sample. The MultiEnzyme ElectroPhoresis (MEEP) program tries to model that by providing a graph that displays separated protein strings by both molecular weight and pH. The ability to cleave the protein with 43 different enzyme variations allows the researcher to analyze appropriate enzymes to isolate a protein subsequence before ...


Rational Drug Design Directed At Blocking The Initial Signaling Events In Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Sepsis., Christopher A. Tipton Jul 2017

Rational Drug Design Directed At Blocking The Initial Signaling Events In Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Sepsis., Christopher A. Tipton

Theses

Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) is classified as an immune system response to an infectious state. If left untreated, SIRS leads to sepsis, septic shock, end-organ dysfunction, and death. As a patient progresses through these stages, associations of acute respiratory distress, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and acute renal failure persist, resulting in millions of deaths annually. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial endotoxin, is released into the blood stream, triggering SIRS. LPS is found in the outer cell-wall of Gram-negative bacteria and is responsible for initiation of a devastating cytokine storm. One of the regions of LPS, lipid A, is a polyacylated glucosamine ...


In Vitro And In Vivo Anti-Inflammatory Activity Of Extracts From A Marine Mollusc, Tarek Belkasm Ahmad Jan 2017

In Vitro And In Vivo Anti-Inflammatory Activity Of Extracts From A Marine Mollusc, Tarek Belkasm Ahmad

Theses

New drug leads for the treatment of inflammation are urgently needed. The main aim of this thesis was to assess the anti-inflammatory activity of the marine mollusc Dicathais orbita. Lipid extracts from the whole body and bromine indoles from the hypobranchial glands showed promising in vitro activity, inhibiting the production of nitric oxide, tumour necrosis factor and prostaglandin 2. The hypobranchial gland extract and 6-bromoisatin blocked the translocation of nuclear factor beta kappa into the nucleus of LPS-stimulated macrophages and prevented the development of acute lung inflammation in mice. Overall, this study identifies the marine whelk D. orbia as a ...


Behavioural And Biochemical Responses To Dietary Mercury Exposure In Two Commercially Important Marine Species, Cyntia Ayumi Yokota Harayashiki Jan 2017

Behavioural And Biochemical Responses To Dietary Mercury Exposure In Two Commercially Important Marine Species, Cyntia Ayumi Yokota Harayashiki

Theses

Mercury is a toxic metal with a global distribution. Studies on waterborne exposure to inorganic mercury in aquatic organisms showed changes in biochemical markers and behaviour. Few studies have focused on the effects of inorganic mercury ingestion. This thesis investigated dietary exposure of mercuric chloride to post-larvae and juveniles of Penaeus monodon and juvenile Acanthopagrus australis and showed that biochemical marker response depends on the organism, age (post-larvae or juvenile), tissue analysed (e.g. muscle and neurologic tissue) and exposure period (up to 16 days). Additionally, swimming behaviour was a sensitive parameter for post-larvae prawn studies, but not for juvenile ...


Biochemical Composition Of Turbinid Snails And Its Sensitivity To Ocean Climate Change, Roslizawati Ab Lah Jan 2017

Biochemical Composition Of Turbinid Snails And Its Sensitivity To Ocean Climate Change, Roslizawati Ab Lah

Theses

Information on the biochemical composition of under-utilised species, such as turban snails, is required to establish their nutritional quality, and improve consumer acceptance as a novel food source. Turbo militaris, Lunella undulata and L. torquata are large common gastropod species with overlapping distributions in eastern Australia. The edible foot tissue from these three species was analysed for comparison of their proximate composition, fatty acids and mineral elements. All species were found to have a high protein content and low lipid levels that are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), with a favourable ratio of omega–3/omega–6 PUFAs for ...


The Biological Function Of Hammerhead Rana Ribozyme In Human Genome, Ibtehal M. A. Awad Nov 2016

The Biological Function Of Hammerhead Rana Ribozyme In Human Genome, Ibtehal M. A. Awad

Theses

Hammerhead RNA [HHR] sequence originally found in viroids is also detected in many species. HHR are often found in introns of different genes ranging from prokaryotes to

eukaryotes. HHR can form specific tertiary structure that make specific region susceptible to cleavage. However, the role of the HHR is not clear in other life forms. This study aims to

Investigate the role of HHR in the intron 6 of (RECK) gene. Our study shows that when blocking the HHR sequence in the intron6, the production of RECK protein declines which may be due to the effect of HHR in splicing and ...


Effects Of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes On Gene And Protein Expression In Sinoatrial Node Of Rat Heart, Zannatul Ferdous May 2016

Effects Of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes On Gene And Protein Expression In Sinoatrial Node Of Rat Heart, Zannatul Ferdous

Theses

Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrine disorders and its global prevalence is increasing at an alarming rate. Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of morbidity and mortality among diabetic patients. In addition to defects in contraction, the diabetic heart also frequently suffers from disturbances to the electrical conduction system. This study investigates the effects of diabetes on the sinoatrial node (SAN) of the rat heart. Previous in vivo and in vitro experiments have demonstrated reduced heart rate, longer SAN action potential duration, prolonged pacemaker cycle length and Sino-atrial conduction time in streptozotocin (STZ) - induced diabetic rat heart ...


Evaluation Of Reproductive Strategies In Captive California Yellowtail (Seriola Dorsalis) Using Genetic Parentage Analyses, Elizabeth K. Smith, Mark Drawbridge Ms, John Hyde Phd, Geoffrey Morse Phd Sep 2015

Evaluation Of Reproductive Strategies In Captive California Yellowtail (Seriola Dorsalis) Using Genetic Parentage Analyses, Elizabeth K. Smith, Mark Drawbridge Ms, John Hyde Phd, Geoffrey Morse Phd

Theses

A good understanding of spawning dynamics of species in aquaculture is vital in order to maximize egg production and quality as well as efficient allocation of food and space resources. The breeding program of California yellowtail (CYT; Seriola dorsalis previously Seriola lalandi) at Hubbs-SeaWorld Research Institute (HSWRI) is set up such that up to 30 wild caught brood fish can broadcast spawn in a group setting, just as CYT reproduce in the wild. The population of brood fish were originally caught offshore from Southern California, and are maintained under ambient sea water and natural lighting conditions. The spawning season at ...


Biological And Physiological Condition Of Juvenile California Halibut (Paralichthys Californicus) Exposed To A Contamination Gradient In Mission Bay, Ca, Kevin Stolzenbach Dec 2014

Biological And Physiological Condition Of Juvenile California Halibut (Paralichthys Californicus) Exposed To A Contamination Gradient In Mission Bay, Ca, Kevin Stolzenbach

Theses

Contaminated sediments in marine environments have been shown to be good indicators of ecological risk and a means to assess anthropogenic impacts on marine habitats and the animals that inhabit them (Long et al. 1995, Rattner 2009). Estuarine sediments are especially complex media with regard to physical, chemical, and biological characteristics that trap, store, modify and sometimes release contaminants to the biota (Long et al. 1995). Especially vulnerable are animals that are in constant contact with the sediments, such as flatfishes that partially bury themselves for camouflage (Costa et al. 2011). Impacts can be assessed in a number of ways ...


Initial Characterization Of A Conserved Active Site Residue For The Cdc34 Ubiquitin Conjugating Enzyme, Arvin Akoopie May 2014

Initial Characterization Of A Conserved Active Site Residue For The Cdc34 Ubiquitin Conjugating Enzyme, Arvin Akoopie

Theses

Ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s) covalently modify protein substrates with ubiquitins. The active site cysteine residues on E2s are essential for catalyzing the transfer of ubiquitin from the E2 active site onto the protein substrate, however there is a limited amount of information available concerning additional active site residues for E2s that may also participate in catalysis. Cdc34 is an essential E2 that has merited the lion’s share of attention for biochemical analysis of the E2 family. Previous phylogenetic analysis of Cdc34 amino acid sequences has identified an invariably conserved histidine residue close to the active site cysteine in the primary ...


Identification Of Novel Natural Compounds With Anti-Breast Cancer Activities, Yusra Saif Al Dhaheri. May 2014

Identification Of Novel Natural Compounds With Anti-Breast Cancer Activities, Yusra Saif Al Dhaheri.

Theses

Breast cancer continues to be the leading cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide. In this dissertation, natural compounds with anti-breast cancer activities were identified. We investigated the effect of Salinomycin, a potassium ionophore isolated from Streptomyces albus, on the survival of three human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7, T47D and MDA-MB-231. High concentrations of Salinomycin induced a G2 arrest, down regulation of surviving and triggered apoptosis. Interestingly, treatments with low concentration of Salinomycin induced a transient G1 arrest at an earlier time and G2 arrest and senescence, associated with enlarged cell morphology, at a later time. There was also ...


Study Of BauxsolTm Pellets' Efficiency In Wastewater Treatment And Their Biocompatibility With Microbial Communities, Laure Marlène Despland Jan 2013

Study Of BauxsolTm Pellets' Efficiency In Wastewater Treatment And Their Biocompatibility With Microbial Communities, Laure Marlène Despland

Theses

This doctoral thesis developed and investigated BauxsolTMpellets for the bio-geochemical treatment of municipal wastewater. Field experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of BauxsolTM pellets to bind phosphate (~95% removal over 6 months) and trace-metals from wastewater. Moreover, genetic analysis confirmed the biocompatibility of BauxsolTM pellets in wastewater treatment. These results showed distinct, well-adapted, and highly diverse microbial communities attached to BauxsolTM pellet. Many of the bacterial communities investigated were involved in the nitrogen cycle, which is ~50% bio-geochemically removed. In conclusion, BauxsolTM pellets provided an improved treatment to municipal wastewater by promoting biological processes while eliminating ...