Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 19 of 19

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Characterization And Interactions Of Tbx2 , Christian Nephi Paxton Jan 2006

Characterization And Interactions Of Tbx2 , Christian Nephi Paxton

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

T-box (Tbx) proteins are dynamically expressed throughout embryogenesis and appear to have significant roles in a number of developmental processes. The T-box family is characterized by a highly conserved DNA binding domain. Over twenty mammalian T-box proteins have been identified, many of which have the demonstrated ability to regulate transcription. Both activators and repressors of gene transcription have been described within this family, but how their functions are performed is largely unknown;Tbx2 is a powerful transcriptional repressor with functional roles identified in cardiogenesis and limb development. However the functional domain(s) of Tbx2 are poorly characterized. Tbx2 contains a ...


Identification Of A Role For Janus Kinase2 (Jak2) In Skeletal Muscle Mitogenesis, Myogenesis, And Hypertrophy , Symantha Ann Anderson Jan 2005

Identification Of A Role For Janus Kinase2 (Jak2) In Skeletal Muscle Mitogenesis, Myogenesis, And Hypertrophy , Symantha Ann Anderson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Skeletal muscle is a dynamic tissue with tight developmental control and the ability to significantly remodel in the postnatal animal. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle development and postnatal growth is critical to potential therapeutic manipulation. Janus kinase2 (JAK2) is a tyrosine kinase critical for growth of numerous cell types and is causative in many cancers, including leukemia. In this study we sought to understand the role of the JAK/STAT signaling cascade in skeletal muscle. In particular, this research focused on the role of JAK2 in skeletal muscle mitogenesis, myogenesis, and hypertrophy. Little work has been done regarding ...


Analysis Of Hoxa5 Expression And Function In Development Of The Central Nervous System , Milan Joksimovic Jan 2005

Analysis Of Hoxa5 Expression And Function In Development Of The Central Nervous System , Milan Joksimovic

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The Hox genes encode transcription factors that are indispensable for proper spatio-temporal patterning of the vertebrate body axes. In mouse, Hoxa5 transcripts are differentially expressed in specific mesoderm-derived structures and in the most anterior domain of expression in the central nervous system (CNS). However, the functional significance of any pattern of protein-coding RNAs must be verified by correlating the presence of the protein(s) and RNAs. Here we describe the dynamic pattern of HOXA5 protein during mouse embryogenesis. The HOXA5 protein is detected as early as embryonic day (E) 9.0, and is found, as development proceeds, in several mesoderm-derived ...


A Candidate Gene Analysis For Response To Salmonella Enteritidis Challenge Or Vaccination In Young Chicks , Wei Liu Jan 2002

A Candidate Gene Analysis For Response To Salmonella Enteritidis Challenge Or Vaccination In Young Chicks , Wei Liu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Salmonella enteritidis (SE) contamination of poultry products is a major cause of food-borne disease worldwide. The candidate gene approach for identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for chicken response to Salmonella enteritidis (SE) was applied in the current study. The Iowa Salmonella Response Resource Population (ISRRP), formed by crossing outbred broiler sires with three diverse, highly inbred dam lines (two major histocompatibility complex-congenic Leghorn lines G-B1 and G-B2 and one Fayoumi line) was studied. The F1 generation was evaluated as young chicks for either bacterial load in spleen and cecum after pathogenic SE inoculation, or antibody level after SE vaccination ...


Functional Analysis Of Hoxa5: Analysis Of Structural, Behavioral, And Molecular Effects Of Hoxa5 Overexpression In Transgenic Line Hoxa5sv2 , Karin Elizabeth Krieger Jan 2001

Functional Analysis Of Hoxa5: Analysis Of Structural, Behavioral, And Molecular Effects Of Hoxa5 Overexpression In Transgenic Line Hoxa5sv2 , Karin Elizabeth Krieger

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research was to provide new information on the role of a murine homeobox gene, Hoxa5, in the development of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Although Hoxa5 is expressed in the brachial spinal cord and enteric neuroblasts during development, no neural phenotype has yet been observed in the Hoxa5 knockout mutant. In the work reported here, functional HOXA5 protein was overexpressed in the developing nervous system in transgenic mice in order to gain insight into the mechanisms by which this gene exerts its effects during development. Evaluation of the phenotypes of F0 transgenics and transgenic animals ...


Genetic Mobility And Instability Of Retroviral Vector In Vector Producer Cells For Gene Therapy, Won-Bin Young Jan 1999

Genetic Mobility And Instability Of Retroviral Vector In Vector Producer Cells For Gene Therapy, Won-Bin Young

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A primary biosafety issue of retroviral vector-mediated gene therapy is the genetic instability of retroviral vectors. Reverse transcription of vector RNA genome is initiated by viral reverse transcriptase (RT) in a virion particle after infection of a target cell. During reverse transcription, abnormal template switches between vector and occasionally co-packaged helper virus in a virion particle can therefore enable helper virus to regain replication elements from the vector and revert to replication-competent retrovirus (RCR). This research was undertaken to study the origins of RT enzyme activities and test the hypothesis that RT enzyme activities are contributed by both exogenous RT ...


The Role Of Pit1 In The Putative Quantitative Trait Loci Region On Pig Chromosome 13 , Tun-Ping Yu Jan 1998

The Role Of Pit1 In The Putative Quantitative Trait Loci Region On Pig Chromosome 13 , Tun-Ping Yu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

PIT1 is an essential regulatory gene of growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL) and thyrotropin beta subunit. Previously, PIT1 polymorphisms and the chromosomal region near PIT1 in multiple pig populations is significantly associated with fatness and growth quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on pig chromosome 13. The purpose of this study is to confirm these previous results and clarify the role of the PIT1 gene in the putative QTL region;Cloning of the full length PIT1 cDNA was completed. The pig PIT1 cDNA and its deduced amino acids have approximately 90% and 95% sequence similarity respectively with the PIT1 cDNA and amino ...


Identification And Characterization Of Proteins Binding To Regulatory Elements Of The Hoxa-5 Spatial-Specific Enhancer , Tamara Mann Nowling Jan 1997

Identification And Characterization Of Proteins Binding To Regulatory Elements Of The Hoxa-5 Spatial-Specific Enhancer , Tamara Mann Nowling

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The Hox homeobox genes cooperate in providing positional information needed for spatial and temporal patterning of the vertebrate body axis. However, the biological mechanisms behind spatial Hox expression are largely unknown. In transgenic mice, gene fusions between Hoxa-5 (previously called Hox-1.3) 5' flanking regions and lacZ show tissue- and time-specific expression in the brachial spinal cord in day 11-13 embryos. This spatially-specific expression is directed by a 604 bp regulatory region with enhancer properties. Fine-detail mapping of this enhancer has identified several elements involved in region-specific expression. A brachial spinal cord (BSC) element, is required for expression in the ...


Purification, Characterization And Molecular Cloning Of Muscle Paranemin , Philip Mark Hemken Jan 1996

Purification, Characterization And Molecular Cloning Of Muscle Paranemin , Philip Mark Hemken

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Paranemin is an incompletely characterized ~280 kilodalton protein previously identified and immunolocalized in embryonic chick skeletal muscle. Paranemin has been purified from the same tissue source, has the same molecular weight by SDS-PAGE, and has the same antibody localization at the Z-lines of adult avian cardiac muscle. The method developed for preparation of purified paranemin from embryonic (chick) skeletal muscle includes homogenization, centrifugation and gel filtration, hydroxyapatite, and DEAE-cellulose chromatography. By using this method, ~2 mg of purified paranemin was routinely obtained. Amino acid analysis revealed that paranemin has a high acidic to basic amino acid ratio, which agrees with ...


The Relationship Between The Calpain Enzyme System And The Postmortem Degradation Of Selected Myofibrillar Proteins , Elisabeth Jane Huff Lonergan Jan 1995

The Relationship Between The Calpain Enzyme System And The Postmortem Degradation Of Selected Myofibrillar Proteins , Elisabeth Jane Huff Lonergan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The protease [mu]-calpain degrades the myofibrillar proteins titin, nebulin, filamin, desmin and troponin-T. Titin and nebulin have been reported to be affected by sample preparation. This study showed that there was little difference in the rate of degradation of the intact forms due to sample preparation (whole muscle preparations vs. purified myofibrils). The postmortem degradation of titin, nebulin, filamin, desmin, and troponin-T was monitored using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting techniques at 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 56 days postmortem. Postmortem aged samples with lower shear force values exhibited faster degradation of the five myofibrillar proteins. Similar degradation ...


Sequence Variation Characteristics Of D-Loop, Rrna, Trna, And Polypeptide Coding Region Of Bovine Mitochondrial Dna , Jianming Wu Jan 1995

Sequence Variation Characteristics Of D-Loop, Rrna, Trna, And Polypeptide Coding Region Of Bovine Mitochondrial Dna , Jianming Wu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

By cloning and sequencing the mtDNA of cows from different maternal lineages, it was found that multiple heteroplasmic mtDNA states within the D-loop and rRNA genes of mtDNA existed extensively in Holstein cattle. Meanwhile, the nature and transmission of mtDNA were investigated. The mtDNA population in a specific animal was found to be a mixture of different genotypes. Because heteroplasmy was observed frequently and seemingly is persistent, selected amplification of specific mtDNA molecules may not be a part of mtDNA inheritance. At same time, four hypervariable sites were located at nt 169, 216, and 1594 between nt 352 to 364 ...


Characterization And Application Of A Novel Cholesterol-Reducing Anaerobe, Eubacterium Coprostanoligenes Atcc 51222 , Ling Li Jan 1995

Characterization And Application Of A Novel Cholesterol-Reducing Anaerobe, Eubacterium Coprostanoligenes Atcc 51222 , Ling Li

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A novel cholesterol-reducing bacterium, Eubacterium coprostanoligenes ATCC 51222, was characterized and tested for its hypocholesterolemic effects in animal models. The bacterium did not require cholesterol for growth and synthesized cholesterol reductase constitutively. Lecithin was required for growth but excess lecithin in media did not improve bacterial growth and coprostanol production. Addition of pyruvate, lactose, and most reducing agents in media increased bacterial growth and coprostanol production. The bacterium was sensitive to most antibiotics but had strong resistance to tetracycline. A resting cell assay was established to evaluate the cholesterol reductase activity. E. coprostanoligenes reduced cholesterol through an indirect pathway. Intermediates ...


Tissue-Specific Regulation Of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D Action In The Target Tissues Of Rats , Matthew John Beckman Jan 1993

Tissue-Specific Regulation Of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D Action In The Target Tissues Of Rats , Matthew John Beckman

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Tissue response to 1,25(OH)[subscript]2D[subscript]3 action was evaluated by examining vitamin D-dependent VDR, 24-OHase, and CaBP mRNA expressions, 24-OHase activities, and VDR concentrations in kidney and intestine. Of 4 groups of rats, 2 groups were fed an adequate vitamin D (300-600 IU/wk), 1.0-1.2% calcium (Ca) diet, designated NC, and 2 groups were fed an adequate vitamin D, 0.02% Ca diet, designated LC. One group from each diet was treated with excess vitamin D[subscript]3 (75,000 IU/wk). These groups were designated NCT and LCT, respectively;Plasma 1,25(OH ...


Age, Gender And Diet Effects On Gene Expression Regulated By 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 , Julie Ann Johnson Jan 1993

Age, Gender And Diet Effects On Gene Expression Regulated By 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 , Julie Ann Johnson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Age-related changes often occur in factors involved in regulation of bone mineral metabolism, including 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D[subscript]3 (1,25(OH)[subscript]2D[subscript]3) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) in plasma, 1,25(OH)[subscript]2D[subscript]3 receptors (VDR) and vitamin D[subscript]3-dependent calcium (Ca) binding proteins (CaBP-28K and CaBP-9K) in target tissues, and the 1[alpha],25-dihydroxyvitamin D-24-hydroxylase (24-hydroxylase);Response to exogenous 1,25(OH)[subscript]2D[subscript]3 was studied in 2.5- and 18-mo-old male and female rats. Additionally, response to dietary Ca deficiency was examined in one- and 18-mo-old male rats;Plasma 1 ...


Identification Of Intermediate Filaments And Their Proteins In Mature Mammalian Striated Muscle , Masako Maria Bilak Jan 1991

Identification Of Intermediate Filaments And Their Proteins In Mature Mammalian Striated Muscle , Masako Maria Bilak

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The major purposes of this study were to: (1) clearly identify intermediate filaments (IFs) and elucidate their structural arrangement at the myofibrillar Z-lines in non-diseased, mature mammalian striated muscle cells, and (2) determine the localization of constituent proteins of the IFs by immunogold localization. IFs running transversely to the long axis of the cell and connecting Z-lines of adjacent myofibrils were identified by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of plastic-embedded porcine semitendinosus muscle, especially in areas of cells where myofibrils were less tightly packed. When the plane of section included the periphery of myofibrils at their Z-lines, examination indicated ...


Effect Of 1,10-Phenanthroline On Dna Binding Of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D Receptors And Characterization And Regulation Of Retinoic Acid Receptors In Rat Osteosarcoma Cells , Kevin Brady Atkins Jan 1991

Effect Of 1,10-Phenanthroline On Dna Binding Of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D Receptors And Characterization And Regulation Of Retinoic Acid Receptors In Rat Osteosarcoma Cells , Kevin Brady Atkins

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The effect of the chelator 1,10-phenanthroline on the DNA-binding of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D receptor was demonstrated. Increasing concentrations of the chelator, up to 3 mM, decreased receptor binding to DNA-cellulose. This effect was specific for the chelating function because the nonchelating analog, 1,7-phenanthroline, did not inhibit DNA-cellulose binding of the receptor. The cations, Cd[superscript]2+ and Zn[superscript]2+, were able to block chelator-mediated inhibition. These cations were unable to reverse the inhibition unless 1,10-phenanthroline was removed by dialysis;The rat osteosarcoma 17/2.8 cells were shown to express both the cellular retinoic acid binding ...


Selected Properties Of The Cytoskeletal Protein Synemin And Its Interactions With Proteins At The Muscle Z-Line , Stephan Roman Bilak Jan 1991

Selected Properties Of The Cytoskeletal Protein Synemin And Its Interactions With Proteins At The Muscle Z-Line , Stephan Roman Bilak

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The primary purposes of this study were to: (1) examine selected properties of the intermediate filament-associated protein (IFAP), synemin, (2) identify synemin (or a synemin homolog) in adult mammalian muscle, and (3) examine synemin's ability to interact with proteins located at the myofibrillar Z-line. An integrated biochemical, immunological, and ultrastructural approach was used;Synemin (230 kD) was solubilized from an actomyosin-extracted avian smooth muscle residue and purified by chromatography on two hydroxyapatite columns and one DEAE-Sephacel column in the presence of 6 M urea. Renatured, soluble synemin was obtained by removal of the urea by dialysis against 10 mM ...


Sequence Heterogeneity Of Bovine Mitochondrial Dna , Gary Leroy Lindberg Jan 1989

Sequence Heterogeneity Of Bovine Mitochondrial Dna , Gary Leroy Lindberg

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The displacement-loop (D-loop) region of bovine mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) isolated from blood leukocytes was studied. A method was devised for the isolation of mtDNA from blood leukocytes based on detergent lysis of the plasma membrane and removal of cell nuclei by centrifugation. Nucleic acids extracted from the residual cytoplasmic fraction contained mtDNA in quantities sufficient for restriction enzyme analysis and for DNA cloning and sequencing;MtDNA was from a herd of Holstein cattle that was established 1968 from diverse genetic sources. Maternal lineages were traced by pedigree analysis to their earliest origins in the late 1800s. MtDNA was isolated from ...


Isolation And Some Properties Of Rabbit Skeletal Muscle Cell Membranes , Cedric Yoshio Matsushima Jan 1971

Isolation And Some Properties Of Rabbit Skeletal Muscle Cell Membranes , Cedric Yoshio Matsushima

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.