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Articles 1 - 16 of 16

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Translational Frameshifting By Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus Rna , Rong Di Jan 1992

Translational Frameshifting By Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus Rna , Rong Di

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Barley yellow dwarf virus is a single-stranded RNA virus, consisting of several serotypes including the PAV serotype which is the focus of this dissertation. The 39K open reading frame (ORF) at the 5[superscript]' end of the 5.7 kb (kilobase) genome overlaps with a downstream 60K ORF by 13 nucleotides. Several approaches were employed to demonstrate that the 60K ORF (putative polymerase gene) is expressed by an unusual minus one (-1) translational frameshifting mechanism. A sequence encompassing this overlap region induces frameshifting in heterologous and native contexts. The efficiency of frameshifting induced by the PAV sequence was approximately 3 ...


Cloning And Characterization Of Mink Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 1 (Pai-1) Cdna And The Regulation Of Mink Pai-1 Expression At Mrna Level , Tsung-Hsien Chuang Jan 1992

Cloning And Characterization Of Mink Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 1 (Pai-1) Cdna And The Regulation Of Mink Pai-1 Expression At Mrna Level , Tsung-Hsien Chuang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Mink plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) is a glycoprotein with molecular weight about 50 kD and is highly regulated in cultured cells. In mink lung CCL64 epithelial cells, epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor-[beta] (TGF-[beta]), and 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) increase the synthesis of PAI-1. Epidermal growth factor and TGF-[beta] synergistically stimulate the synthesis of PAI-1. The synergistic effect and factors which govern the PAI-1 expression in mink lung CCL64 cells were studied by using a mink PAI-1 cDNA as a probe to detect PAI-1 mRNA;The mink PAI-1 cDNA was cloned from a cDNA library ...


Genetic And Biochemical Characterization Of The P21[Superscript Ras]-Related Protein Rho1p In The Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae , Joni Marie Seeling Johnson Jan 1992

Genetic And Biochemical Characterization Of The P21[Superscript Ras]-Related Protein Rho1p In The Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae , Joni Marie Seeling Johnson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Rho1p is a guanine nucleotide binding protein coded for by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene RHO1, which is homologous to p21[superscript] ras and other members of the ras superfamily of small molecular weight GTP binding proteins. This protein family is highly conserved in evolution and in some instances is known to be involved in control of cell proliferation. The precise physiological functions of most p21[superscript] ras-related proteins, however, are not known. In order to gain further insight into the physiological function of rho proteins, this research addressed the genetic and biochemical characterization of Rho1p, as well as the subcellular ...


Direct Introduction Of Dna Into Embryonic Axes Of Glycine Max By Microprojectile Bombardment , Charisse Marie Buising Jan 1992

Direct Introduction Of Dna Into Embryonic Axes Of Glycine Max By Microprojectile Bombardment , Charisse Marie Buising

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Apical meristem and axillary bud development in germinating soybean embryonic axes treated for 24 hr with the cytokinin, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) seemed normal morphologically, but was delayed by about 9 to 15 hr. After 5 days, numerous, rapidly proliferating meristematic regions (de novo vegetative buds) were observed in BAP-treated axes around the perimeter of the apical dome. These visible changes were preceded by transient inhibition of DNA synthesis in the shoot apices as early as 21-36 hr post-imbibition;Some of the new meristematic regions developed into multiple shoots, which were excised, subcultured, and used to generate mature plants. In the absence ...


Parent Selection To Maximize Heterosis Expression In Soybean (Glycine Max L. [Merr.]) , Francisco Jonathan Cerna Jan 1992

Parent Selection To Maximize Heterosis Expression In Soybean (Glycine Max L. [Merr.]) , Francisco Jonathan Cerna

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Utilization of heterosis effects in breeding soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr) cultivars for commercial production is still a possibility. One objective of this research was to determine heterosis expression in soybean germplasms obtained from the crossing of parents selected on the basis of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) diversity and isozyme loci (ISO) constitution compared to parents selected for high-yielding (HY) ability and differences in geographic origin (GO). The second objective was to compare mean heterotic performance of F[subscript]1 hybrids and F[subscript]2 bulks evaluated in hill- and row-plots;Twenty-one genotypes of each of Maturity Groups (MG ...


Characterization Of The Starch-Binding Domain Of Aspergillus Glucoamylase Produced In Escherichia Coli , Ann R. Kusnadi Jan 1992

Characterization Of The Starch-Binding Domain Of Aspergillus Glucoamylase Produced In Escherichia Coli , Ann R. Kusnadi

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

We have produced intracellularly 8.8, 3.4, and 3.2 mg/l [beta]-galactosidase and two [beta]-galactosidase fusion proteins containing amino acids 498-616 (BSB119), and amino acids 537-616 (BSB80) of Aspergillus glucoamylase I, respectively. The fusion proteins suffered from extensive proteolytic degradation resulting in a mixture of full-size fusion proteins and [beta]-galactosidase. Granular starch adsorption study of these purified [beta]-galactosidase fusion proteins showed that BSB119 had the strongest interaction with granular starch;To overcome the proteolytic degradation problem associated with the [beta]-galactosidase fusion proteins, we have fused three different lengths of starch-binding fragments encoding amino ...


Novel Detection Schemes And Automated Image Analysis Algorithms For Planar Chromatography And Gel Electrophoresis , Lance Bryant Koutny Jan 1992

Novel Detection Schemes And Automated Image Analysis Algorithms For Planar Chromatography And Gel Electrophoresis , Lance Bryant Koutny

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

After a detailed introduction to Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs) and a discussion of personal computer capabilities, examples of their applications involving novel analytical techniques are presented;A new laser-based indirect fluorometric detection method for thin-layer chromatography is demonstrated with digitally controlled two-dimensional scanning and computer-aided image acquisition and vision. Utilizing this mode, universal detection is possible without derivatization, with a detection limit of 6 pg; 100 times lower than with human vision;A detection scheme for DNA in agarose slab gel electrophoresis based on ultraviolet absorption allows for convenient in situ monitoring of conventional gels via a CCD camera system ...


The Effects Of The C1 Regulatory Gene: A Biochemical And Genetic Study Of The Anthocyanin Pathway In Zea Mays , Elizabeth Ellen Oberthur Caldwell Jan 1992

The Effects Of The C1 Regulatory Gene: A Biochemical And Genetic Study Of The Anthocyanin Pathway In Zea Mays , Elizabeth Ellen Oberthur Caldwell

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The biosynthesis of anthocyanins by plants involves a complex cascade of reactions. In maize over 20 loci are known to affect the expression of the anthocyanin pathway. The easy access to mutants, their non-lethality and diversity make this pathway an ideal model for examining questions about pathway regulation, including tissue specificity and timing of expression: gene structure and function; and the nature of quantitative traits;This study examines the C1 locus regulation of anthocyanin pathway expression in developing maize endosperm (aleurone) tissue. Four different alleles of the C1 locus are used for comparison. These included: C-I(A69), a dominant color-inhibiting ...


Molecular Analysis Of Two Adjacent Transcription Terminators In Yeast , Julie A. Peterson Jan 1992

Molecular Analysis Of Two Adjacent Transcription Terminators In Yeast , Julie A. Peterson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

RHO1, a member of the ras superfamily of genes, is located on chromosome XIII adjacent to MRP2, a gene coding for mitochondrial ribosomal protein (Madaule and Axel, 1985, Myers, et al. 1987) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nucleotide sequence analysis demonstrated that RHO1 and MRP2 are transcribed convergently and the 3[superscript]' ends of the two coding sequences are separated by only 281 nucleotides (Madaule et al., 1987);The physical relationship between RHO1 and MRP2 was investigated at the transcriptional level by mapping the termini of both transcripts. RHO1 transcripts were found to possess extensive nontranslated regions with jagged initiation and polyadenylation ...


The Characterization And Purification Of Matrixin-A, A Plasmin Releasable Growth Inhibitor Associated With The Extracellular Matrix , Scott William Miller Jan 1992

The Characterization And Purification Of Matrixin-A, A Plasmin Releasable Growth Inhibitor Associated With The Extracellular Matrix , Scott William Miller

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The aim of this project is to examine the role of proteases and protease inhibitors in the regulation of cell proliferation. It also describes a simple, high yield purification of bovine platelet derived TGF-[beta] that uses a novel bioassay to specifically identify TGF-[beta] mediated activity;The composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is an important determinant of the rate cellular proliferation and differentiation. Growth factors and other proteins with growth regulatory activities can affect the composition of the ECM. Growth regulators are also associated with the ECM and can be released by the action of ECM associated proteolysis ...


Studies On The Role Of Expression Of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase Gene In The Development Of Bovine Lactation Ketosis , Sowmya Moorthi Jan 1992

Studies On The Role Of Expression Of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase Gene In The Development Of Bovine Lactation Ketosis , Sowmya Moorthi

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Changes in expression of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene, which codes for a key regulatory enzyme of gluconeogenesis, were studied in bovine liver tissue. Induction of ketosis was attempted in cows by a protocol of restricting feed intake (FR) and supplementing with 1,3-butanediol (BD), a ketogenic precursor, beginning at 15 d postpartum (FRBD protocol). Twenty Holstein cows were distributed in equal numbers among four treatments: normal control, obese control, normal cows given FRBD, and obese cows given FRBD. Liver biopsies were obtained at nine different times during early lactation: 10 d prepartum, 5 and 14 d postpartum (just before ...


Fluorescence Studies And Consequences Of Amino Acid Substitutions With Escherichia Coli Adenylosuccinate Synthetase , Chandrasen Soans Jan 1992

Fluorescence Studies And Consequences Of Amino Acid Substitutions With Escherichia Coli Adenylosuccinate Synthetase , Chandrasen Soans

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Probes were introduced into the active site of adenylosuccinate synthetase from Escherichia coli for fluorescence energy transfer measurements and to measure enzyme conformational changes attending ligand binding. The distances from fluorescent reporter groups covalently bound to a highly reactive cysteinyl residue (Cys[superscript]291) of adenylosuccinate synthetase, to active site binding ligands were determined. Energy transfer from formycin 5[superscript]'-monophosphate, a competitive inhibitor of IMP, to Cys[superscript]291, modified with the fluorescent chromophore N-(iodoacetylaminoethyl)-5-naphthylamine-1-sulfonate, indicated that the chromophores are 17 A apart in the presence or absence of GTP. Analogous experiments using tetramethylrhodamine maleimide to modify ...


Characterization Of The Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Gene Mgp1, A Novel Member Of The Ras Gene Superfamily That Functions In The Mitochondrial Biogenesis , Shu-Hwa Lee Tzeng Jan 1992

Characterization Of The Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Gene Mgp1, A Novel Member Of The Ras Gene Superfamily That Functions In The Mitochondrial Biogenesis , Shu-Hwa Lee Tzeng

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation characterizes Mgp1p, a mitochondrial protein that functions in mitochondrial biogenesis. Mgp1p is the first protein related to the p21[superscript] H-ras oncoprotein shown to function in mitochondria;The Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene MGP1 was isolated based on its ability to restore respiratory competence to a strain containing the nuclear petite mutation msg1-1. MGP1 codes for a protein of approximately 58 kDa, with an amino terminal sequence typical of a mitochondrial targeting peptide. A 190 residue region of Mgp1p shares approximately 30% amino acid sequence identity with any member of p21[superscript] ras-related protein superfamily, with particularly strong homology in ...


Fluorescence Detection For Gel And Capillary Electrophoresis , Barry L. Hogan Jan 1992

Fluorescence Detection For Gel And Capillary Electrophoresis , Barry L. Hogan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Several separation and detection schemes for gel and capillary electrophoresis are described. Emphasis is placed upon direct and indirect fluorescence detection systems as utilized for the determination of proteins, peptides, and intracellular analytes;First, an indirect fluorescence detection system for the separation of proteins via gel electrophoresis is described. Quantities as low as 50 nanograms of bovine serum albumin and soybean trypsin inhibitor are separated and detected visually without the need for staining of the analytes. This is very similar to levels of protein commonly separated with gel electrophoresis;A separation and detection system utilizing indirect fluorescence detection with capillary ...


Deletion Analysis Of The Starch Binding Domain From Aspergillus Glucoamylase , Luojing Chen Jan 1992

Deletion Analysis Of The Starch Binding Domain From Aspergillus Glucoamylase , Luojing Chen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Glucoamylase (GA) from Aspergillus (EC 3.2.1.3) exists in two forms: GAI (amino acids 1-616) and GAII (amino acids 1-512). GAII is identical to GAI but lacks the C-terminal region (amino acids 513-616). While both forms of glucoamylase are able to digest soluble starch, only GAI has the ability to bind to and therefore hydrolyze native starch granules. To further examine the location of the starch binding domain at the C-terminus of GAI and to determine how many amino acid residues of GAI are required for starch binding, six [beta]-galactosidase fusion proteins were constructed. Affinity purified fusion ...


Binding Of 14c-Heptanal To Soy Proteins Glycinin And [Beta]-Conglycinin , Sharma Marini Cooray Jan 1992

Binding Of 14c-Heptanal To Soy Proteins Glycinin And [Beta]-Conglycinin , Sharma Marini Cooray

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Soy proteins have excellent functional properties that can be utilized in improving the quality of processed foods. The off-flavor problem in soy proteins caused by short chain aliphatic aldehydes interacting with them makes these products unacceptable to the consumers. Upto date the complete removal of the off-flavor from soy products has not been reached. Complete reversibility of flavor binding to soy proteins was assumed in studying ligand binding to soy proteins, which is contradictory to the fact that removal of the off-flavor from soy proteins is almost not feasible. In order to test the validity of this assumption it was ...