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Articles 1 - 14 of 14

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Functional Characterization Of Mitochondrial And Cytosolic Aldehyde Dehydrogenases In Maize (Zea Mays L) , Feng Liu Jan 2002

Functional Characterization Of Mitochondrial And Cytosolic Aldehyde Dehydrogenases In Maize (Zea Mays L) , Feng Liu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) are a group of enzymes that catalyze oxidation of aldehydes in the presence of coenzyme NAD+ or NADP+. Few plant ALDHs have been studied at protein level, although many ALDH genes have been cloned. To date no functional characterization of plant ALDHs has been reported. This dissertation is focused on functional characterization of four ALDHs from maize, RF2A, RF2B, RF2C and RF2D. RF2A and RF2B are targeted to mitochondria, while RF2C and RF2D are located in cytosol. RF2A is required for normal pollen development: the anthers in lower florets from spikelets of homozygous mutant rf2a plants in ...


Organization And Expression Of The Tup Gene In Daucus Carota , Philip Earl Dykema Jan 1997

Organization And Expression Of The Tup Gene In Daucus Carota , Philip Earl Dykema

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Differential screening of a somatic embryo cDNA library for genes expressed during embryogenesis has disclosed a small RNA which I have named Tiny Up-regulated Protein (TUP). This mRNA is 402 bp in length, is expressed during embryo formation, and reaches its highest accumulation in the flowers and roots of adult carrot plants. The mRNA is barely detectable in leaves. The accumulation of the TUP mRNA in seedlings is increased by auxin and by abscisic acid. The open reading frame encodes a tiny, uniquely structured protein of 6100 Daltons which has a pI of 5.3. Algorithms predicting protein structure suggest ...


Expression Of Genes Encoding Acetyl-Coa Carboxylase, Biotin Synthase, And Acetyl-Coa Generating Enzymes In Arabidopsis Thaliana , Jinshan Ke Jan 1997

Expression Of Genes Encoding Acetyl-Coa Carboxylase, Biotin Synthase, And Acetyl-Coa Generating Enzymes In Arabidopsis Thaliana , Jinshan Ke

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Acetyl-CoA carboxylase catalyzes the formation of malonyl-CoA from acetyl-CoA. The four genes encoding heteromeric acetyl-CoA carboxylase are coordinately expressed in leaves, flowers, and developing siliques and embryos. The highest expression occurs in tissues undergoing rapid growth and high oil deposition. The gene encoding the E1 [beta] subunit of chloroplastidic pyruvate dehydrogenase has an identical pattern, indicating it may provide acetyl-CoA for seeds. In contrast, the gene encoding acetyl-CoA synthetase has a different expression pattern and is expressed at low levels in seeds;The ACC1 genes encoding homomeric acetyl-CoA shows transient expression in a variety of cell types. The homomeric acetyl-CoA ...


Effects Of Ear Developmental Temperature On Fine Structure Of Maize Starch , Ting-Jang Lu Jan 1995

Effects Of Ear Developmental Temperature On Fine Structure Of Maize Starch , Ting-Jang Lu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Two genetically unrelated normal dent maize inbreds, ICI63 and ICI92, with different heterotic backgrounds were used for studying environmental temperature effects on grain yield and quality. These two maize inbreds are used in commercially available hybrids and are proprietary to ICI Seeds. The maize inbreds were grown in a greenhouse to control the growing condition of the plants. After 14 days post-pollination, the ears were wrapped in temperature control devices set at 25 or 35∘ C during the grain-filling period. Grain yield, kernel weight, and kernel density were less for ears developing at 35∘ C than for those at 25 ...


Molecular And Biochemical Investigation Of The Mechanisms Of Acclimation To Chilling Stress In Maize Seedlings , Marc David Anderson Jan 1995

Molecular And Biochemical Investigation Of The Mechanisms Of Acclimation To Chilling Stress In Maize Seedlings , Marc David Anderson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Seedlings of chilling-sensitive maize inbred G50 (Pioneer) survived poorly when exposed to a chilling stress. Acclimation or ABA treatment caused a dramatic improvement of chilling tolerance. Differences in gene expression between acclimated and unacclimated seedlings were investigated and three cDNA clones (designated car333, car30, and car757) were isolated, representing transcripts that were up-regulated during acclimation. Car30 and car757 were not homologous to any known sequence but car333 was 97.8% homologous to cat3, maize mitochondrial catalase. The up-regulation of CAT3 during acclimation suggested that chilling stress caused the generation of H[subscript]2O[subscript]2 in the mitochondria and increased ...


Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism In Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor (L.) Moench): Characterization Of Genetic Diversity And Quantitative Trait Loci , Dario Ahnert Jan 1995

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism In Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor (L.) Moench): Characterization Of Genetic Diversity And Quantitative Trait Loci , Dario Ahnert

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were employed to investigate genetic diversity and quantitative trait loci (QTL) for morphological characters on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). The objectives of this research were accomplished by studying two different sets of genotypes. One set was composed of 105 elite inbred lines (47 B- and 58 R-lines) and the other of 152 F[subscript]2:3 lines. In the R- and B-lines set, the objectives were to define the level of genetic similarity (GS) and relationships within these lines. In the 152 F[subscript]2:3 lines set, the objectives were to characterize QTL ...


Protein-Binding Sequences That May Regulate Organ-Preferential Transcription Of Zrp2, A Zea Mays Root-Preferential Gene, Therese Shamala Tirimanne Jan 1995

Protein-Binding Sequences That May Regulate Organ-Preferential Transcription Of Zrp2, A Zea Mays Root-Preferential Gene, Therese Shamala Tirimanne

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In this study, DNA-protein interactions of the first kilobase region proximal to the transcription start site of the zrp2 (Zea mays root-preferential 2) gene promoter was analyzed. The intent of this research was to identify regions of the promoter and DNA-protein interactions, that are responsible for root-preferential transcription. In vitro run-on transcription assays had revealed dramatically higher levels of transcription in 3-d-old roots than in 5-d-old leaves (Held, 1993). Interactions between regions of the zrp2 promoter and nuclear protein extracts from 3-d-old roots and 5-d-old leaves of maize were analyzed by gel mobility-shift assays. Two DNA-protein complexes with each protein ...


Characterization Of Genes Expressed During Vegetative Organ Development In Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) , Sang-Gu Kang Jan 1995

Characterization Of Genes Expressed During Vegetative Organ Development In Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) , Sang-Gu Kang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The cp rps16 cDNA encoding the chloroplast ribosomal protein S16 and a MADS-box gene cDNA, POTM1-1, were isolated and characterized in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to understand molecular mechanisms of plant vegetative organ development;The rps16 gene is located between the trnK gene for tRNA Lys(UUU) and trnQ gene for tRNA Gln (UUG) on the same strand in the chloroplast genome. The ribosomal binding site, 5'-AGGA-3', is located at nucleotide position -6 to -9 from the initiation codon ATG. The coding sequence contains an 88 amino acid open reading frame (ORF) that is interrupted by an 855 bp ...


Molecular And Ultrastructural Aspects Of The Adaptation Of Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii To Limiting Co2 , Anne Margaret Geraghty Jan 1994

Molecular And Ultrastructural Aspects Of The Adaptation Of Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii To Limiting Co2 , Anne Margaret Geraghty

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Change occurring in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as cells adapt to limiting CO2 conditions were examined at both a molecular level and an ultrastructural level. It was demonstrated using antibodies that the time course of the de novo synthesis of LIP-21, a 21 kD limiting-CO2 induced polypeptide, correlates with the appearance of CO2 concentrating activity and that expression of the nuclear gene for LIP-21 is regulated at the level of translatable message. These results are consistent with LIP-21 being a component of an adaptive response to limiting CO2, such as the induction of the CO2 concentrating mechanism. Phase separation of membrane proteins ...


Oat Phya Containing Transgenic Tobacco: An Examination Of Oat Phya Mrna Stability And The Role Of Oat Phya In Germination Of Tobacco Seed , Linda Joanne Barnes Jan 1994

Oat Phya Containing Transgenic Tobacco: An Examination Of Oat Phya Mrna Stability And The Role Of Oat Phya In Germination Of Tobacco Seed , Linda Joanne Barnes

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The regulation of oat phytochrome A (phyA) mRNA stability and the photoregulation of germination of tobacco seeds containing the oat phyA gene was examined using oat phyA containing transgenic tobacco. Oat phyA mRNA has been previously shown to be a relatively unstable mRNA. The intent of this research was to identify elements within the phyA mRNA responsible for rendering the message unstable. The approach taken was to use tobacco transformed with either the full-length or truncated versions of the oat phyA gene and examine the half-lives of the resulting oat phyA mRNAs in transgenic tobacco. RNA blot analysis of oat ...


Isolation And Characterization Of Maize (Zea Mays L.) Mitochondrial Polyribosomes , Virginia Cox Crane Jan 1993

Isolation And Characterization Of Maize (Zea Mays L.) Mitochondrial Polyribosomes , Virginia Cox Crane

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Maize mitochondrial polyribosomes were isolated and characterized in the first and so far most complete study of the polysomal component of the translational apparatus of higher plant mitochondrial. Higher plant mitochondria are unique in that more than one, and often many, transcripts for a mitochondrial particular gene are found in abunDance; This made the characterization of the mRNA content of maize mitochondrial polyribosomes crucial to the understanding of information storage and use in these organelles;The protein gene transcript content of mitochondrial polysomes was described and compared to whole mitochondrial transcript content for seven maize mitochondrial genes. It was found ...


Root-Preferential Mrna Accumulation In Zea Mays , Bruce Marvin Held Jan 1993

Root-Preferential Mrna Accumulation In Zea Mays , Bruce Marvin Held

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

To investigate the molecular basis of root development and function, I helped isolate several cDNA clones that corresponded to mRNAs that accumulated preferentially in the root of Zea mays L. (John, 1991; John et al., 1992). The purposes of the research described in this dissertation were: (1) to characterize one of these cDNA clones, pZRP4; and (2) to analyze the transcriptional regulation of root-preferential mRNA accumulation for another cDNA clone, pZRP2;Genomic Southern analysis indicated that the zrp4 gene was represented once in the corn genome. The ZRP4 mRNA accumulated preferentially in young roots, and was detected only at low ...


Cell-Wall Components And Lignin Biosynthesis In Forages , James Enderby Bidlack Jan 1990

Cell-Wall Components And Lignin Biosynthesis In Forages , James Enderby Bidlack

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Lignin is the major cell-wall (CW) component that lowers forage digestibility. Negative relationships between lignin and forage quality are caused by interactions and variability of lignin with other CW components. This study was conducted to better understand how lignin content, concentration, deposition, and change in concentration vary with other CW components in maturing stems and to provide preliminary information about phenylpropanoid metabolism in relation to lignification;Regrowth from basal stem tissue was sampled weekly or biweekly from greenhouse-grown forage grass and legume species. Samples were collected for a period of about 8 weeks and analyzed for fiber concentration and content ...


Kinetics Of Photosynthate Translocation, Donald Boyd Fisher Jan 1965

Kinetics Of Photosynthate Translocation, Donald Boyd Fisher

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.