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Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Novel Amphiphilic Cyclobutene And Cyclobutane Cis-C18 Fatty Acid Derivatives Inhibit Mycobacterium Avium Subsp. Paratuberculosis Growth, Denise K. Zinniel, Wantanee Sittiwong, Darrell D. Marshall, Govardhan Rathnaiah, Isin T. Sakallioglu, Robert Powers, Patrick H. Dussault, Raul G. Barletta Jan 2019

Novel Amphiphilic Cyclobutene And Cyclobutane Cis-C18 Fatty Acid Derivatives Inhibit Mycobacterium Avium Subsp. Paratuberculosis Growth, Denise K. Zinniel, Wantanee Sittiwong, Darrell D. Marshall, Govardhan Rathnaiah, Isin T. Sakallioglu, Robert Powers, Patrick H. Dussault, Raul G. Barletta

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) is the etiologic agent of Johne’s disease in ruminants and has been associated with Crohn’s disease in humans. An effective control of Map by either vaccines or chemoprophylaxis is a paramount need for veterinary and possibly human medicine. Given the importance of fatty acids in the biosynthesis of mycolic acids and the mycobacterial cell wall, we tested novel amphiphilic C10 and C18 cyclobutene and cyclobutane fatty acid derivatives for Map inhibition. Microdilution minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) with 5 or 7 week endpoints were measured in Middlebrook 7H9 base broth media. We ...


Pancreas Of Coxsackievirus-Infected Dams And Their Challenged Pups: A Complex Issue, Sona Sarmirova, Maria Borsanyiova, Brigita Benkoova, Michaela Pospisilova, Rajkumar Rajasekaran, Katarina Berakova, Pavol Gomolcak, Jay Reddy, Shubhada Bopegamage Jan 2019

Pancreas Of Coxsackievirus-Infected Dams And Their Challenged Pups: A Complex Issue, Sona Sarmirova, Maria Borsanyiova, Brigita Benkoova, Michaela Pospisilova, Rajkumar Rajasekaran, Katarina Berakova, Pavol Gomolcak, Jay Reddy, Shubhada Bopegamage

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Enteroviral infections are frequent, often asymptomatic in humans and during gravidity. The present study is an extension of our previous investigations where we had shown pancreatitis in challenged pups of CVB4-E2-infected dams. Present investigation describes the effect of gestational infection with this virus on the pancreas of both dams and their challenged pups. Gravid CD1 outbred mice were orally infected with CVB4-E2 virus at different gestation times. Pups were challenged orally with the same virus after 25 days of birth. Organs were collected at selected intervals postinfection (p.i.), and replicating virus and viral-RNA copies were analyzed. Additional readouts included ...


The Role Of Isothiocyanates As Cancer Chemo‐Preventive, Chemo‐Therapeutic And Anti‐Melanoma Agents, Melina Mitsiogianni, Georgios Koutsidis, Nikos Mavroudis, Dimitrios T. Trafalis, Sotiris Botaitis, Rodrigo Franco, Vasilis Zoumpourlis, Tom Amery, Alex Galanis, Aglaia Pappa, Mihalis I. Panayiotidis Jan 2019

The Role Of Isothiocyanates As Cancer Chemo‐Preventive, Chemo‐Therapeutic And Anti‐Melanoma Agents, Melina Mitsiogianni, Georgios Koutsidis, Nikos Mavroudis, Dimitrios T. Trafalis, Sotiris Botaitis, Rodrigo Franco, Vasilis Zoumpourlis, Tom Amery, Alex Galanis, Aglaia Pappa, Mihalis I. Panayiotidis

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Many studies have shown evidence in support of the beneficial effects of phytochemicals in preventing chronic diseases, including cancer. Among such phytochemicals, sulphur‐containing compounds (e.g., isothiocyanates (ITCs)) have raised scientific interest by exerting unique chemopreventive properties against cancer pathogenesis. ITCs are the major biologically active compounds capable of mediating the anticancer effect of cruciferous vegetables. Recently, many studies have shown that a higher intake of cruciferous vegetables is associated with reduced risk of developing various forms of cancers primarily due to a plurality of effects, including (i) metabolic activation and detoxification, (ii) inflammation, (iii) angiogenesis, (iv) metastasis and ...


Hyperthermia Induces Therapeutic Effectiveness And Potentiates Adjuvant Therapy With Nontargeted And Targeted Drugs In An In Vitro Model Of Human Malignant Melanoma, T. Mantso, S. Vasileiadis, I. Anestopoulos, G. P. Voulgaridou, E. Lampri, S. Botaitis, E. N. Kontomanolis, C. Simopoulos, G. Goussetis, R. Franco, K. Chlichlia, A. Pappa, M. I. Panayiotidis Jul 2018

Hyperthermia Induces Therapeutic Effectiveness And Potentiates Adjuvant Therapy With Nontargeted And Targeted Drugs In An In Vitro Model Of Human Malignant Melanoma, T. Mantso, S. Vasileiadis, I. Anestopoulos, G. P. Voulgaridou, E. Lampri, S. Botaitis, E. N. Kontomanolis, C. Simopoulos, G. Goussetis, R. Franco, K. Chlichlia, A. Pappa, M. I. Panayiotidis

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

In the present study, we have aimed to characterize the intrinsic, extrinsic and ER-mediated apoptotic induction by hyperthermia in an in vitro model of human malignant melanoma and furthermore, to evaluate its therapeutic effectiveness in an adjuvant therapeutic setting characterized by combinational treatments with non-targeted (Dacarbazine & Temozolomide) and targeted (Dabrafenib & Vemurafenib) drugs. Overall, our data showed that both low (43 °C) and high (45 °C) hyperthermic exposures were capable of inducing cell death by activating all apoptotic pathways but in a rather distinct manner. More specifically, low hyperthermia induced extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways both of which activated caspase 6 ...


Development Of Septic Polysynovitis And Uveitis In Foals Experimentally Infected With Rhodococcus Equi, Laura Huber, Steeve Giguère, Londa J. Berghaus, Amanda Hanafi, Sarah Vitosh-Sillman, Sarah L. Czerwinski Jan 2018

Development Of Septic Polysynovitis And Uveitis In Foals Experimentally Infected With Rhodococcus Equi, Laura Huber, Steeve Giguère, Londa J. Berghaus, Amanda Hanafi, Sarah Vitosh-Sillman, Sarah L. Czerwinski

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Rhodococcus equi is one of the most important causes of disease in foals. Infection is typically characterized by pyogranulomatous pneumonia although extrapulmonary infections occur occasionally. Uveitis and polysynovitis have been reported in foals naturally infected with R. equi and are thought to be the result of an immune-mediated process. However, the pathogenesis of these conditions is poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to document the occurrence of uveitis and polysynovitis after experimental infection with R. equi and to determine if these disorders are the direct result of infection at these sites. Foals between 3 and 4 weeks of ...


Novel Docosahexaenoic Acid Ester Of Phloridzin Inhibits Proliferation And Triggers Apoptosis In An In Vitro Model Of Skin Cancer, Theodora Mantso, Dimitrios T. Trafalis, Sotiris Botaitis, Rodrigo Franco, Aglaia Pappa, H. P. Vasantha Rupasinghe, Mihalis I. Panayiotidis Jan 2018

Novel Docosahexaenoic Acid Ester Of Phloridzin Inhibits Proliferation And Triggers Apoptosis In An In Vitro Model Of Skin Cancer, Theodora Mantso, Dimitrios T. Trafalis, Sotiris Botaitis, Rodrigo Franco, Aglaia Pappa, H. P. Vasantha Rupasinghe, Mihalis I. Panayiotidis

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Skin cancer is among the most common cancer types accompanied by rapidly increasing incidence rates, thus making the development of more efficient therapeutic approaches a necessity. Recent studies have revealed the potential role of decosahexaenoic acid ester of phloridzin (PZDHA) in suppressing proliferation of liver, breast, and blood cancer cell lines. In the present study, we investigated the cytotoxic potential of PZDHA in an in vitro model of skin cancer consisting of melanoma (A375), epidermoid carcinoma (A431), and non-tumorigenic (HaCaT) cell lines. Decosahexaenoic acid ester of phloridzin led to increased cytotoxicity in all cell lines as revealed by cell viability ...


Alkaline Stabilization Of Manure Slurry Inactivates Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus, Erin E. Stevens, Daniel N. Miller, Bethany A. Brittenham, Sarah J. Vitosh-Sillman, Bruce W. Brodersen, Virginia L. Jin, John D. Loy, Amy M. Schmidt Jan 2018

Alkaline Stabilization Of Manure Slurry Inactivates Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus, Erin E. Stevens, Daniel N. Miller, Bethany A. Brittenham, Sarah J. Vitosh-Sillman, Bruce W. Brodersen, Virginia L. Jin, John D. Loy, Amy M. Schmidt

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Hydrated lime manure treatment was evaluated to determine porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) susceptibility to alkaline stabilization. At pH 10, PEDV decreased (quantitative polymerase chain reaction) and lost infectivity (swine bioassay). Although ammonium decreased above pH 9 (up to 25%), alkaline stabilization managed to control potential infection from manure sources.


Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Identification Of Moraxella Bovoculi And Moraxella Bovis Isolates From Cattle, Kara Robbins, Aaron M. Dickey, Michael L. Clawson, John Dustin Loy Jan 2018

Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Identification Of Moraxella Bovoculi And Moraxella Bovis Isolates From Cattle, Kara Robbins, Aaron M. Dickey, Michael L. Clawson, John Dustin Loy

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) is an economically significant disease caused by Moraxella bovis. Moraxella bovoculi, although not reported to cause IBK, has been isolated from the eyes of cattle diagnosed with IBK. Identification of M. bovis and M. bovoculi can be performed using biochemical or DNA-based approaches, both of which may be time consuming and inconsistent between laboratories. We conducted a comparative evaluation of M. bovoculi and M. bovis identification using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) with a database provided by Bruker Daltonics (termed the BDAL database), the BDAL database supplemented with spectra generated in our ...


Circadian Behavioral Responses To Light And Optic Chiasm-Evoked Glutamatergic Epscs In The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Of Iprgc Conditional Vglut2 Knock-Out Mice, Michael G. Moldavan, Patricia J. Sollars, Michael R. Lasarev, Charles N. Allen, Gary E. Pickard Jan 2018

Circadian Behavioral Responses To Light And Optic Chiasm-Evoked Glutamatergic Epscs In The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Of Iprgc Conditional Vglut2 Knock-Out Mice, Michael G. Moldavan, Patricia J. Sollars, Michael R. Lasarev, Charles N. Allen, Gary E. Pickard

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) innervate the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), a circadian oscillator that functions as a biological clock. ipRGCs use vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (vGlut2) to package glutamate into synaptic vesicles and light-evoked resetting of the SCN circadian clock is widely attributed to ipRGC glutamatergic neurotransmission. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is also packaged into vesicles in ipRGCs and PACAP may be coreleased with glutamate in the SCN. vGlut2 has been conditionally deleted in ipRGCs in mice [conditional knock-outs (cKOs)] and their aberrant photoentrainment and residual attenuated light responses have been ascribed to ipRGC PACAP release. However ...


Development Of A Multiplex Real-Time Pcr Assay Using Two Thermocycling Platforms For Detection Of Major Bacterial Pathogens Associated With Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex From Clinical Samples, John Dustin Loy, Laura Leger, Aspen M. Workman, Michael L. Clawson, Ece Bulut, Bing Wang Jan 2018

Development Of A Multiplex Real-Time Pcr Assay Using Two Thermocycling Platforms For Detection Of Major Bacterial Pathogens Associated With Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex From Clinical Samples, John Dustin Loy, Laura Leger, Aspen M. Workman, Michael L. Clawson, Ece Bulut, Bing Wang

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is one of the most significant diseases of cattle. Bacterial pathogens involved in BRDC include Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, Histophilus somni, and Pasteurella multocida. We developed and evaluated a multiplexed real-time hydrolysis probe (rtPCR) assay using block-based Peltier and rotary-based thermocycling on lung tissue, nasal swabs, and deep nasopharyngeal swabs. The rtPCR results were compared to culture or a gel-based M. bovis PCR using statistical analysis to determine optimum quantification cycle (Cq) cutoffs to maximize agreement. The limits of detection were 1.2–12 CFU/reaction for each pathogen. M. haemolytica was the most prevalent ...


Complete Genome Sequence Of Moraxella Bovis Strain Epp-63 (300), An Etiologic Agent Of Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis, John Dustin Loy, Aaron M. Dickey, Michael L. Clawson Jan 2018

Complete Genome Sequence Of Moraxella Bovis Strain Epp-63 (300), An Etiologic Agent Of Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis, John Dustin Loy, Aaron M. Dickey, Michael L. Clawson

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

We report here the complete closed genome sequence of Moraxella bovis strain Epp-63 (300) (Epp63). This strain was isolated from an infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) case in 1963. Since then, Epp63 has been used extensively for IBK research. Consequently, the genome sequence of Epp63 should help elucidate IBK host-pathogen interactions.


Coordinated Regulation Of Transcription By Ccpa And The Staphylococcus Aureus Twocomponent System Hptrs, Joseph M. Reed, Sean Olson, Danielle F. Brees, Caitlin E. Griffin, Ryan A. Grove, Paul J. Davis, Stephen D. Kachman, Jiri Adamec, Greg A. Somerville Jan 2018

Coordinated Regulation Of Transcription By Ccpa And The Staphylococcus Aureus Twocomponent System Hptrs, Joseph M. Reed, Sean Olson, Danielle F. Brees, Caitlin E. Griffin, Ryan A. Grove, Paul J. Davis, Stephen D. Kachman, Jiri Adamec, Greg A. Somerville

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

The success of Staphylococcus aureus as a pathogen is due in part to its ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions using signal transduction pathways, such as metaboliteresponsive regulators and two-component systems. S. aureus has a two-component system encoded by the gene pair sav0224 (hptS) and sav0223 (hptR) that regulate the hexose phosphate transport (uhpT) system in response to extracellular glucose-6-phosphate. Glycolytic intermediates such as glucose-6-phosphate are important carbon sources that also modulate the activity of the global metabolite-responsive transcriptional regulator CcpA. Because uhpT has a putative CcpA binding site in its promoter and it is regulated by HptR, it ...


Whole Genome Sequencing Of Moraxella Bovoculi Reveals High Genetic Diversity And Evidence For Interspecies Recombination At Multiple Loci, Aaron M. Dickey, Gennie Schuller, John D. Loy, Michael L. Clawson Jan 2018

Whole Genome Sequencing Of Moraxella Bovoculi Reveals High Genetic Diversity And Evidence For Interspecies Recombination At Multiple Loci, Aaron M. Dickey, Gennie Schuller, John D. Loy, Michael L. Clawson

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Moraxella bovoculi is frequently cultured from the ocular secretions and conjunctiva of cattle with Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (IBK). Previous work has shown that single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) diversity in this species is quite high with 81,284 SNPs identified in eight genomes representing two distinct genotypes isolated from IBK affected eyes (genotype 1) and the nasopharynx of cattle without clinical IBK signs (genotype 2), respectively. The goals of this study were to identify SNPs from a collection of geographically diverse and epidemiologically unlinked M. bovoculi strains from the eyes of IBK positive cattle (n = 183) and another from the eyes ...


Differential Modulation Of Human Gabac‑Ρ1 Receptor By Sulfur‑Containing Compounds Structurally Related To Taurine, Lenin David Ochoa‑De La Paz, Martin González‑Andrade, Herminia Pasantes‑Morales, Rodrigo Franco, Rubén Zamora‑Alvarado, Edgar Zenteno, Hugo Quiroz‑Mercado, Roberto Gonzales‑Salinas, Rosario Gulias‑Cañizo Jan 2018

Differential Modulation Of Human Gabac‑Ρ1 Receptor By Sulfur‑Containing Compounds Structurally Related To Taurine, Lenin David Ochoa‑De La Paz, Martin González‑Andrade, Herminia Pasantes‑Morales, Rodrigo Franco, Rubén Zamora‑Alvarado, Edgar Zenteno, Hugo Quiroz‑Mercado, Roberto Gonzales‑Salinas, Rosario Gulias‑Cañizo

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Background: The amino acid taurine (2-Aminoethanesulfonic acid) modulates inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors. This study aimed to determine if the dual action of taurine on GABAC- ρ1R relates to its structure. To address this, we tested the ability of the structurally related compounds homotaurine, hypotaurine, and isethionic acid to modulate GABAC- ρ1R.

Results: In Xenopus laevis oocytes, hypotaurine and homotaurine partially activate heterologously expressed GABAC- ρ1R, showing an increment in its deactivation time with no changes in channel permeability, whereas isethionic acid showed no effect. Competitive assays suggest that hypotaurine and homotaurine compete for the GABA-binding site. In addition, their effects were ...


Using Art And Story To Explore How Primary School Students In Rural Tanzania Understand Planetary Health: A Qualitative Analysis, Elizabeth Vanwormer, Jesca Mlawa, Elizabeth Komba, Christopher Gustafson, Hilda Mrema, Jenny M. Dauer Jan 2018

Using Art And Story To Explore How Primary School Students In Rural Tanzania Understand Planetary Health: A Qualitative Analysis, Elizabeth Vanwormer, Jesca Mlawa, Elizabeth Komba, Christopher Gustafson, Hilda Mrema, Jenny M. Dauer

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Background The global planetary health community increasingly recognises the need to prepare students to investigate and address connections between environmental change and human health. As we strive to support education on planetary health themes for students of all ages, understanding students’ concepts of linkages between the health of people and animals, and their shared environments might advance educational approaches. Children living in villages bordering Ruaha National Park in Iringa Region, Tanzania, have direct experience of these connections as they share a water-stressed but biodiverse environment with domestic animals and wildlife. Livelihoods in these villages depend predominantly on crop and livestock ...


Efficacy Of Oral Administration Of Sodium Iodide To Prevent Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex, B. M. Shoemake, B. L. Vander Ley, B. W. Newcomer, M. C. Heller Jan 2018

Efficacy Of Oral Administration Of Sodium Iodide To Prevent Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex, B. M. Shoemake, B. L. Vander Ley, B. W. Newcomer, M. C. Heller

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Background: The prevention of bovine respiratory disease complex (BRD) in beef cattle is important to maintaining health and productivity of calves in feeding operations.

Objective: Determine whether BRD bacterial and viral pathogens are susceptible to the lactoperoxidase/hydrogen peroxide/ iodide (LPO/H2O2/I-) system in vitro and to determine whether the oral administration of sodium iodide (NaI) could achieve sufficient concentrations of iodine (I) in the respiratory secretions of weaned beef calves to inactivate these pathogens in vivo.

Animals: Sixteen weaned, apparently healthy, commercial beef calves from the University of Missouri, College of Veterinary Medicine teaching herd ...


The Pul37 Tegument Protein Guides Alphaherpesvirus Retrograde Axonal Transport To Promote Neuroinvasion, Alexsia L. Richards, Patricia J. Sollars, Jared D. Pitts, Austin M. Stults, Ekaterina E. Heldwein, Gary E. Pickard, Gregory A. Smith Dec 2017

The Pul37 Tegument Protein Guides Alphaherpesvirus Retrograde Axonal Transport To Promote Neuroinvasion, Alexsia L. Richards, Patricia J. Sollars, Jared D. Pitts, Austin M. Stults, Ekaterina E. Heldwein, Gary E. Pickard, Gregory A. Smith

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

A hallmark property of the neurotropic alpha-herpesvirinae is the dissemination of infection to sensory and autonomic ganglia of the peripheral nervous system following an initial exposure at mucosal surfaces. The peripheral ganglia serve as the latent virus reservoir and the source of recurrent infections such as cold sores (herpes simplex virus type I) and shingles (varicella zoster virus). However, the means by which these viruses routinely invade the nervous system is not fully understood. We report that an internal virion component, the pUL37 tegument protein, has a surface region that is an essential neuroinvasion effector. Mutation of this region rendered ...


Effectiveness Of Composting As A Biosecure Disposal Method For Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (Pedv)-Infected Pig Carcasses, Sarah Vitosh-Sillman, John Dustin Loy, Bruce Brodersen, Clayton Kelling, Kent M. Eskridge, Amy Millmier Schmidt Nov 2017

Effectiveness Of Composting As A Biosecure Disposal Method For Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (Pedv)-Infected Pig Carcasses, Sarah Vitosh-Sillman, John Dustin Loy, Bruce Brodersen, Clayton Kelling, Kent M. Eskridge, Amy Millmier Schmidt

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is an enteric disease of swine that has emerged as a worldwide threat to swine herd health and production. Substantial research has been conducted to assess viability of the virus on surfaces of vehicles and equipment, in feed and water, and on production building surfaces, but little is known about the persistence in PEDV-infected carcasses and effective disposal methods thereof. This study was conducted to quantify the persistence of PEDV RNA via quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) at various time-temperature combinations and in infected piglet carcasses subjected to composting. Although this method ...


Evaluation Of The Effect Of Serum Antibody Abundance Against Bovine Coronavirus On Bovine Coronavirus Shedding And Risk Of Respiratory Tract Disease In Beef Calves From Birth Through The First Five Weeks In A Feedlot, Aspen M. Workman, Larry A. Kuehn, Tara G. Mcdaneld, Michael L. Clawson, Carol G. Chitko-Mckown, John Dustin Loy Sep 2017

Evaluation Of The Effect Of Serum Antibody Abundance Against Bovine Coronavirus On Bovine Coronavirus Shedding And Risk Of Respiratory Tract Disease In Beef Calves From Birth Through The First Five Weeks In A Feedlot, Aspen M. Workman, Larry A. Kuehn, Tara G. Mcdaneld, Michael L. Clawson, Carol G. Chitko-Mckown, John Dustin Loy

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Objective: To evaluate the effect of serum antibody abundance against bovine coronavirus (BCV) on BCV shedding and risk of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in beef calves from birth through the first 5 weeks in a feedlot.

Animals: 890 natural-service crossbred beef calves from 4 research herds.

Procedures: Serial blood samples for measurement of serum anti-BCV antibody abundance by an ELISA and nasal swab specimens for detection of BCV and other viral and bacterial BRD pathogens by real-time PCR methods were collected from all calves or subsets of calves at predetermined times from birth through the first 5 weeks after feedlot ...


A Parapoxviral Virion Protein Inhibits Nf-Κb Signaling Early In Infection, Sushil Khatiwada, Gustavo A. Delhon, Ponnuraj Nagendraprabhu, Sabal Chaulagain, Shuhong Luo, Diego G. Diel, Eduardo F. Flores, D. L. Rock Aug 2017

A Parapoxviral Virion Protein Inhibits Nf-Κb Signaling Early In Infection, Sushil Khatiwada, Gustavo A. Delhon, Ponnuraj Nagendraprabhu, Sabal Chaulagain, Shuhong Luo, Diego G. Diel, Eduardo F. Flores, D. L. Rock

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Poxviruses have evolved unique proteins and mechanisms to counteract the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway, which is an essential regulatory pathway of host innate immune responses. Here, we describe a NF-κB inhibitory virion protein of orf virus (ORFV), ORFV073, which functions very early in infected cells. Infection with ORFV073 gene deletion virus (OV-IA82Δ073) led to increased accumulation of NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO), marked phosphorylation of IκB kinase (IKK) subunits IKKα and IKKβ, IκBα and NF-κB subunit p65 (NF-κB-p65), and to early nuclear translocation of NF-κB-p65 in virusinfected cells (30 min post infection). Expression of ORFV073 alone was sufficient to ...


Pathogenesis, Molecular Genetics, And Genomics Of Mycobacterium Avium Subsp. Paratuberculosis, The Etiologic Agent Of Johne’S Disease, Govardhan Rathnaiah, Denise K. Zinniel, John P. Bannantine, Judith R. Stabel, Yrjo T. Grohn, Michael T. Collins, Raul G. Barletta Jan 2017

Pathogenesis, Molecular Genetics, And Genomics Of Mycobacterium Avium Subsp. Paratuberculosis, The Etiologic Agent Of Johne’S Disease, Govardhan Rathnaiah, Denise K. Zinniel, John P. Bannantine, Judith R. Stabel, Yrjo T. Grohn, Michael T. Collins, Raul G. Barletta

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of Johne’s disease in ruminants causing chronic diarrhea, malnutrition, and muscular wasting. Neonates and young animals are infected primarily by the fecal–oral route. MAP attaches to, translocates via the intestinal mucosa, and is phagocytosed by macrophages. The ensuing host cellular immune response leads to granulomatous enteritis characterized by a thick and corrugated intestinal wall. We review various tissue culture systems, ileal loops, and mice, goats, and cattle used to study MAP pathogenesis. MAP can be detected in clinical samples by microscopy, culturing, PCR, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. There ...


Mechanistic Understanding Of N-Glycosylation In Ebola Virus Glycoprotein Maturation And Function, Bin Wang, Yujie Wang, Dylan A. Frabutt, Xihe Zhang, Xiaoyu Yao, Dan Hu, Zhuo Zhang, Chaonan Liu, Shimin Zheng, Shi-Hua Xiang, Yong-Hui Zheng Jan 2017

Mechanistic Understanding Of N-Glycosylation In Ebola Virus Glycoprotein Maturation And Function, Bin Wang, Yujie Wang, Dylan A. Frabutt, Xihe Zhang, Xiaoyu Yao, Dan Hu, Zhuo Zhang, Chaonan Liu, Shimin Zheng, Shi-Hua Xiang, Yong-Hui Zheng

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

The Ebola virus (EBOV) trimeric envelope glycoprotein (GP) precursors are cleaved into the receptor-binding GP1 and the fusion-mediating GP2 subunits and incorporated into virions to initiate infection. GP1 and GP2 form heterodimers that have 15 or two N-glycosylation sites (NGSs), respectively. Here we investigated the mechanism of how N-glycosylation contributes to GP expression, maturation, and function. As reported before, we found that, although GP1 NGSs are not critical, the two GP2 NGSs, Asn563 and Asn618, are essential for GP function. Further analysis uncovered that Asn563 and Asn618 regulate ...


A Novel Role Of Silibinin As A Putative Epigenetic Modulator In Human Prostate Carcinoma, Ioannis Anestopoulos, Aristeidis P. Sfakianos, Rodrigo Franco, Katerina Chlichlia, Mihalis I. Panayiotidis, David J. Kroll, Aglaia Pappa Jan 2017

A Novel Role Of Silibinin As A Putative Epigenetic Modulator In Human Prostate Carcinoma, Ioannis Anestopoulos, Aristeidis P. Sfakianos, Rodrigo Franco, Katerina Chlichlia, Mihalis I. Panayiotidis, David J. Kroll, Aglaia Pappa

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Silibinin, extracted from milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.), has exhibited considerable preclinical activity against prostate carcinoma. Its antitumor and chemopreventive activities have been associated with diverse effects on cell cycle, apoptosis, and receptor-dependent mitogenic signaling pathways. Here we hypothesized that silibinin’s pleiotropic effects may reflect its interference with epigenetic mechanisms in human prostate cancer cells. More specifically, we have demonstrated that silibinin reduces gene expression levels of the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) members Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 (EZH2), Suppressor of Zeste Homolog 12 (SUZ12), and Embryonic Ectoderm Development (EED) in DU145 and PC3 human prostate cancer cells ...


Detoxification Of Mitochondrial Oxidants And Apoptotic Signaling Are Facilitated By Thioredoxin-2 And Peroxiredoxin-3 During Hyperoxic Injury, Benjamin J. Forred, Darwin R. Daugaard, Brianna K. Titus, Ryan R. Wood, Miranda J. Floen, Michelle L. Booze, Peter F. Vitiello Jan 2017

Detoxification Of Mitochondrial Oxidants And Apoptotic Signaling Are Facilitated By Thioredoxin-2 And Peroxiredoxin-3 During Hyperoxic Injury, Benjamin J. Forred, Darwin R. Daugaard, Brianna K. Titus, Ryan R. Wood, Miranda J. Floen, Michelle L. Booze, Peter F. Vitiello

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Mitochondria play a fundamental role in the regulation of cell death during accumulation of oxidants. High concentrations of atmospheric oxygen (hyperoxia), used clinically to treat tissue hypoxia in premature newborns, is known to elicit oxidative stress and mitochondrial injury to pulmonary epithelial cells. A consequence of oxidative stress in mitochondria is the accumulation of peroxides which are detoxified by the dedicated mitochondrial thioredoxin system. This system is comprised of the oxidoreductase activities of peroxiredoxin-3 (Prx3), thioredoxin-2 (Trx2), and thioredoxin reductase-2 (TrxR2). The goal of this study was to understand the role of the mitochondrial thioredoxin system and mitochondrial injuries during ...


Maternal Inflammation At Mid-Gestation In Pregnant Rats Impairs Fetal Muscle Growth And Development At Term, C. N. Cadaret, K. A. Beede, E. M. Merrick, T. L. Barnes, J. D. Loy, D. T. Yates Jan 2017

Maternal Inflammation At Mid-Gestation In Pregnant Rats Impairs Fetal Muscle Growth And Development At Term, C. N. Cadaret, K. A. Beede, E. M. Merrick, T. L. Barnes, J. D. Loy, D. T. Yates

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Low birth weight resulting from preterm birth and/or IUGR is an underlying factor in 60–80% of perinatal death worldwide, and is particularly common in developing countries (UNICEF, 2008). Furthermore, studies have linked IUGR and the associated fetal malnutrition to increased incidence of metabolic syndrome in adult life (Barker et al., 1993; Godfrey and Barker, 2000). The “thrifty phenotype hypothesis” developed by David Barker (Hales et al., 1991) states that IUGR-associated fetal malnutrition forces the fetus to spare nutrients by altering tissue-specific metabolism in order to ...


Rapid Typing Of Mannheimia Haemolytica Major Genotypes 1 And 2 Using Maldi-Tof Mass Spectrometry, John Dustin Loy, Michael L. Clawson Jan 2017

Rapid Typing Of Mannheimia Haemolytica Major Genotypes 1 And 2 Using Maldi-Tof Mass Spectrometry, John Dustin Loy, Michael L. Clawson

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Genotype 2 M. haemolytica predominantly associate over genotype 1 with the lungs of cattle with respiratory disease and ICEs containing antimicrobial resistance genes. Distinct protein masses were detected by MALDI-TOF MS between genotype 1 and 2 strains. MALDI-TOF MS could rapidly differentiate genotype 2 strains in veterinary diagnostic laboratories.


Effectiveness Of Composting As A Biosecure Disposal Method For Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (Pedv)-Infected Pig Carcasses, Sarah Vitosh-Sillman, John Dustin Loy, Bruce Brodersen, Clayton Kelling, Kent M. Eskridge, Amy Millmier Schmidt Jan 2017

Effectiveness Of Composting As A Biosecure Disposal Method For Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (Pedv)-Infected Pig Carcasses, Sarah Vitosh-Sillman, John Dustin Loy, Bruce Brodersen, Clayton Kelling, Kent M. Eskridge, Amy Millmier Schmidt

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Background: Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is an enteric disease of swine that has emerged as a worldwide threat to swine herd health and production. Substantial research has been conducted to assess viability of the virus on surfaces of vehicles and equipment, in feed and water, and on production building surfaces, but little is known about the persistence in PEDV-infected carcasses and effective disposal methods thereof. This study was conducted to quantify the persistence of PEDV RNA via quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) at various time-temperature combinations and in infected piglet carcasses subjected to composting. Although this ...


Efficacy Of Urtoxazumab (Tma-15 Humanized Monoclonal Antibody Specific For Shiga Toxin 2) Against Post-Diarrheal Neurological Sequelae Caused By Escherichia Coli O157:H7 Infection In The Neonatal Gnotobiotic Piglet Model, Rodney A. Moxley, David H. Francis, Mizuho Tamura, David B. Marx, Kristina Santiago-Mateo, Mojun Zhao Jan 2017

Efficacy Of Urtoxazumab (Tma-15 Humanized Monoclonal Antibody Specific For Shiga Toxin 2) Against Post-Diarrheal Neurological Sequelae Caused By Escherichia Coli O157:H7 Infection In The Neonatal Gnotobiotic Piglet Model, Rodney A. Moxley, David H. Francis, Mizuho Tamura, David B. Marx, Kristina Santiago-Mateo, Mojun Zhao

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is the most common cause of hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome in human patients, with brain damage and dysfunction the main cause of acute death. We evaluated the efficacy of urtoxazumab (TMA-15, Teijin Pharma Limited), a humanized monoclonal antibody against Shiga toxin (Stx) 2 for the prevention of brain damage, dysfunction, and death in a piglet EHEC infection model. Forty-five neonatal gnotobiotic piglets were inoculated orally with 3 x 109 colony-forming units of EHEC O157:H7 strain EDL933 (Stx1+, Stx2+) when 22–24 h old. At 24 h post-inoculation, piglets were intraperitoneally administered placebo ...


Cytolytic Toxin Production By Staphylococcus Aureus Is Dependent Upon The Activity Of The Protoheme Ix Farnesyltransferase, Emily Stevens, Maisem Laabei, Stewart Gardner, Greg A. Somerville, Ruth C. Massey Jan 2017

Cytolytic Toxin Production By Staphylococcus Aureus Is Dependent Upon The Activity Of The Protoheme Ix Farnesyltransferase, Emily Stevens, Maisem Laabei, Stewart Gardner, Greg A. Somerville, Ruth C. Massey

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Staphylococcus aureus is a medically important pathogen with an abundance of virulence factors that are necessary for survival within a host, including the production of cytolytic toxins. The regulation of toxin production is mediated by the Agr quorum sensing system, and a poorly defined post-exponential growth phase signal independent of Agr. As part of a recent genome wide association study (GWAS) to identify novel loci that alter the expression of cytolytic toxins, a polymorphism in the cyoE gene, which encodes a protoheme IX farnesyltransferase, was identified. This enzyme is essential for processing heme into the electron transport chain for use ...


The Pul37 Tegument Protein Guides Alphaherpesvirus Retrograde Axonal Transport To Promote Neuroinvasion, Alexsia L. Richards, Patricia J. Sollars, Jared D. Pitts, Austin M. Stults, Ekaterina E. Heldwein, Gary E. Pickard, Gregory A. Smith Jan 2017

The Pul37 Tegument Protein Guides Alphaherpesvirus Retrograde Axonal Transport To Promote Neuroinvasion, Alexsia L. Richards, Patricia J. Sollars, Jared D. Pitts, Austin M. Stults, Ekaterina E. Heldwein, Gary E. Pickard, Gregory A. Smith

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

A hallmark property of the neurotropic alpha-herpesvirinae is the dissemination of infection to sensory and autonomic ganglia of the peripheral nervous system following an initial exposure at mucosal surfaces. The peripheral ganglia serve as the latent virus reservoir and the source of recurrent infections such as cold sores (herpes simplex virus type I) and shingles (varicella zoster virus). However, the means by which these viruses routinely invade the nervous system is not fully understood. We report that an internal virion component, the pUL37 tegument protein, has a surface region that is an essential neuroinvasion effector. Mutation of this region rendered ...