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Articles 91 - 113 of 113

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Ets-Core Binding Factor: A Common Composite Motif In Antigen Receptor Gene Enhancers, Batu Erman, Marta Cortes, Barbara S. Nikolajczyk, Nancy A. Speck, Ranjan Sen Dec 1997

Ets-Core Binding Factor: A Common Composite Motif In Antigen Receptor Gene Enhancers, Batu Erman, Marta Cortes, Barbara S. Nikolajczyk, Nancy A. Speck, Ranjan Sen

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A tripartite domain of the murine immunoglobulin μ heavy-chain enhancer contains the μA and μB elements that bind ETS proteins and the μE3 element that binds leucine zipper-containing basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH-zip) factors. Analysis of the corresponding region of the human μ enhancer revealed high conservation of the μA and μB motifs but a striking absence of the μE3 element. Instead of bHLH-zip proteins, we found that the human enhancer bound core binding factor (CBF) between the μA and μB elements; CBF binding was shown to be a common feature of both murine and human enhancers. Furthermore, mutant enhancers that bound ...


Both An N-Terminal 65-Kda Domain And A C-Terminal 30-Kda Domain Of Seca Cycle Into The Membrane At Secyeg During Translocation, Jerry Eichler, William Wickner Apr 1997

Both An N-Terminal 65-Kda Domain And A C-Terminal 30-Kda Domain Of Seca Cycle Into The Membrane At Secyeg During Translocation, Jerry Eichler, William Wickner

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SecA, a 102-kDa hydrophilic protein, couples the energy of ATP binding to the translocation of preprotein across the bacterial inner membrane. SecA function and topology were studied with metabolically labeled [35S]SecA and with inner membrane vesicles from cells that overex- pressed SecYEGDFyajC, the integral domain of preprotein translocase. During translocation in the presence of ATP and preprotein, a 65-kDa N-terminal domain of SecA is protected from proteolytic digestion through insertion into the mem- brane, as previously reported for a 30-kDa C-terminal domain [Economou, A. & Wickner, W. (1994) Cell 78, 835–843]. Insertion of both domains occurs at saturable SecYEGDFyajC ...


I2b Is A Small Cytosolic Protein That Participates In Vacuole Fusion, Paul Slusarewicz, Zuoyu Xu, Kimberly Seefeld, Albert Haas, William T. Wickner Mar 1997

I2b Is A Small Cytosolic Protein That Participates In Vacuole Fusion, Paul Slusarewicz, Zuoyu Xu, Kimberly Seefeld, Albert Haas, William T. Wickner

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Saccharomyces cerevisiae vacuole inheritance requires two low molecular weight activities, LMA1 and LMA2. LMA1 is a heterodimer of thioredoxin and protease B inhibitor 2 (IB2). Here we show that the second low molecular weight activity (LMA2) is monomeric IB2. Though LMA2 / IB2 was initially identified as a protease B inhibitor, this protease inhibitor activity is not related to its ability to promote vacuole fusion: ( i ) Low M r protease B inhibitors cannot substitute for LMA1 or LMA2, ( ii ) LMA1 and LMA2 promote the fusionof vacuoles from a strain that has no protease B, ( iii ...


A Heterodimer Of Thioredoxin And Ib2 Cooperates With Sec18p (Nsf) To Promote Yeast Vacuole Inheritance, Zuoyu Xu, Andreas Mayer, Eric Muller, William Wickner Jan 1997

A Heterodimer Of Thioredoxin And Ib2 Cooperates With Sec18p (Nsf) To Promote Yeast Vacuole Inheritance, Zuoyu Xu, Andreas Mayer, Eric Muller, William Wickner

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Early in S phase, the vacuole (lysosome) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae projects a stream of vesicles and membranous tubules into the bud where they fuse and establish the daughter vacuole. This inheritance reaction can be studied in vitro with isolated vacuoles. Rapid and efficient homotypic fusion between saltwashed vacuoles requires the addition of only two purified soluble proteins, Sec18p (NSF) and LMA1, a novel heterodimer with a thioredoxin subunit. We now report the identity of the second subunit of LMA1 as IB2, a previously identified cytosolic inhibitor of vacuolar proteinase B. Both subunits are needed for efficient vacuole inheritance in vivo ...


Docking Of Yeast Vacuoles Is Catalyzed By The Ras-Like Gtpase Ypt7p After Symmetric Priming By Sec18p (Nsf), Andreas Mayer, William Wickner Jan 1997

Docking Of Yeast Vacuoles Is Catalyzed By The Ras-Like Gtpase Ypt7p After Symmetric Priming By Sec18p (Nsf), Andreas Mayer, William Wickner

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Vacuole inheritance in yeast involves the for- mation of tubular and vesicular “segregation struc- tures” which migrate into the bud and fuse there to es- tablish the daughter cell vacuole. Vacuole fusion has been reconstituted in vitro and may be used as a model for an NSF-dependent reaction of priming, docking, and fusion. We have developed biochemical and micro- scopic assays for the docking step of in vitro vacuole fusion and characterized its requirements. The vacu- oles must be primed for docking by the action of Sec17p ( a -SNAP) and Sec18p (NSF). Priming is neces- sary for both fusion partners ...


Numa Assembles Into An Extensive Filamentous Structure When Expressed In The Cell Cytoplasm, Alejandro Saredi, Louisa Howard, Duane A. Compton Nov 1996

Numa Assembles Into An Extensive Filamentous Structure When Expressed In The Cell Cytoplasm, Alejandro Saredi, Louisa Howard, Duane A. Compton

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NuMA is a 236 kDa protein that participates in the organization of the mitotic spindle despite its strict localization in the nucleus during interphase. To test how cells progress through mitosis when NuMA is localized in the cytoplasm instead of the nucleus, we have deleted the nuclear localization sequence of NuMA using site-directed mutagenesis and transiently expressed this mutant protein (NuMA-DeltaNLS) in BHK-21 cells. During interphase, NuMA-DeltaNLS accumulates in the cytoplasm as a large mass approximately the same size as the cell nucleus. When cells enter mitosis, NuMA-DeltaNLS associates normally with the mitotic spindle without causing any apparent deleterious effects ...


Circadian Clock-Controlled Genes Isolated From Neurospora Crassa Are Late Night- To Early Morning-Specific, Deborah Bell-Pedersen, Mari L. Shinohara, Jennifer J. Loros, Jay C. Dunlap Nov 1996

Circadian Clock-Controlled Genes Isolated From Neurospora Crassa Are Late Night- To Early Morning-Specific, Deborah Bell-Pedersen, Mari L. Shinohara, Jennifer J. Loros, Jay C. Dunlap

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An endogenous circadian biological clock controls the temporal aspects of life in most organisms, including rhythmic control of genes involved in clock output pathways. In the fungus Neurospora crassa, one pathway known to be under control of the clock is asexual spore (conidia) development. To understand more fully the processes that are regulated by the N. crassa circadian clock, systematic screens were carried out for genes that oscillate at the transcriptional level. Time-of-day-specific cDNA libraries were generated and used in differential screens to identify six new clock-controlled genes (ccgs). Transcripts specific for each of the ccgs preferentially accumulate ...


Cloning Of Human Acetyl-Coa Carboxylase-Beta And Its Unique Features., Joohun Ha, Jung-Kee Lee, Kyung-Sup Kim, Lee A. Witters, Ki-Han Kim Oct 1996

Cloning Of Human Acetyl-Coa Carboxylase-Beta And Its Unique Features., Joohun Ha, Jung-Kee Lee, Kyung-Sup Kim, Lee A. Witters, Ki-Han Kim

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Acetyl-CoA carboxylase, which has a molecular mass of 265 kDa (ACC-alpha), catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of long-chain fatty acids. In this study we report the complete amino acid sequence and unique features of an isoform of ACC with a molecular mass of 275 kDa (ACC-beta), which is primarily expressed in heart and skeletal muscles. In these tissues, ACC-beta may be involved in the regulation of fatty acid oxidation, rather than fatty acid biosynthesis. ACC-beta contains an amino acid sequence at the N terminus which is about 200 amino acids long and may be uniquely related to the ...


A Truncated Form Of The Pho80 Cyclin Of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Induces Expression Of A Small Cytosolic Factor Which Inhibits Vacuole Inheritance., Teresa Nicolson, Barbara Conradt, William Wickner Jul 1996

A Truncated Form Of The Pho80 Cyclin Of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Induces Expression Of A Small Cytosolic Factor Which Inhibits Vacuole Inheritance., Teresa Nicolson, Barbara Conradt, William Wickner

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Vacuoles project streams of vesicles and membranous tubules into the yeast bud where they fuse, founding the daughter cell organelle, vac5-1, which encodes a truncated form of the Pho80 cyclin, inhibits normal vacuole inheritance. An in vitro inheritance assay which measures the fusion of vacuoles serves as a model for several steps of this process. We find that cytosol isolated from the vac5-1 mutant is unable to promote the fusion of wild-type vacuoles in the in vitro assay. Wild-type vacuoles are irreversibly inactivated in a time- and temperature-dependent manner if preincubated with vac5-1 cytosol and ATP, suggesting the presence of ...


A Novel Iron-Regulated Metal Transporter From Plants Identified By Functional Expression In Yeast., David Eide, Margaret Broderius, Jeanette Fett, Mary Lou Guerinot May 1996

A Novel Iron-Regulated Metal Transporter From Plants Identified By Functional Expression In Yeast., David Eide, Margaret Broderius, Jeanette Fett, Mary Lou Guerinot

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Iron is an essential nutrient for virtually all organisms. The IRT1 (iron-regulated transporter) gene of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, encoding a probable Fe(II) transporter, was cloned by functional expression in a yeast strain defective for iron uptake. Yeast expressing IRT1 possess a novel Fe(II) uptake activity that is strongly inhibited by Cd. IRT1 is predicted to be an integral membrane protein with a metal-binding domain. Data base comparisons and Southern blot analysis indicated that IRT1 is a member of a gene family in Arabidopsis. Related sequences were also found in the genomes of rice, yeast, nematodes, and humans ...


Lag-2 May Encode A Signaling Ligand For The Glp-1 And Lin-12 Receptors Of C-Elegans, Samuel T. Henderson, Dali Gao, Eric J. Lambie, Judith Kimble Oct 1994

Lag-2 May Encode A Signaling Ligand For The Glp-1 And Lin-12 Receptors Of C-Elegans, Samuel T. Henderson, Dali Gao, Eric J. Lambie, Judith Kimble

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The C. elegans lag-2 gene is required for several cell-cell interactions that rely on the receptors GLP-1 and LIN-12. In this paper, we report that lag-2 encodes a putative membrane protein with sequence similarity to Drosophila Delta, a proposed ligand for the Notch receptor. Furthermore, we show that the lag-2 promoter drives expression of a reporter protein in the signaling distal tip cell (DTC) of the DTC/germline interaction. By in situ hybridization, we have found that endogenous lag-2 mRNA is present in the DTC but not the germ line. One fusion protein, called LAG-2::beta-gal(intra), rescues a lag-2 ...


The Pha-4 Gene Is Required To Generate The Pharyngeal Primordium Of Caenorhabditis-Elegans, Susan E. Mango, Eric J. Lambie, Judith Kimble Oct 1994

The Pha-4 Gene Is Required To Generate The Pharyngeal Primordium Of Caenorhabditis-Elegans, Susan E. Mango, Eric J. Lambie, Judith Kimble

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In the 4-cell Caenorhabditis elegans embryo, two blastomeres are destined to generate pharyngeal cells, each by a distinct developmental strategy: one pathway is inductive, while the other is autonomous. Here, we identify the pha-4 locus. In animals lacking pha-4 activity, an early step in pharyngeal organogenesis is blocked: no pharyngeal primordium is formed and differentiated pharyngeal cells are absent. Most other tissues are generated normally in pha-4 mutants, including cells related to pharyngeal cells by cell lineage and position. Thus, pha-4 activity is required to form the pharyngeal primordium. We propose that pha-4 marks a convergence of the inductive and ...


Circadian Clock Locus Frequency: Protein Encoded By A Single Open Reading Frame Defines Period Length And Temperature Compensation., Benjamin D. Aronson, Keith A. Johnson, Jay C. Dunlap Aug 1994

Circadian Clock Locus Frequency: Protein Encoded By A Single Open Reading Frame Defines Period Length And Temperature Compensation., Benjamin D. Aronson, Keith A. Johnson, Jay C. Dunlap

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The frequency (frq) locus encodes a key component, a state variable, in a cellular oscillator generating circadian rhythmicity. Two transcripts have been mapped to this region, and data presented here are consistent with the existence of a third transcript. Analysis of cDNA clones and clock mutants from this region focuses attention on one transcript encoding a protein. FRQ, which is a central clock component: (i) mutations in all of the semidominant frq alleles are the result of single amino acid substitutions and map to the open reading frame (ORF) encoding FRQ; (ii) deletion of this ORF, or a frameshift mutation ...


Binding Of Matrix Attachment Regions To Lamin Polymers Involves Single-Stranded Regions And The Minor Groove., M. E. Eva Ludérus, Jan L. Den Blaauwen, Oncko J. De Smit, Duane A. Compton, Roel Van Driel Jan 1994

Binding Of Matrix Attachment Regions To Lamin Polymers Involves Single-Stranded Regions And The Minor Groove., M. E. Eva Ludérus, Jan L. Den Blaauwen, Oncko J. De Smit, Duane A. Compton, Roel Van Driel

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Chromatin in eukaryotic nuclei is thought to be partitioned into functional loop domains that are generated by the binding of defined DNA sequences, named MARs (matrix attachment regions), to the nuclear matrix. We have previously identified B-type lamins as MAR-binding matrix components (M. E. E. Ludérus, A. de Graaf, E. Mattia, J. L. den Blaauwen, M. A. Grande, L. de Jong, and R. van Driel, Cell 70:949-959, 1992). Here we show that A-type lamins and the structurally related proteins desmin and NuMA also specifically bind MARs in vitro. We studied the interaction between MARs and lamin polymers in molecular ...


The Primary Structure Of A Fungal Chitin Deacetylase Reveals The Function For Two Bacterial Gene Products., Dimitris Kafetzopoulos, George Thireos, John N. Vournakis, Vassilis Bouriotis Sep 1993

The Primary Structure Of A Fungal Chitin Deacetylase Reveals The Function For Two Bacterial Gene Products., Dimitris Kafetzopoulos, George Thireos, John N. Vournakis, Vassilis Bouriotis

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Chitin deacetylase (EC 3.5.1.41) hydrolyzes the N-acetamido groups of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitin. A cDNA to the Mucor rouxii mRNA encoding chitin deacetylase was isolated, characterized, and sequenced. Protein sequence comparisons revealed significant similarities of the fungal chitin deacetylase to rhizobial nodB proteins and to an uncharacterized protein encoded by a Bacillus stearothermophilus open reading frame. These data suggest the functional homology of these evolutionarily distant proteins. NodB is a chitooligosaccharide deacetylase essential for the biosynthesis of the bacterial nodulation signals, termed Nod factors. The observed similarity of chitin deacetylase to the B. stearothermophilus gene product suggests ...


The Interplay Of Light And The Circadian Clock. Independent Dual Regulation Of Clock-Controlled Gene Ccg-2(Eas), Guiseppina Arpaia, Jennifer J. Loros, Jay C. Dunlap, Giorgio Morelli, Guiseppe Macino Aug 1993

The Interplay Of Light And The Circadian Clock. Independent Dual Regulation Of Clock-Controlled Gene Ccg-2(Eas), Guiseppina Arpaia, Jennifer J. Loros, Jay C. Dunlap, Giorgio Morelli, Guiseppe Macino

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Ambient light is the major agent mediating entrainment of circadian rhythms and is also a major factor influencing development and morphogenesis. We show that in Neurospora crassa the expression of clock-controlled gene 2 (ccg-2), a gene under the control of the circadian clock and allelic to the developmental gene easy wettable (eas), is regulated by light in wild-type strains. Light elicits a direct and important physiological effect on ccg-2(eas) expression as demonstrated using several mutant Neurospora strains. In white collar mutants (wc-1 and wc-2) that are “blind” to blue light, ccg-2(eas) mRNA shows no variation following illumination with ...


Differential Regulation Of Collagenase Gene Expression By Retinoic Acid Receptors--Alpha, Beta And Gamma, Luying Pan, Stephen H. Chamberlain, David T. Auble, Constance E. Brinckerhoff Jun 1992

Differential Regulation Of Collagenase Gene Expression By Retinoic Acid Receptors--Alpha, Beta And Gamma, Luying Pan, Stephen H. Chamberlain, David T. Auble, Constance E. Brinckerhoff

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The mechanisms involved in retinoic acid (RA)-mediated regulation of the collagenase gene in a rabbit synovial fibroblast cell line (HIG82) were investigated. When HIG82 cells are cotransfected with expression vectors containing cDNAs for retinoic acid receptor (RAR) α1, β2, or γ1 and collagenase promoter-driven CAT reporter constructs, only RAR-γ1 represses basal CAT expression upon RA treatment, while RAR-α1, β2, and γ1 all suppress phorbol-induced CAT expression. Thus, transcriptional regulation of collagenase by RA is mediated by RARs in an RAR-type specific manner. Using mutatlonal and deletional analysis, we find that interaction between elements within 182 bp collagenase promoter plays ...


Evidence For Helical Structures In Poly(1-Olefin Sulfones) By Transmission Electron Microscopy, George C. Ruben, W H. Stockmayer May 1992

Evidence For Helical Structures In Poly(1-Olefin Sulfones) By Transmission Electron Microscopy, George C. Ruben, W H. Stockmayer

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Transmission electron microscope images were obtained of fractions of poly(1-tetradecene sulfone) and poly(cyclohexene sulfone) cast from very dilute solutions (0.007%, wt/vol) and rapidly freeze-dried on a mica surface. The samples were then vertically platinum-carbon (Pt-C) replicated with 9 +/- 0.3-A Pt-C and held together with 128 A of electron-transparent evaporated carbon. The Pt-C coating enlarges the molecular chain diameters by approximately 5 A, so that a single polysulfone chain has an apparent diameter of 9-12 A in the transmission electron microscope. Poly(1-tetradecene sulfone) forms short helical regions that show irregular helical turns of pitch 7-18 ...


Interleukin-1 Or Phorbol Induction Of The Stromelysin Promoter Requires An Element That Cooperates With Ap-1., Karen Sirum-Connolly, Constance E. Brinckerhoff Jan 1991

Interleukin-1 Or Phorbol Induction Of The Stromelysin Promoter Requires An Element That Cooperates With Ap-1., Karen Sirum-Connolly, Constance E. Brinckerhoff

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Interieukin-1, a mediator of inflammation, or tumor promoting phorbol esters induce transcription of stromelysin, a metalloproteinase that degrades extracellular matrix molecules and that is overexpressed in diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Sequences required for induction of transcription of the human stromelysin promoter are contained on a 46 base pair fragment. This fragment contains a sequence with a high degree of similarity to the binding site for the transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) and indeed, the AP-1 sequence of this fragment is necessary but not sufficient for the maximal response to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (phorbol) or interleukin-1. Maximal induction requires functional ...


Fermentation Of Cellulosic Substrates In Batch And Continuous Culture By Clostridium Thermocellum, Lee R. Lynd, Hans E. Grethlein, Richard H. Wolkin Sep 1989

Fermentation Of Cellulosic Substrates In Batch And Continuous Culture By Clostridium Thermocellum, Lee R. Lynd, Hans E. Grethlein, Richard H. Wolkin

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Fermentation of dilute-acid-pretreated mixed hardwood and Avicel by Clostridium thermocellum was comparedinbatchandcontinuouscultures.Maximumspecificgrowthratesper hourobtainedon cellulosic substrateswere 0.1inbatchcultureand>0.13incontinuousculture.Cellyields(gramsofcellsper gram of substrate)inbatchculturewere 0.17forpretreatedwoodand0.15forAvicel.Ethanolandacetatewere the mainproductsobservedunderalconditions.Ethanol:acetateratios(ingrams)were approximately1.8:1in batchcultureand generallyslightlylessthan 1:1incontinuousculture.Utilizationofcellulosicsubstrateswas essentially complete in batch culture. A prolonged lag phase was initialy observed in batch culture on pretreated wood; the length of the lag phase could be shortened by addition of cell-free spent medium. In continuousculturewith-5g ofglucoseequivalentper literinthefeed,substrateconversionrelativeto theoreticalrangedfrom0.86ata dilutionrate(D)of0.05/hto0.48ata D of0.167/hforAvicelandfrom0.75 ata D of0.05/hto0 ...


Modification Of Chromium(Vi)-Induced Dna Damage By Glutathione And Cytochromes P-450 In Chicken Embryo Hepatocytes., Doreen Y. Cupo, Karen E. Wetterhahn Oct 1985

Modification Of Chromium(Vi)-Induced Dna Damage By Glutathione And Cytochromes P-450 In Chicken Embryo Hepatocytes., Doreen Y. Cupo, Karen E. Wetterhahn

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The role of glutathione and cytochrome P-450 in the production of DNA damage by chromium(VI) was examined in chicken embryo hepatocytes by the alkaline elution technique. Cellular levels of glutathione and cytochrome P-450 were altered by treating the hepatocytes with N-acetyl-L-cysteine, buthionine sulfoximine, isopentanol, or beta-naphthoflavone. A dramatic increase in chromium(VI)-induced DNA strand breaks was observed after increasing glutathione levels in the cells. Chromium(VI)-induced DNA strand breaks were even more numerous when the level of cytochrome P-450 was also increased. Upon depletion of glutathione levels and induction of cytochrome P-450 or cytochrome P-448, little or ...


Autoregulation Of Collagenase Production By A Protein Synthesized And Secreted By Synovial Fibroblasts: Cellular Mechanism For Control Of Collagen Degradation, Constance Brinckerhoff, Mary Benoit, William Culp Apr 1985

Autoregulation Of Collagenase Production By A Protein Synthesized And Secreted By Synovial Fibroblasts: Cellular Mechanism For Control Of Collagen Degradation, Constance Brinckerhoff, Mary Benoit, William Culp

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Spermidine-Condensed Phi X174 Dna Cleavage By Micrococcal Nuclease: Torus Cleavage Model And Evidence For Unidirectional Circumferential Dna Wrapping., Kenneth A. Marx, Thomas C. Reynolds Nov 1982

Spermidine-Condensed Phi X174 Dna Cleavage By Micrococcal Nuclease: Torus Cleavage Model And Evidence For Unidirectional Circumferential Dna Wrapping., Kenneth A. Marx, Thomas C. Reynolds

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Spermidine-condensed phi X174 replicative form (RF) II DNA was digested with micrococcal nuclease to yield seven identifiable DNA bands forming an arithmetic fragment-length series. The DNA monomer unit length was found to be 780 +/- 80 base pairs. This result is most consistent with a proposed model for micrococcal nuclease cleavage of a DNA torus organized by the unidirectional, circumferential wrapping of B-geometry DNA. By a topological consideration, the blunt-end-rod-fusion model for torus formation [Eickbush, T. H. & Moudrianakis, E. N. (1978) Cell 13, 295-306] is shown to be inconsistent with our empirical solution results. We propose a continuous, circumferential DNA wrapping ...