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Articles 1 - 25 of 25

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Actin Filaments Target The Oligomeric Maturation Of The Dynamin Gtpase Drp1 To Mitochondrial Fission Sites, Wei-Ke Ji, Anna L. Hatch, Ronald A. Merrill, Stefan Strack, Henry N. Higgs Nov 2015

Actin Filaments Target The Oligomeric Maturation Of The Dynamin Gtpase Drp1 To Mitochondrial Fission Sites, Wei-Ke Ji, Anna L. Hatch, Ronald A. Merrill, Stefan Strack, Henry N. Higgs

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

While the dynamin GTPase Drp1 plays a critical role during mitochondrial fission, mechanisms controlling its recruitment to fission sites are unclear. A current assumption is that cytosolic Drp1 is recruited directly to fission sites immediately prior to fission. Using live-cell microscopy, we find evidence for a different model, progressive maturation of Drp1 oligomers on mitochondria through incorporation of smaller mitochondrially-bound Drp1 units. Maturation of a stable Drp1 oligomer does not forcibly lead to fission. Drp1 oligomers also translocate directionally along mitochondria. Ionomycin, a calcium ionophore, causes rapid mitochondrial accumulation of actin filaments followed by Drp1 accumulation at the fission site ...


Cell Type–Dependent Mechanisms For Formin-Mediated Assembly Of Filopodia, Lorna E. Young, Ernest G. Heimsath, Henry N. Higgs Oct 2015

Cell Type–Dependent Mechanisms For Formin-Mediated Assembly Of Filopodia, Lorna E. Young, Ernest G. Heimsath, Henry N. Higgs

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Filopodia are finger-like protrusions from the plasma membrane and are of fundamental importance to cellular physiology, but the mechanisms governing their assembly are still in question. One model, called convergent elongation, proposes that filopodia arise from Arp2/3 complex-nucleated dendritic actin networks, with factors such as formins elongating these filaments into filopodia. We test this model using constitutively active constructs of two formins, FMNL3 and mDia2. Surprisingly, filopodial assembly requirements differ between suspension and adherent cells. In suspension cells, Arp2/3 complex is required for filopodial assembly through either formin. In contrast, a subset of filopodia remains after Arp2/3 ...


Gaip Interacting Protein C-Terminus Regulates Autophagy And Exosome Biogenesis Of Pancreatic Cancer Through Metabolic Pathways, Santanu Bhattacharya, Krishnendu Pal, Anil K. Sharma, Shamit K. Dutta, Julie S. Lau, Irene K. Yan, Enfeng Wang, Ahmed Elkhanany, Khalid M. Alkharfy, Arunik Sanyal, Tushar C. Patel, Suresh T. Chari, Mark R. Spaller, Debabrata Mukhopadhyay Dec 2014

Gaip Interacting Protein C-Terminus Regulates Autophagy And Exosome Biogenesis Of Pancreatic Cancer Through Metabolic Pathways, Santanu Bhattacharya, Krishnendu Pal, Anil K. Sharma, Shamit K. Dutta, Julie S. Lau, Irene K. Yan, Enfeng Wang, Ahmed Elkhanany, Khalid M. Alkharfy, Arunik Sanyal, Tushar C. Patel, Suresh T. Chari, Mark R. Spaller, Debabrata Mukhopadhyay

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

GAIP interacting protein C terminus (GIPC) is known to play an important role in a variety of physiological and disease states. In the present study, we have identified a novel role for GIPC as a master regulator of autophagy and the exocytotic pathways in cancer. We show that depletion of GIPC-induced autophagy in pancreatic cancer cells, as evident from the upregulation of the autophagy marker LC3II. We further report that GIPC regulates cellular trafficking pathways by modulating the secretion, biogenesis, and molecular composition of exosomes. We also identified the involvement of GIPC on metabolic stress pathways regulating autophagy and microvesicular ...


The Formin Fmnl3 Assembles Plasma Membrane Protrusions That Participate In Cell–Cell Adhesion, Timothy J. Gauvin, Lorna E. Young, Henry N. Higgs Nov 2014

The Formin Fmnl3 Assembles Plasma Membrane Protrusions That Participate In Cell–Cell Adhesion, Timothy J. Gauvin, Lorna E. Young, Henry N. Higgs

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

FMNL3 is a vertebrate-specific formin protein previously shown to play a role in angiogenesis and cell migration. Here we define the cellular localization of endogenous FMNL3, the dynamics of GFP-tagged FMNL3 during cell migration, and the effects of FMNL3 suppression in mammalian culture cells. The majority of FMNL3 localizes in a punctate pattern, with >95% of these puncta being indistinguishable from the plasma membrane by fluorescence microscopy. A small number of dynamic cytoplasmic FMNL3 patches also exist, which enrich near cell–cell contact sites and fuse with the plasma membrane at these sites. These cytoplasmic puncta appear to be part ...


Killerflip: A Novel Lytic Peptide Specifically Inducing Cancer Cell Death, B Pennarun, G. Gaidos, O Bucur, A Tinari Oct 2013

Killerflip: A Novel Lytic Peptide Specifically Inducing Cancer Cell Death, B Pennarun, G. Gaidos, O Bucur, A Tinari

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

One of the objectives in the development of effective cancer therapy is induction of tumor-selective cell death. Toward this end, we have identified a small peptide that, when introduced into cells via a TAT cell-delivery system, shows a remarkably potent cytoxicity in a variety of cancer cell lines and inhibits tumor growth in vivo, whereas sparing normal cells and tissues. This fusion peptide was named killer FLIP as its sequence was derived from the C-terminal domain of c-FLIP, an anti-apoptotic protein. Using structure activity analysis, we determined the minimal bioactive core of killerFLIP, namely killerFLIP-E. Structural analysis of cells using ...


An Expanded View Of The Eukaryotic Cytoskeleton, James B. Moseley Oct 2013

An Expanded View Of The Eukaryotic Cytoskeleton, James B. Moseley

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

A rich and ongoing history of cell biology research has defined the major polymer systems of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. Recent studies have identified additional proteins that form filamentous structures in cells and can self-assemble into linear polymers when purified. This suggests that the eukaryotic cytoskeleton is an even more complex system than previously considered. In this essay, I examine the case for an expanded definition of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton and present a series of challenges for future work in this area.


Identification Of Cell Cycle–Regulated Genes Periodically Expressed In U2os Cells And Their Regulation By Foxm1 And E2f Transcription Factors, Gavin D. Grant, Lionel Brooks Iii, Xiaoyang Zhang, J. Matthew Mahoney, Viktor Martyanov, Tammara A. Wood, Gavin Sherlock, Chao Cheng, Michael L. Whitfield Sep 2013

Identification Of Cell Cycle–Regulated Genes Periodically Expressed In U2os Cells And Their Regulation By Foxm1 And E2f Transcription Factors, Gavin D. Grant, Lionel Brooks Iii, Xiaoyang Zhang, J. Matthew Mahoney, Viktor Martyanov, Tammara A. Wood, Gavin Sherlock, Chao Cheng, Michael L. Whitfield

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

We identify the cell cycle–regulated mRNA transcripts genome-wide in the osteosarcoma-derived U2OS cell line. This results in 2140 transcripts mapping to 1871 unique cell cycle–regulated genes that show periodic oscillations across multiple synchronous cell cycles. We identify genomic loci bound by the G2/M transcription factor FOXM1 by chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) and associate these with cell cycle–regulated genes. FOXM1 is bound to cell cycle–regulated genes with peak expression in both S phase and G2/M phases. We show that ChIP-seq genomic loci are responsive to FOXM1 using a real-time luciferase assay in ...


Bioengineered Lysozyme Reduces Bacterial Burden And Inflammation In A Murine Model Of Mucoid Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Lung Infection, Charlotte C. Teneback, Thomas C. Scanlon, Matthew J. Wargo, Jenna L. Bement, Karl E. Griswold, Laurie W. Leclair Aug 2013

Bioengineered Lysozyme Reduces Bacterial Burden And Inflammation In A Murine Model Of Mucoid Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Lung Infection, Charlotte C. Teneback, Thomas C. Scanlon, Matthew J. Wargo, Jenna L. Bement, Karl E. Griswold, Laurie W. Leclair

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The spread of drug-resistant bacterial pathogens is a growing global concern and has prompted an effort to explore potential adjuvant and alternative therapies derived from nature's repertoire of bactericidal proteins and peptides. In humans, the airway surface liquid layer is a rich source of antibiotics, and lysozyme represents one of the most abundant and effective antimicrobial components of airway secretions. Human lysozyme is active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, ac


Force Generation By Kinesin And Myosin Cytoskeletal Motor Proteins, F. Jon Kull, Sharyn A. Endow Jan 2013

Force Generation By Kinesin And Myosin Cytoskeletal Motor Proteins, F. Jon Kull, Sharyn A. Endow

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Kinesins and myosins hydrolyze ATP, producing force that drives spindle assembly, vesicle transport and muscle contraction. How do motors do this? Here we discuss mechanisms of motor force transduction, based on their mechanochemical cycles and conformational changes observed in crystal structures. Distortion or twisting of the central β-sheet - proposed to trigger actin-induced Pi and ADP release by myosin, and microtubule-induced ADP release by kinesins - is shown in a movie depicting the transition between myosin ATP-like and nucleotide-free states. Structural changes in the switch I region form a tube that governs ATP hydrolysis and Pi release by the motors, explaining the ...


Alginate Lyase Exhibits Catalysis-Independent Biofilm Dispersion And Antibiotic Synergy, John W. Lamppa, Karl E. Griswold Jan 2013

Alginate Lyase Exhibits Catalysis-Independent Biofilm Dispersion And Antibiotic Synergy, John W. Lamppa, Karl E. Griswold

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

More than 2 decades of study support the hypothesis that alginate lyases are promising therapeutic candidates for treating mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. In particular, the enzymes' ability to degrade alginate, a key component of mucoid biofilm matrix, has been the presumed mechanism by which they disrupt biofilms and enhance antibiotic efficacy. The systematic studies reported here show that, in an in vitro model, alginate lyase dispersion of P. aeruginosa biofilms and enzyme synergy


Live-Cell Monitoring Of Periodic Gene Expression In Synchronous Human Cells Identifies Forkhead Genes Involved In Cell Cycle Control, Gavin D. Grant, Joshua Gamsby, Viktor Martyanov, Lionel Brooks, Lacy K. George, J. Matthew Mahoney, Jennifer J. Loros, Jay C. Dunlap, Michael L. Whitfield Jun 2012

Live-Cell Monitoring Of Periodic Gene Expression In Synchronous Human Cells Identifies Forkhead Genes Involved In Cell Cycle Control, Gavin D. Grant, Joshua Gamsby, Viktor Martyanov, Lionel Brooks, Lacy K. George, J. Matthew Mahoney, Jennifer J. Loros, Jay C. Dunlap, Michael L. Whitfield

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

We developed a system to monitor periodic luciferase activity from cell cycle-regulated promoters in synchronous cells. Reporters were driven by a minimal human E2F1 promoter with peak expression in G1/S or a basal promoter with six Forkhead DNA-binding sites with peak expression at G2/M. After cell cycle synchronization, luciferase activity was measured in live cells at 10-min intervals across three to four synchronous cell cycles, allowing unprecedented resolution of cell cycle-regulated gene expression. We used this assay to screen Forkhead transcription factors for control of periodic gene expression. We confirmed a role for FOXM1 and identified two novel ...


Cdk1 And Plk1 Mediate A Clasp2 Phospho-Switch That Stabilizes Kinetochore–Microtubule Attachments, Ana R. R. Maia, Zaira Garcia, Lilian Kabeche, Marin Barisic Jan 2012

Cdk1 And Plk1 Mediate A Clasp2 Phospho-Switch That Stabilizes Kinetochore–Microtubule Attachments, Ana R. R. Maia, Zaira Garcia, Lilian Kabeche, Marin Barisic

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Accurate chromosome segregation during mitosis relies on a dynamic kinetochore (KT)-microtubule (MT) interface that switches from a labile to a stable condition in response to correct MT attachments. This transition is essential to satisfy the spindle-assembly checkpoint (SAC) and couple MT-generated force with chromosome movements, but the underlying regulatory mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we show that during mitosis the MT- and KT-associated protein CLASP2 is progressively and distinctively phosphorylated by Cdk1 and Plk1 kinases, concomitant with the establishment of KT-MT attachments. CLASP2 S1234 was phosphorylated by Cdk1, which primed CLASP2 for association with Plk1. Plk1 recruitment to ...


Planning Combinatorial Disulfide Cross-Links For Protein Fold Determination, Fei Xiong, Alan M Friedman, Chris Bailey-Kellogg Nov 2011

Planning Combinatorial Disulfide Cross-Links For Protein Fold Determination, Fei Xiong, Alan M Friedman, Chris Bailey-Kellogg

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Fold recognition techniques take advantage of the limited number of overall structural organizations, and have become increasingly effective at identifying the fold of a given target sequence. However, in the absence of sufficient sequence identity, it remains difficult for fold recognition methods to always select the correct model. While a native-like model is often among a pool of highly ranked models, it is not necessarily the highest-ranked one, and the model rankings depend sensitively on the scoring function used. Structure elucidation methods can then be employed to decide among the models based on relatively rapid biochemical/biophysical experiments.


Splice Variant–Specific Cellular Function Of The Formin Inf2 In Maintenance Of Golgi Architecture, Vinay Ramabhadran, Farida Korobova, Gilbert J. Rahme, Henry N. Higgs Oct 2011

Splice Variant–Specific Cellular Function Of The Formin Inf2 In Maintenance Of Golgi Architecture, Vinay Ramabhadran, Farida Korobova, Gilbert J. Rahme, Henry N. Higgs

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

INF2 is a unique formin that can both polymerize and depolymerize actin filaments. Mutations in INF2 cause the kidney disease focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis. INF2 can be expressed as two C-terminal splice variants: CAAX and non-CAAX. The CAAX isoform contains a C-terminal prenyl group and is tightly bound to endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The localization pattern and cellular function of the non-CAAX isoform have not been studied. Here we find that the two isoforms are expressed in a cell type-dependent manner, with CAAX predominant in 3T3 fibroblasts and non-CAAX predominant in U2OS, HeLa, and Jurkat cells. Although INF2-CAAX is ER localized ...


Differential Interactions Of The Formins Inf2, Mdia1, And Mdia2 With Microtubules, Jeremie Gaillard, Bvinay Ramabhadran, Emmanuelle Neumanne, Pinar Gurel, Laurent Blanchoin, Marylin Vantard, Henry N. Higgs Sep 2011

Differential Interactions Of The Formins Inf2, Mdia1, And Mdia2 With Microtubules, Jeremie Gaillard, Bvinay Ramabhadran, Emmanuelle Neumanne, Pinar Gurel, Laurent Blanchoin, Marylin Vantard, Henry N. Higgs

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

A number of cellular processes use both microtubules and actin filaments, but the molecular machinery linking these two cytoskeletal elements remains to be elucidated in detail. Formins are actin-binding proteins that have multiple effects on actin dynamics, and one formin, mDia2, has been shown to bind and stabilize microtubules through its formin homology 2 (FH2) domain. Here we show that three formins, INF2, mDia1, and mDia2, display important differences in their interactions with microtubules and actin. Constructs containing FH1, FH2, and C-terminal domains of all three formins bind microtubules with high affinity (K(d) < 100 nM). However, only mDia2 binds microtubules at 1:1 stoichiometry, with INF2 and mDia1 showing saturating binding at approximately 1:3 (formin dimer:tubulin dimer). INF2-FH1FH2C is a potent microtubule-bundling protein, an effect that results in a large reduction in catastrophe rate. In contrast, neither mDia1 nor mDia2 is a potent microtubule bundler. The C-termini of mDia2 and INF2 have different functions in microtubule interaction, with mDia2's C-terminus required for high-affinity binding and INF2's C-terminus required for bundling. mDia2's C-terminus directly binds microtubules with submicromolar affinity. These formins also differ in their abilities to bind actin and microtubules simultaneously. Microtubules strongly inhibit actin polymerization by mDia2, whereas they moderately inhibit mDia1 and have no effect on INF2. Conversely, actin monomers inhibit microtubule binding/bundling by INF2 but do not affect mDia1 or mDia2. These differences in interactions with microtubules and actin suggest differential function in cellular processes requiring both cytoskeletal elements.


Serum- And Glucocorticoid-Induced Kinase 3 In Recycling Endosomes Mediates Acute Activation Of Na+/H+ Exchanger Nhe3 By Glucocorticoids, Peijian He, Sei-Jung Lee, Songbai Lin, Ursula Seidler, Florian Lang, Geza Fejes-Toth, Aniko Naray-Fejes-Toth, C. Chris Yun Aug 2011

Serum- And Glucocorticoid-Induced Kinase 3 In Recycling Endosomes Mediates Acute Activation Of Na+/H+ Exchanger Nhe3 By Glucocorticoids, Peijian He, Sei-Jung Lee, Songbai Lin, Ursula Seidler, Florian Lang, Geza Fejes-Toth, Aniko Naray-Fejes-Toth, C. Chris Yun

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3 (NHE3) is the major Na(+) transporter in the intestine. Serum- and glucocorticoid-induced kinase (SGK) 1 interacts with NHE regulatory factor 2 (NHERF2) and mediates activation of NHE3 by dexamethasone (Dex) in cultured epithelial cells. In this study, we compared short-term regulation of NHE3 by Dex in SGK1-null and NHERF2-null mice. In comparison to wild-type mice, loss of SGK1 or NHERF2 significantly attenuated regulation of NHE3 by Dex but did not completely obliterate the effect. We show that transfection of SGK2 or SGK3 in PS120 cells resulted in robust activation of NHE3 by Dex. However, unlike SGK1 ...


Requirement For Golgi-Localized Pi(4)P In Fusion Of Copii Vesicles With Golgi Compartments, Andres Lorente-Rodriguez, Charles Barlowe Nov 2010

Requirement For Golgi-Localized Pi(4)P In Fusion Of Copii Vesicles With Golgi Compartments, Andres Lorente-Rodriguez, Charles Barlowe

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The role of specific membrane lipids in transport between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi compartments is poorly understood. Using cell-free assays that measure stages in ER-to-Golgi transport, we screened a variety of enzyme inhibitors, lipid-modifying enzymes, and lipid ligands to investigate requirements in yeast. The pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of human Fapp1, which binds phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI(4)P) specifically, was a strong and specific inhibitor of anterograde transport. Analysis of wild type and mutant PH domain proteins in addition to recombinant versions of the Sac1p phosphoinositide-phosphatase indicated that PI(4)P was required on Golgi membranes for fusion with coat ...


Examining The Link Between Chromosomal Instability And Aneuploidy In Human Cells, Sarah L. Thompson, Duane A. Compton Jan 2008

Examining The Link Between Chromosomal Instability And Aneuploidy In Human Cells, Sarah L. Thompson, Duane A. Compton

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Solid tumors can be highly aneuploid and many display high rates of chromosome missegregation in a phenomenon called chromosomal instability (CIN). In principle, aneuploidy is the consequence of CIN, but the relationship between CIN and aneuploidy has not been clearly defined. In this study, we use live cell imaging and clonal cell analyses to evaluate the fidelity of chromosome segregation in chromosomally stable and unstable human cells. We show that improper microtubule–chromosome attachment (merotely) is a cause of chromosome missegregation in unstable cells and that increasing chromosome missegregation rates by elevating merotely during consecutive mitoses generates CIN in otherwise ...


Arsenite Regulates Cystic Fibrosis Transmem­Brane Conductance Regulator And P-Glycoprotein: Evidence Of Pathway Independence, Rangan Maitra, Joshua Hamilton Jan 2005

Arsenite Regulates Cystic Fibrosis Transmem­Brane Conductance Regulator And P-Glycoprotein: Evidence Of Pathway Independence, Rangan Maitra, Joshua Hamilton

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

In the past, people have argued for and against the theory of reciprocal regulation of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) and P-glycoprotein (Pgp). Data have indicated that this may occur in vitro during drug-induced selection of cells, and in vivo during development. Much of this debate has been caused by a severe lack of mechanistic details involved in such regulation. Our past data indicate that certain Pgp modulators can affect CFTR expression and function. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of trivalent arsenic (arsenite), a known transcriptional activator of Pgp, on CFTR expression. In ...


Phylogenetic Analysis Of The Formin Homology 2 Domain, Henry N. Higgs, Kevin J. Peterson Oct 2004

Phylogenetic Analysis Of The Formin Homology 2 Domain, Henry N. Higgs, Kevin J. Peterson

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Formin proteins are key regulators of eukaryotic actin filament assembly and elongation, and many species possess multiple formin isoforms. A nomenclature system based on fundamental features would be desirable, to aid the rapid identification and characterization of novel formins. In this article, we attempt to systematize the formin family by performing phylogenetic analyses of the formin homology 2 (FH2) domain, an independently folding region common to all formins, which alone can influence actin dynamics. Through database searches, we identify 101 FH2 domains from 26 eukaryotic species, including 15 in mice. Sequence alignments reveal a highly conserved yeast-specific insert in the ...


The Kini Kinesin Kif2a Is Required For Bipolar Spindle Assembly Through A Functional Relationship With Mcak, Neil J. Ganem, Duane A. Compton Aug 2004

The Kini Kinesin Kif2a Is Required For Bipolar Spindle Assembly Through A Functional Relationship With Mcak, Neil J. Ganem, Duane A. Compton

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Although the microtubule-depolymerizing KinI motor Kif2a is abundantly expressed in neuronal cells, we now show it localizes to centrosomes and spindle poles during mitosis in cultured cells. RNAi-induced knockdown of Kif2a expression inhibited cell cycle progression because cells assembled monopolar spindles. Bipolar spindle assembly was restored in cells lacking Kif2a by treatments that altered microtubule assembly (nocodazole), eliminated kinetochore–microtubule attachment (loss of Nuf2), or stabilized microtubule plus ends at kinetochores (loss of MCAK). Thus, two KinI motors, MCAK and Kif2a, play distinct roles in mitosis, and MCAK activity at kinetochores must be balanced by Kif2a activity at poles for ...


Pv1 Is A Key Structural Component For The Formation Of The Stomatal And Fenestral Diaphragms, Radu V. Stan, Eugene Tkachenko, Ingrid R. Niesman May 2004

Pv1 Is A Key Structural Component For The Formation Of The Stomatal And Fenestral Diaphragms, Radu V. Stan, Eugene Tkachenko, Ingrid R. Niesman

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

PV1 is an endothelial-specific integral membrane glycoprotein associated with the stomatal diaphragms of caveolae, transendothelial channels, and vesiculo-vacuolar organelles and the diaphragms of endothelial fenestrae. Multiple PV1 homodimers are found within each stomatal and fenestral diaphragm. We investigated the function of PV1 within these diaphragms and their regulation and found that treatment of endothelial cells in culture with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) led to upregulation of PV1. This correlated with de novo formation of stomatal diaphragms of caveolae and transendothelial channels as well as fenestrae upon PMA treatment. The newly formed diaphragms could be labeled with anti-PV1 antibodies. The upregulation ...


Minus-End Capture Of Preformed Kinetochore Fibers Contributes To Spindle Morphogenesis, Alexey Khodjakov, Lily Copenagle, Michael B. Gordon, Duane A. Compton, Tarun M. Kapoor Mar 2003

Minus-End Capture Of Preformed Kinetochore Fibers Contributes To Spindle Morphogenesis, Alexey Khodjakov, Lily Copenagle, Michael B. Gordon, Duane A. Compton, Tarun M. Kapoor

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Near-simultaneous three-dimensional fluorescence/differential interference contrast microscopy was used to follow the behavior of microtubules and chromosomes in living alpha-tubulin/GFP-expressing cells after inhibition of the mitotic kinesin Eg5 with monastrol. Kinetochore fibers (K-fibers) were frequently observed forming in association with chromosomes both during monastrol treatment and after monastrol removal. Surprisingly, these K-fibers were oriented away from, and not directly connected to, centrosomes and incorporated into the spindle by the sliding of their distal ends toward centrosomes via a NuMA-dependent mechanism. Similar preformed K-fibers were also observed during spindle formation in untreated cells. In addition, upon monastrol removal, centrosomes established ...


Cloning Of Human Acetyl-Coa Carboxylase-Beta And Its Unique Features., Joohun Ha, Jung-Kee Lee, Kyung-Sup Kim, Lee A. Witters, Ki-Han Kim Oct 1996

Cloning Of Human Acetyl-Coa Carboxylase-Beta And Its Unique Features., Joohun Ha, Jung-Kee Lee, Kyung-Sup Kim, Lee A. Witters, Ki-Han Kim

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Acetyl-CoA carboxylase, which has a molecular mass of 265 kDa (ACC-alpha), catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of long-chain fatty acids. In this study we report the complete amino acid sequence and unique features of an isoform of ACC with a molecular mass of 275 kDa (ACC-beta), which is primarily expressed in heart and skeletal muscles. In these tissues, ACC-beta may be involved in the regulation of fatty acid oxidation, rather than fatty acid biosynthesis. ACC-beta contains an amino acid sequence at the N terminus which is about 200 amino acids long and may be uniquely related to the ...


A Novel Iron-Regulated Metal Transporter From Plants Identified By Functional Expression In Yeast., David Eide, Margaret Broderius, Jeanette Fett, Mary Lou Guerinot May 1996

A Novel Iron-Regulated Metal Transporter From Plants Identified By Functional Expression In Yeast., David Eide, Margaret Broderius, Jeanette Fett, Mary Lou Guerinot

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Iron is an essential nutrient for virtually all organisms. The IRT1 (iron-regulated transporter) gene of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, encoding a probable Fe(II) transporter, was cloned by functional expression in a yeast strain defective for iron uptake. Yeast expressing IRT1 possess a novel Fe(II) uptake activity that is strongly inhibited by Cd. IRT1 is predicted to be an integral membrane protein with a metal-binding domain. Data base comparisons and Southern blot analysis indicated that IRT1 is a member of a gene family in Arabidopsis. Related sequences were also found in the genomes of rice, yeast, nematodes, and humans ...