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Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Data Publication With The Structural Biology Data Grid Supports Live Analysis, Peter A. Meyer, Stephanie Socias, Jason Key, Elizabeth Ransey, Emily C. Tjon, Alejandro Buschiazzo, Ming Lei, Chris Botka, James Withrow, David Neau, Kanagalaghatta Rajashankar, Karen S. Anderson, Chung-I Chang, Walter J. Chazin, Kevin D. Corbett, Michael S. Cosgrove, Sean Crosson, Sirano Dhe-Paganon, Enrico Di Cera, Catherine L. Drennan, Michael J. Eck, Brandt F. Eichman, Qing R. Fan, Adrian R. Ferre-D’Amare, J. Christopher Fromme, K. Christopher Garcia, Rachelle Gaudet, Peng Gong, Stephen C. Harrison, Ekaterina E. Heldwein, Zongchao Jia, Robert J. Keenan, Andrew C. Kruse, Marc Kvansaku, Jason S. Mclellan Mar 2016

Data Publication With The Structural Biology Data Grid Supports Live Analysis, Peter A. Meyer, Stephanie Socias, Jason Key, Elizabeth Ransey, Emily C. Tjon, Alejandro Buschiazzo, Ming Lei, Chris Botka, James Withrow, David Neau, Kanagalaghatta Rajashankar, Karen S. Anderson, Chung-I Chang, Walter J. Chazin, Kevin D. Corbett, Michael S. Cosgrove, Sean Crosson, Sirano Dhe-Paganon, Enrico Di Cera, Catherine L. Drennan, Michael J. Eck, Brandt F. Eichman, Qing R. Fan, Adrian R. Ferre-D’Amare, J. Christopher Fromme, K. Christopher Garcia, Rachelle Gaudet, Peng Gong, Stephen C. Harrison, Ekaterina E. Heldwein, Zongchao Jia, Robert J. Keenan, Andrew C. Kruse, Marc Kvansaku, Jason S. Mclellan

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Access to experimental X-ray diffraction image data is fundamental for validation and reproduction of macromolecular models and indispensable for development of structural biology processing methods. Here, we established a diffraction data publication and dissemination system, Structural Biology Data Grid (SBDG; data.sbgrid.org), to preserve primary experimental data sets that support scientific publications. Data sets are accessible to researchers through a community driven data grid, which facilitates global data access. Our analysis of a pilot collection of crystallographic data sets demonstrates that the information archived by SBDG is sufficient to reprocess data to statistics that meet or exceed the quality ...


A Distinct Tethering Step Is Vital For Vacuole Membrane Fusion, Michael Zick, William T. Wickner Sep 2014

A Distinct Tethering Step Is Vital For Vacuole Membrane Fusion, Michael Zick, William T. Wickner

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Past experiments with reconstituted proteoliposomes, employing assays that infer membrane fusion from fluorescent lipid dequenching, have suggested that vacuolar SNAREs alone suffice to catalyze membrane fusion in vitro. While we could replicate these results, we detected very little fusion with the more rigorous assay of lumenal compartment mixing. Exploring the discrepancies between lipid-dequenching and content-mixing assays, we surprisingly found that the disposition of the fluorescent lipids with respect to SNAREs had a striking effect. Without other proteins, the association of SNAREs in trans causes lipid dequenching that cannot be ascribed to fusion or hemifusion. Tethering of the SNARE-bearing proteoliposomes was ...


Megadalton-Node Assembly By Binding Of Skb1 To The Membrane Anchor Slf1, Lin L. Deng, Ruth Kabeche, Ning Wang, Jian-Qiu Wu, James B. Moseley Jul 2014

Megadalton-Node Assembly By Binding Of Skb1 To The Membrane Anchor Slf1, Lin L. Deng, Ruth Kabeche, Ning Wang, Jian-Qiu Wu, James B. Moseley

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The plasma membrane contains both dynamic and static microdomains. Given the growing appreciation of cortical microdomains in cell biology, it is important to determine the organizational principles that underlie assembly of compartmentalized structures at the plasma membrane. The fission yeast plasma membrane is highly compartmentalized by distinct sets of cortical nodes, which control signaling for cell cycle progression and cytokinesis. The mitotic inhibitor Skb1 localizes to a set of cortical nodes that provide spatial control over signaling for entry into mitosis. However, it has been unclear whether these nodes contain other proteins and how they might be organized and tethered ...


Redox-Dependent Stability, Protonation, And Reactivity Of Cysteine-Bound Heme Proteins, Fangfang Zhong, George P. Lisi, Daniel P. Collins, John H. Dawson, Ekaterina V. Pletneva Jan 2014

Redox-Dependent Stability, Protonation, And Reactivity Of Cysteine-Bound Heme Proteins, Fangfang Zhong, George P. Lisi, Daniel P. Collins, John H. Dawson, Ekaterina V. Pletneva

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Cysteine-bound hemes are key components of many enzymes and biological sensors. Protonation (deprotonation) of the Cys ligand often accompanies redox transformations of these centers. To characterize these phenomena, we have engineered a series of Thr78Cys/Lys79Gly/Met80X mutants of yeast cytochrome c (cyt c) in which Cys78 becomes one of the axial ligands to the heme. At neutral pH, the protonation state of the coordinated Cys differs for the ferric and ferrous heme species, with Cys binding as a thiolate and a thiol, respectively. Analysis of redox-dependent stability and alkaline transitions of these model proteins, as well as comparisons to ...


Killerflip: A Novel Lytic Peptide Specifically Inducing Cancer Cell Death, B Pennarun, G. Gaidos, O Bucur, A Tinari Oct 2013

Killerflip: A Novel Lytic Peptide Specifically Inducing Cancer Cell Death, B Pennarun, G. Gaidos, O Bucur, A Tinari

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

One of the objectives in the development of effective cancer therapy is induction of tumor-selective cell death. Toward this end, we have identified a small peptide that, when introduced into cells via a TAT cell-delivery system, shows a remarkably potent cytoxicity in a variety of cancer cell lines and inhibits tumor growth in vivo, whereas sparing normal cells and tissues. This fusion peptide was named killer FLIP as its sequence was derived from the C-terminal domain of c-FLIP, an anti-apoptotic protein. Using structure activity analysis, we determined the minimal bioactive core of killerFLIP, namely killerFLIP-E. Structural analysis of cells using ...


An Expanded View Of The Eukaryotic Cytoskeleton, James B. Moseley Oct 2013

An Expanded View Of The Eukaryotic Cytoskeleton, James B. Moseley

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

A rich and ongoing history of cell biology research has defined the major polymer systems of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. Recent studies have identified additional proteins that form filamentous structures in cells and can self-assemble into linear polymers when purified. This suggests that the eukaryotic cytoskeleton is an even more complex system than previously considered. In this essay, I examine the case for an expanded definition of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton and present a series of challenges for future work in this area.


Bioengineered Lysozyme Reduces Bacterial Burden And Inflammation In A Murine Model Of Mucoid Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Lung Infection, Charlotte C. Teneback, Thomas C. Scanlon, Matthew J. Wargo, Jenna L. Bement, Karl E. Griswold, Laurie W. Leclair Aug 2013

Bioengineered Lysozyme Reduces Bacterial Burden And Inflammation In A Murine Model Of Mucoid Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Lung Infection, Charlotte C. Teneback, Thomas C. Scanlon, Matthew J. Wargo, Jenna L. Bement, Karl E. Griswold, Laurie W. Leclair

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The spread of drug-resistant bacterial pathogens is a growing global concern and has prompted an effort to explore potential adjuvant and alternative therapies derived from nature's repertoire of bactericidal proteins and peptides. In humans, the airway surface liquid layer is a rich source of antibiotics, and lysozyme represents one of the most abundant and effective antimicrobial components of airway secretions. Human lysozyme is active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, ac


N-Terminal Domain Of Vacuolar Snare Vam7p Promotes Trans-Snare Complex Assembly, Hao Xu, William T. Wickner Sep 2012

N-Terminal Domain Of Vacuolar Snare Vam7p Promotes Trans-Snare Complex Assembly, Hao Xu, William T. Wickner

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

SNARE-dependent membrane fusion in eukaryotic cells requires that the heptad-repeat SNARE domains from R- and Q-SNAREs, anchored to apposed membranes, assemble into four-helix coiled-coil bundles. In addition to their SNARE and transmembrane domains, most SNAREs have N-terminal domains (N-domains), although their functions are unclear. The N-domain of the yeast vacuolar Qc-SNARE Vam7p is a binding partner for the homotypic fusion and vacuole protein sorting complex (a master regulator of vacuole fusion) and has Phox homology, providing a phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P)-specific membrane anchor. We now report that this Vam7p N-domain has yet another role, one that does not depend on ...


Planning Combinatorial Disulfide Cross-Links For Protein Fold Determination, Fei Xiong, Alan M Friedman, Chris Bailey-Kellogg Nov 2011

Planning Combinatorial Disulfide Cross-Links For Protein Fold Determination, Fei Xiong, Alan M Friedman, Chris Bailey-Kellogg

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Fold recognition techniques take advantage of the limited number of overall structural organizations, and have become increasingly effective at identifying the fold of a given target sequence. However, in the absence of sufficient sequence identity, it remains difficult for fold recognition methods to always select the correct model. While a native-like model is often among a pool of highly ranked models, it is not necessarily the highest-ranked one, and the model rankings depend sensitively on the scoring function used. Structure elucidation methods can then be employed to decide among the models based on relatively rapid biochemical/biophysical experiments.


A Lipid-Anchored Snare Supports Membrane Fusion, Hao Xu, Michael Zick, William T. Wickner, Youngsoo Jun Oct 2011

A Lipid-Anchored Snare Supports Membrane Fusion, Hao Xu, Michael Zick, William T. Wickner, Youngsoo Jun

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Intracellular membrane fusion requires R-SNAREs and Q-SNAREs to assemble into a four-helical parallel coiled-coil, with their hydrophobic anchors spanning the two apposed membranes. Based on the fusion properties of chemically defined SNARE- proteoliposomes, it has been proposed that the assembly of this helical bundle transduces force through the entire bilayer via the transmembrane SNARE anchor domains to drive fusion. However, an R-SNARE, Nyv1p, with a genetically engineered lipid anchor that spans half of the bilayer suffices for the fusion of isolated vacuoles, although this organelle has other R-SNAREs. To demonstrate unequivocally the fusion activity of lipid-anchored Nyv1p, we reconstituted proteoliposomes ...


Excision Dynamics Of Vibrio Pathogenicity Island-2 From Vibrio Cholerae: Role Of A Recombination Directionality Factor Vefa, Salvador Almagro-Moreno, Michael G. Napolitano, E. Fidelma Boyd Nov 2010

Excision Dynamics Of Vibrio Pathogenicity Island-2 From Vibrio Cholerae: Role Of A Recombination Directionality Factor Vefa, Salvador Almagro-Moreno, Michael G. Napolitano, E. Fidelma Boyd

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Vibrio Pathogenicity Island-2 (VPI-2) is a 57 kb region present in choleragenic V. cholerae isolates that is required for growth on sialic acid as a sole carbon source. V. cholerae non-O1/O139 pathogenic strains also contain VPI-2, which in addition to sialic acid catabolism genes also encodes a type 3 secretion system in these strains. VPI-2 integrates into chromosome 1 at a tRNA-serine site and encodes an integrase intV2 (VC1758) that belongs to the tyrosine recombinase family. ntV2 is required for VPI-2 excision from chromosome 1, which occurs at very low levels, and formation of a non-replicative circular intermediate.


Physical Interaction Between Vivid And White Collar Complex Regulates Photoadaptation In Neurospora, Chen-Hui H. Chen, Bradley S. Demay, Amy S. Gladfelter, Jay Dunlap, Jennifer J. Loros Sep 2010

Physical Interaction Between Vivid And White Collar Complex Regulates Photoadaptation In Neurospora, Chen-Hui H. Chen, Bradley S. Demay, Amy S. Gladfelter, Jay Dunlap, Jennifer J. Loros

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Photoadaptation, the ability to attenuate a light response on prolonged light exposure while remaining sensitive to escalating changes in light intensity, is essential for organisms to decipher time information appropriately, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. In Neurospora crassa, VIVID (VVD), a small LOV domain containing blue-light photoreceptor protein, affects photoadaptation for most if not all light-responsive genes. We report that there is a physical interaction between VVD and the white collar complex (WCC), the primary blue-light photoreceptor and the transcription factor complex that initiates light-regulated transcriptional responses in Neurospora. Using two previously characterized VVD mutants, we show ...


Genetic And Molecular Characterization Of A Cryptochrome From The Filamentous Fungus Neurospora Crassa, Allan C. Froehlich, Chen-Hui Chen, William J. Belden, Cornelia Madeti Mar 2010

Genetic And Molecular Characterization Of A Cryptochrome From The Filamentous Fungus Neurospora Crassa, Allan C. Froehlich, Chen-Hui Chen, William J. Belden, Cornelia Madeti

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

In plants and animals, cryptochromes function as either photoreceptors or circadian clock components. We have examined the cryptochrome from the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa and demonstrate that Neurospora cry encodes a DASH-type cryptochrome that appears capable of binding flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and methenyltetrahydrofolate (MTHF). The cry transcript and CRY protein levels are strongly induced by blue light in a wc-1-dependent manner, and cry transcript is circadianly regulated, with a peak abundance opposite in phase to frq. Neither deletion nor overexpression of cry appears to perturb the free-running circadian clock. However, cry disruption knockout mutants show a small phase delay ...


Ceramide Kinase Regulates Phospholipase C And Phosphatidylinositol 4, 5, Bisphosphate In Phototransduction, Ujjaini Dasgupta, Takeshi Bamba, Salvatore Chiantia, Pusha Karim, Ahmad N. Abou Tayoun Nov 2009

Ceramide Kinase Regulates Phospholipase C And Phosphatidylinositol 4, 5, Bisphosphate In Phototransduction, Ujjaini Dasgupta, Takeshi Bamba, Salvatore Chiantia, Pusha Karim, Ahmad N. Abou Tayoun

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) is a central effector for many biological responses regulated by G-protein-coupled receptors including Drosophila phototransduction where light sensitive channels are activated downstream of NORPA, a PLCbeta homolog. Here we show that the sphingolipid biosynthetic enzyme, ceramide kinase, is a novel regulator of PLC signaling and photoreceptor homeostasis. A mutation in ceramide kinase specifically leads to proteolysis of NORPA, consequent loss of PLC activity, and failure in light signal transduction. The mutant photoreceptors also undergo activity-dependent degeneration. Furthermore, we show that a significant increase in ceramide, resulting from lack of ceramide kinase, perturbs the membrane microenvironment of ...


A Conserved Cam- And Radial Spoke–Associated Complex Mediates Regulation Of Flagellar Dynein Activity, Erin E. Dymek, Elizabeth F. Smith Nov 2007

A Conserved Cam- And Radial Spoke–Associated Complex Mediates Regulation Of Flagellar Dynein Activity, Erin E. Dymek, Elizabeth F. Smith

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

For virtually all cilia and eukaryotic flagella, the second messengers calcium and cyclic adenosine monophosphate are implicated in modulating dynein- driven microtubule sliding to regulate beating. Calmodulin (CaM) localizes to the axoneme and is a key calcium sensor involved in regulating motility. Using immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, we identify members of a CaM-containing complex that are involved in regulating dynein activity. This complex includes flagellar-associated protein 91 (FAP91), which shares considerable sequence similarity to AAT-1, a protein originally identified in testis as an A-kinase anchor protein (AKAP)- binding protein. FAP91 directly interacts with radial spoke protein 3 (an AKAP), which ...


The Yeast Orthologue Of Grasp65 Forms A Complex With A Coiled-Coil Protein That Contributes To Er To Golgi Traffic, Rudy Behnia, Francis A. Barr, John J. Flanagan, Charles Barlowe, Sean Munro Jan 2007

The Yeast Orthologue Of Grasp65 Forms A Complex With A Coiled-Coil Protein That Contributes To Er To Golgi Traffic, Rudy Behnia, Francis A. Barr, John J. Flanagan, Charles Barlowe, Sean Munro

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The mammalian Golgi protein GRASP65 is required in assays that reconstitute cisternal stacking and vesicle tethering. Attached to membranes by an N-terminal myristoyl group, it recruits the coiled-coil protein GM130. The relevance of this system to budding yeasts has been unclear, as they lack an obvious orthologue of GM130, and their only GRASP65 relative (Grh1) lacks a myristoylation site and has even been suggested to act in a mitotic checkpoint. In this study, we show that Grh1 has an N-terminal amphipathic helix that is N-terminally acetylated and mediates association with the cis-Golgi. We find that Grh1 forms a complex with ...


Erv26p Directs Pro-Alkaline Phosphatase Into Endoplasmic Reticulum–Derived Coat Protein Complex Ii Transport Vesicles, Catherine A. Bue, Christine M. Bentivoglio, Charles Barlowe Sep 2006

Erv26p Directs Pro-Alkaline Phosphatase Into Endoplasmic Reticulum–Derived Coat Protein Complex Ii Transport Vesicles, Catherine A. Bue, Christine M. Bentivoglio, Charles Barlowe

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Secretory proteins are exported from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in transport vesicles formed by the coat protein complex II (COPII). We detected Erv26p as an integral membrane protein that was efficiently packaged into COPII vesicles and cycled between the ER and Golgi compartments. The erv26Δ mutant displayed a selective secretory defect in which the pro-form of vacuolar alkaline phosphatase (pro-ALP) accumulated in the ER, whereas other secretory proteins were transported at wild-type rates. In vitro budding experiments demonstrated that Erv26p was directly required for packaging of pro-ALP into COPII vesicles. Moreover, Erv26p was detected in a specific complex with pro-ALP ...


Phylogenetic Analysis Of The Formin Homology 2 Domain, Henry N. Higgs, Kevin J. Peterson Oct 2004

Phylogenetic Analysis Of The Formin Homology 2 Domain, Henry N. Higgs, Kevin J. Peterson

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Formin proteins are key regulators of eukaryotic actin filament assembly and elongation, and many species possess multiple formin isoforms. A nomenclature system based on fundamental features would be desirable, to aid the rapid identification and characterization of novel formins. In this article, we attempt to systematize the formin family by performing phylogenetic analyses of the formin homology 2 (FH2) domain, an independently folding region common to all formins, which alone can influence actin dynamics. Through database searches, we identify 101 FH2 domains from 26 eukaryotic species, including 15 in mice. Sequence alignments reveal a highly conserved yeast-specific insert in the ...


Pv1 Is A Key Structural Component For The Formation Of The Stomatal And Fenestral Diaphragms, Radu V. Stan, Eugene Tkachenko, Ingrid R. Niesman May 2004

Pv1 Is A Key Structural Component For The Formation Of The Stomatal And Fenestral Diaphragms, Radu V. Stan, Eugene Tkachenko, Ingrid R. Niesman

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

PV1 is an endothelial-specific integral membrane glycoprotein associated with the stomatal diaphragms of caveolae, transendothelial channels, and vesiculo-vacuolar organelles and the diaphragms of endothelial fenestrae. Multiple PV1 homodimers are found within each stomatal and fenestral diaphragm. We investigated the function of PV1 within these diaphragms and their regulation and found that treatment of endothelial cells in culture with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) led to upregulation of PV1. This correlated with de novo formation of stomatal diaphragms of caveolae and transendothelial channels as well as fenestrae upon PMA treatment. The newly formed diaphragms could be labeled with anti-PV1 antibodies. The upregulation ...


A Subgroup Algorithm To Identify Cross-Rotation Peaks Consistent With Non-Crystallographic Symmetry, Ryan H. Lilien, Chris Bailey-Kellogg, Amy C. Anderson, Bruce R. Donald Mar 2004

A Subgroup Algorithm To Identify Cross-Rotation Peaks Consistent With Non-Crystallographic Symmetry, Ryan H. Lilien, Chris Bailey-Kellogg, Amy C. Anderson, Bruce R. Donald

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Molecular replacement (MR) often plays a prominent role in determining initial phase angles for structure determination by X-ray crystallography. In this paper, an efficient quaternion-based algorithm is presented for analyzing peaks from a cross-rotation function in order to identify model orientations consistent with proper non-crystallographic symmetry (NCS) and to generate proper NCS-consistent orientations missing from the list of cross-rotation peaks. The algorithm, CRANS, analyzes the rotation differences between each pair of cross-rotation peaks to identify finite subgroups. Sets of rotation differences satisfying the subgroup axioms correspond to orientations compatible with the correct proper NCS. The CRANS algorithm was first tested ...


Disulfide Bond Formation Involves A Quinhydrone-Type Charge–Transfer Complex, James Regeimbal, Stefan Gleiter, Bernard L. Trumpower, Chang-Ang Yu Nov 2003

Disulfide Bond Formation Involves A Quinhydrone-Type Charge–Transfer Complex, James Regeimbal, Stefan Gleiter, Bernard L. Trumpower, Chang-Ang Yu

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The chemistry of disulfide exchange in biological systems is well studied. However, the detailed mechanism of how oxidizing equivalents are derived to form disulfide bonds in proteins is not clear. In prokaryotic organisms, it is known that DsbB delivers oxidizing equivalents through DsbA to secreted proteins. DsbB becomes reoxidized by reducing quinones that are part of the membrane-bound electron-transfer chains. It is this quinone reductase activity that links disulfide bond formation to the electron transport system. We show here that purified DsbB contains the spectral signal of a quinhydrone, a charge-transfer complex consisting of a hydroquinone and a quinone in ...


Erv14p Directs A Transmembrane Secretory Protein Into Copii-Coated Transport Vesicles, Jacqueline Powers, Charles Barlowe Feb 2002

Erv14p Directs A Transmembrane Secretory Protein Into Copii-Coated Transport Vesicles, Jacqueline Powers, Charles Barlowe

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Erv14p is a conserved integral membrane protein that traffics in COPII-coated vesicles and localizes to the early secretory pathway in yeast. Deletion of ERV14 causes a defect in polarized growth because Axl2p, a transmembrane secretory protein, accumulates in the endoplasmic reticulum and is not delivered to its site of function on the cell surface. Herein, we show that Erv14p is required for selection of Axl2p into COPII vesicles and for efficient formation of these vesicles. Erv14p binds to subunits of the COPII coat and binding depends on conserved residues in a cytoplasmically exposed loop domain of Erv14p. When mutations are ...


Both An N-Terminal 65-Kda Domain And A C-Terminal 30-Kda Domain Of Seca Cycle Into The Membrane At Secyeg During Translocation, Jerry Eichler, William Wickner Apr 1997

Both An N-Terminal 65-Kda Domain And A C-Terminal 30-Kda Domain Of Seca Cycle Into The Membrane At Secyeg During Translocation, Jerry Eichler, William Wickner

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

SecA, a 102-kDa hydrophilic protein, couples the energy of ATP binding to the translocation of preprotein across the bacterial inner membrane. SecA function and topology were studied with metabolically labeled [35S]SecA and with inner membrane vesicles from cells that overex- pressed SecYEGDFyajC, the integral domain of preprotein translocase. During translocation in the presence of ATP and preprotein, a 65-kDa N-terminal domain of SecA is protected from proteolytic digestion through insertion into the mem- brane, as previously reported for a 30-kDa C-terminal domain [Economou, A. & Wickner, W. (1994) Cell 78, 835–843]. Insertion of both domains occurs at saturable SecYEGDFyajC ...


A Novel Iron-Regulated Metal Transporter From Plants Identified By Functional Expression In Yeast., David Eide, Margaret Broderius, Jeanette Fett, Mary Lou Guerinot May 1996

A Novel Iron-Regulated Metal Transporter From Plants Identified By Functional Expression In Yeast., David Eide, Margaret Broderius, Jeanette Fett, Mary Lou Guerinot

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Iron is an essential nutrient for virtually all organisms. The IRT1 (iron-regulated transporter) gene of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, encoding a probable Fe(II) transporter, was cloned by functional expression in a yeast strain defective for iron uptake. Yeast expressing IRT1 possess a novel Fe(II) uptake activity that is strongly inhibited by Cd. IRT1 is predicted to be an integral membrane protein with a metal-binding domain. Data base comparisons and Southern blot analysis indicated that IRT1 is a member of a gene family in Arabidopsis. Related sequences were also found in the genomes of rice, yeast, nematodes, and humans ...


Binding Of Matrix Attachment Regions To Lamin Polymers Involves Single-Stranded Regions And The Minor Groove., M. E. Eva Ludérus, Jan L. Den Blaauwen, Oncko J. De Smit, Duane A. Compton, Roel Van Driel Jan 1994

Binding Of Matrix Attachment Regions To Lamin Polymers Involves Single-Stranded Regions And The Minor Groove., M. E. Eva Ludérus, Jan L. Den Blaauwen, Oncko J. De Smit, Duane A. Compton, Roel Van Driel

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Chromatin in eukaryotic nuclei is thought to be partitioned into functional loop domains that are generated by the binding of defined DNA sequences, named MARs (matrix attachment regions), to the nuclear matrix. We have previously identified B-type lamins as MAR-binding matrix components (M. E. E. Ludérus, A. de Graaf, E. Mattia, J. L. den Blaauwen, M. A. Grande, L. de Jong, and R. van Driel, Cell 70:949-959, 1992). Here we show that A-type lamins and the structurally related proteins desmin and NuMA also specifically bind MARs in vitro. We studied the interaction between MARs and lamin polymers in molecular ...