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Articles 1 - 7 of 7

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

N-Terminal Domain Of Vacuolar Snare Vam7p Promotes Trans-Snare Complex Assembly, Hao Xu, William T. Wickner Sep 2012

N-Terminal Domain Of Vacuolar Snare Vam7p Promotes Trans-Snare Complex Assembly, Hao Xu, William T. Wickner

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

SNARE-dependent membrane fusion in eukaryotic cells requires that the heptad-repeat SNARE domains from R- and Q-SNAREs, anchored to apposed membranes, assemble into four-helix coiled-coil bundles. In addition to their SNARE and transmembrane domains, most SNAREs have N-terminal domains (N-domains), although their functions are unclear. The N-domain of the yeast vacuolar Qc-SNARE Vam7p is a binding partner for the homotypic fusion and vacuole protein sorting complex (a master regulator of vacuole fusion) and has Phox homology, providing a phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P)-specific membrane anchor. We now report that this Vam7p N-domain has yet another role, one that does not depend on ...


Insights Into Mrnp Biogenesis Provided By New Genetic Interactions Among Export And Transcription Factors, Francisco Estruch, Christine Hodge, Natalia Gómez-Navarro, Lorena Peiró-Chova, Catherine V. Heath, Charles N. Cole Sep 2012

Insights Into Mrnp Biogenesis Provided By New Genetic Interactions Among Export And Transcription Factors, Francisco Estruch, Christine Hodge, Natalia Gómez-Navarro, Lorena Peiró-Chova, Catherine V. Heath, Charles N. Cole

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The various steps of mRNP biogenesis (transcription, processing and export) are interconnected. It has been shown that the transcription machinery plays a pivotal role in mRNP assembly, since several mRNA export factors are recruited during transcription and physically interact with components of the transcription machinery. Although the shuttling DEAD-box protein Dbp5p is concentrated on the cytoplasmic fibrils of the NPC, previous studies demonstrated that it interacts physically and genetically with factors involved in transcription initiation. We investigated the effect of mutations affecting various components of the transcription initiation apparatus on the phenotypes of mRNA export mutant strains. Our results show ...


Live-Cell Monitoring Of Periodic Gene Expression In Synchronous Human Cells Identifies Forkhead Genes Involved In Cell Cycle Control, Gavin D. Grant, Joshua Gamsby, Viktor Martyanov, Lionel Brooks, Lacy K. George, J. Matthew Mahoney, Jennifer J. Loros, Jay C. Dunlap, Michael L. Whitfield Jun 2012

Live-Cell Monitoring Of Periodic Gene Expression In Synchronous Human Cells Identifies Forkhead Genes Involved In Cell Cycle Control, Gavin D. Grant, Joshua Gamsby, Viktor Martyanov, Lionel Brooks, Lacy K. George, J. Matthew Mahoney, Jennifer J. Loros, Jay C. Dunlap, Michael L. Whitfield

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

We developed a system to monitor periodic luciferase activity from cell cycle-regulated promoters in synchronous cells. Reporters were driven by a minimal human E2F1 promoter with peak expression in G1/S or a basal promoter with six Forkhead DNA-binding sites with peak expression at G2/M. After cell cycle synchronization, luciferase activity was measured in live cells at 10-min intervals across three to four synchronous cell cycles, allowing unprecedented resolution of cell cycle-regulated gene expression. We used this assay to screen Forkhead transcription factors for control of periodic gene expression. We confirmed a role for FOXM1 and identified two novel ...


Auf1/Hnrnp D Represses Expression Of Vegf In Macrophages, Abigail Fellows, Mary E. Griffin, Brenda L. Petrella, Lihui Zhong, Fatemeh P. Parvin-Nejad, Roy Fava, Peter Morganelli, R. Brooks Robey, Ralph C. Nichols Feb 2012

Auf1/Hnrnp D Represses Expression Of Vegf In Macrophages, Abigail Fellows, Mary E. Griffin, Brenda L. Petrella, Lihui Zhong, Fatemeh P. Parvin-Nejad, Roy Fava, Peter Morganelli, R. Brooks Robey, Ralph C. Nichols

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a regulator of vascularization in development and is a key growth factor in tissue repair. In disease, VEGF contributes to vascularization of solid tumors and arthritic joints. This study examines the role of the mRNA-binding protein AUF1/heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D (AUF1) in VEGF gene expression. We show that overexpression of AUF1 in mouse macrophage-like RAW-264.7 cells suppresses endogenous VEGF protein levels. To study 3′ untranslated region (UTR)–mediated regulation, we introduced the 3′ UTR of VEGF mRNA into a luciferase reporter gene. Coexpression of AUF1 represses VEGF-3′ UTR reporter expression in RAW-264 ...


Conformational Properties Of Cardiolipin-Bound Cytochrome C, Jonas Hanske, Jason R. Toffey, Anna M. Morenz, Amber J. Bonilla, Katherine H. Schiavoni;, Ekaterina V. Pletneva Jan 2012

Conformational Properties Of Cardiolipin-Bound Cytochrome C, Jonas Hanske, Jason R. Toffey, Anna M. Morenz, Amber J. Bonilla, Katherine H. Schiavoni;, Ekaterina V. Pletneva

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Interactions of cytochrome c (cyt c) with cardiolipin (CL) are important for both electron transfer and apoptotic functions of this protein. A sluggish peroxidase in its native state, when bound to CL, cyt c catalyzes CL peroxidation, which contributes to the protein apoptotic release. The heterogeneous CL-bound cyt c ensemble is difficult to characterize with traditional structural methods and ensemble-averaged probes. We have employed time-resolved FRET measurements to evaluate structural properties of the CL-bound protein in four dansyl (Dns)-labeled variants of horse heart cyt c. The Dns decay curves and extracted Dns-to-heme distance distributions P(r) reveal a conformational ...


Domain Architecture Of A Calcium-Permeable Ampa Receptor In A Ligand-Free Conformation, Charles R. Midgett, Avinash Gill, Dean R. Madden Jan 2012

Domain Architecture Of A Calcium-Permeable Ampa Receptor In A Ligand-Free Conformation, Charles R. Midgett, Avinash Gill, Dean R. Madden

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Ligand-gated ion channels couple the free energy of agonist binding to the gating of selective transmembrane ion pores, permitting cells to regulate ion flux in response to external chemical stimuli. However, the stereochemical mechanisms responsible for this coupling remain obscure. In the case of the ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs), the modular nature of receptor subunits has facilitated structural analysis of the N-terminal domain (NTD), and of multiple conformations of the ligand-binding domain (LBD). Recently, the crystallographic structure of an antagonist-bound form of the receptor was determined. However, disulfide trapping of this conformation blocks channel opening, suggesting that channel activation involves ...


Cdk1 And Plk1 Mediate A Clasp2 Phospho-Switch That Stabilizes Kinetochore–Microtubule Attachments, Ana R. R. Maia, Zaira Garcia, Lilian Kabeche, Marin Barisic Jan 2012

Cdk1 And Plk1 Mediate A Clasp2 Phospho-Switch That Stabilizes Kinetochore–Microtubule Attachments, Ana R. R. Maia, Zaira Garcia, Lilian Kabeche, Marin Barisic

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Accurate chromosome segregation during mitosis relies on a dynamic kinetochore (KT)-microtubule (MT) interface that switches from a labile to a stable condition in response to correct MT attachments. This transition is essential to satisfy the spindle-assembly checkpoint (SAC) and couple MT-generated force with chromosome movements, but the underlying regulatory mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we show that during mitosis the MT- and KT-associated protein CLASP2 is progressively and distinctively phosphorylated by Cdk1 and Plk1 kinases, concomitant with the establishment of KT-MT attachments. CLASP2 S1234 was phosphorylated by Cdk1, which primed CLASP2 for association with Plk1. Plk1 recruitment to ...