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Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Alternative Use Of Dna Binding Domains By The Neurospora White Collar Complex Dictates Circadian Regulation And Light Responses, Bin Wang, Xiaoying Zhou, Jennifer J. Loros, Jay C. Dunlap Dec 2015

Alternative Use Of Dna Binding Domains By The Neurospora White Collar Complex Dictates Circadian Regulation And Light Responses, Bin Wang, Xiaoying Zhou, Jennifer J. Loros, Jay C. Dunlap

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

In the Neurospora circadian system, the White Collar complex (WCC) of WC-1 and WC-2 drives transcription of the circadian pacemaker gene frequency (frq), whose gene product, FRQ, as a part of the FRQ-FRH complex (FFC), inhibits its own expression. The WCC is also the principal Neurospora photoreceptor; WCC-mediated light induction of frq resets the clock, and all acute light induction is triggered by WCC binding to promoters of light-induced genes. However, not all acutely light-induced genes are also clock regulated, and conversely, not all clock-regulated direct targets of WCC are light induced; the structural determinants governing the shift from WCC ...


Period-1 Encodes An Atp-Dependent Rna Helicase That Influences Nutritional Compensation Of The Neurospora Circadian Clock, Jillian M. Emerson, Bradley M. Bartholomai, Carol S. Ringelberg, Scott E. Baker, Jennifer Loros, Jay Dunlap Dec 2015

Period-1 Encodes An Atp-Dependent Rna Helicase That Influences Nutritional Compensation Of The Neurospora Circadian Clock, Jillian M. Emerson, Bradley M. Bartholomai, Carol S. Ringelberg, Scott E. Baker, Jennifer Loros, Jay Dunlap

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Mutants in the period-1 (prd-1) gene, characterized by a recessive allele, display a reduced growth rate and period lengthening of the developmental cycle controlled by the circadian clock. We refined the genetic location of prd-1 and used whole genome sequencing to find the mutation defining it, confirming the identity of prd-1 by rescuing the mutant circadian phenotype via transformation. PRD-1 is an RNA helicase whose orthologs, DDX5 [DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) Box Helicase 5] and DDX17 in humans and DBP2 (Dead Box Protein 2) in yeast, are implicated in various processes, including transcriptional regulation, elongation, and termination, ribosome biogenesis, and mRNA decay ...


Biological Significance Of Photoreceptor Photocycle Length: Vivid Photocycle Governs The Dynamic Vivid-White Collar Complex Pool Mediating Photo-Adaptation And Response To Changes In Light Intensity, Arko Dasgupta, Chen-Hui Chen, Changhwan Lee, Amy S. Gladfelter, Jay C. Dunlap, Jennifer J. Loros May 2015

Biological Significance Of Photoreceptor Photocycle Length: Vivid Photocycle Governs The Dynamic Vivid-White Collar Complex Pool Mediating Photo-Adaptation And Response To Changes In Light Intensity, Arko Dasgupta, Chen-Hui Chen, Changhwan Lee, Amy S. Gladfelter, Jay C. Dunlap, Jennifer J. Loros

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Most organisms on earth sense light through the use of chromophore-bearing photoreceptive proteins with distinct and characteristic photocycle lengths, yet the biological significance of this adduct decay length is neither understood nor has been tested. In the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa VIVID (VVD) is a critical player in the process of photoadaptation, the attenuation of light-induced responses and the ability to maintain photosensitivity in response to changing light intensities. Detailed in vitro analysis of the photochemistry of the blue light sensing, FAD binding, LOV domain of VVD has revealed residues around the site of photo-adduct formation that influence the stability ...


How Long Is A Piece Of Loop?, Yoonjoo Choi, Sumeet Agarwal, Charlotte M. Deane Feb 2013

How Long Is A Piece Of Loop?, Yoonjoo Choi, Sumeet Agarwal, Charlotte M. Deane

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Loops are irregular structures which connect two secondary structure elements in proteins. They often play important roles in function, including enzyme reactions and ligand binding. Despite their importance, their structure remains difficult to predict. Most protein loop structure prediction methods sample local loop segments and score them. In particular protein loop classifications and database search methods depend heavily on local properties of loops. Here we examine the distance between a loop's end points (span). We find that the distribution of loop span appears to be independent of the number of residues in the loop, in other words the separation ...


Insights Into Mrnp Biogenesis Provided By New Genetic Interactions Among Export And Transcription Factors, Francisco Estruch, Christine Hodge, Natalia Gómez-Navarro, Lorena Peiró-Chova, Catherine V. Heath, Charles N. Cole Sep 2012

Insights Into Mrnp Biogenesis Provided By New Genetic Interactions Among Export And Transcription Factors, Francisco Estruch, Christine Hodge, Natalia Gómez-Navarro, Lorena Peiró-Chova, Catherine V. Heath, Charles N. Cole

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The various steps of mRNP biogenesis (transcription, processing and export) are interconnected. It has been shown that the transcription machinery plays a pivotal role in mRNP assembly, since several mRNA export factors are recruited during transcription and physically interact with components of the transcription machinery. Although the shuttling DEAD-box protein Dbp5p is concentrated on the cytoplasmic fibrils of the NPC, previous studies demonstrated that it interacts physically and genetically with factors involved in transcription initiation. We investigated the effect of mutations affecting various components of the transcription initiation apparatus on the phenotypes of mRNA export mutant strains. Our results show ...


Planning Combinatorial Disulfide Cross-Links For Protein Fold Determination, Fei Xiong, Alan M Friedman, Chris Bailey-Kellogg Nov 2011

Planning Combinatorial Disulfide Cross-Links For Protein Fold Determination, Fei Xiong, Alan M Friedman, Chris Bailey-Kellogg

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Fold recognition techniques take advantage of the limited number of overall structural organizations, and have become increasingly effective at identifying the fold of a given target sequence. However, in the absence of sufficient sequence identity, it remains difficult for fold recognition methods to always select the correct model. While a native-like model is often among a pool of highly ranked models, it is not necessarily the highest-ranked one, and the model rankings depend sensitively on the scoring function used. Structure elucidation methods can then be employed to decide among the models based on relatively rapid biochemical/biophysical experiments.


Mutant Alcohol Dehydrogenase Leads To Improved Ethanol Tolerance In Clostridium Thermocellum, Steven D. Brown, Adam M. Guss, Tatiana V. Karpinets, Jerry M. Parks Aug 2011

Mutant Alcohol Dehydrogenase Leads To Improved Ethanol Tolerance In Clostridium Thermocellum, Steven D. Brown, Adam M. Guss, Tatiana V. Karpinets, Jerry M. Parks

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Clostridium thermocellum is a thermophilic, obligately anaerobic, Gram-positive bacterium that is a candidate microorganism for converting cellulosic biomass into ethanol through consolidated bioprocessing. Ethanol intolerance is an important metric in terms of process economics, and tolerance has often been described as a complex and likely multigenic trait for which complex gene interactions come into play. Here, we resequence the genome of an ethanol-tolerant mutant, show that the tolerant phenotype is primarily due to a mutated bifunctional acetaldehyde-CoA/alcohol dehydrogenase gene (adhE), hypothesize based on structural analysis that cofactor specificity may be affected, and confirm this hypothesis using enzyme assays. Biochemical ...


Excision Dynamics Of Vibrio Pathogenicity Island-2 From Vibrio Cholerae: Role Of A Recombination Directionality Factor Vefa, Salvador Almagro-Moreno, Michael G. Napolitano, E. Fidelma Boyd Nov 2010

Excision Dynamics Of Vibrio Pathogenicity Island-2 From Vibrio Cholerae: Role Of A Recombination Directionality Factor Vefa, Salvador Almagro-Moreno, Michael G. Napolitano, E. Fidelma Boyd

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Vibrio Pathogenicity Island-2 (VPI-2) is a 57 kb region present in choleragenic V. cholerae isolates that is required for growth on sialic acid as a sole carbon source. V. cholerae non-O1/O139 pathogenic strains also contain VPI-2, which in addition to sialic acid catabolism genes also encodes a type 3 secretion system in these strains. VPI-2 integrates into chromosome 1 at a tRNA-serine site and encodes an integrase intV2 (VC1758) that belongs to the tyrosine recombinase family. ntV2 is required for VPI-2 excision from chromosome 1, which occurs at very low levels, and formation of a non-replicative circular intermediate.


Physical Interaction Between Vivid And White Collar Complex Regulates Photoadaptation In Neurospora, Chen-Hui H. Chen, Bradley S. Demay, Amy S. Gladfelter, Jay Dunlap, Jennifer J. Loros Sep 2010

Physical Interaction Between Vivid And White Collar Complex Regulates Photoadaptation In Neurospora, Chen-Hui H. Chen, Bradley S. Demay, Amy S. Gladfelter, Jay Dunlap, Jennifer J. Loros

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Photoadaptation, the ability to attenuate a light response on prolonged light exposure while remaining sensitive to escalating changes in light intensity, is essential for organisms to decipher time information appropriately, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. In Neurospora crassa, VIVID (VVD), a small LOV domain containing blue-light photoreceptor protein, affects photoadaptation for most if not all light-responsive genes. We report that there is a physical interaction between VVD and the white collar complex (WCC), the primary blue-light photoreceptor and the transcription factor complex that initiates light-regulated transcriptional responses in Neurospora. Using two previously characterized VVD mutants, we show ...


Genetic And Molecular Characterization Of A Cryptochrome From The Filamentous Fungus Neurospora Crassa, Allan C. Froehlich, Chen-Hui Chen, William J. Belden, Cornelia Madeti Mar 2010

Genetic And Molecular Characterization Of A Cryptochrome From The Filamentous Fungus Neurospora Crassa, Allan C. Froehlich, Chen-Hui Chen, William J. Belden, Cornelia Madeti

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

In plants and animals, cryptochromes function as either photoreceptors or circadian clock components. We have examined the cryptochrome from the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa and demonstrate that Neurospora cry encodes a DASH-type cryptochrome that appears capable of binding flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and methenyltetrahydrofolate (MTHF). The cry transcript and CRY protein levels are strongly induced by blue light in a wc-1-dependent manner, and cry transcript is circadianly regulated, with a peak abundance opposite in phase to frq. Neither deletion nor overexpression of cry appears to perturb the free-running circadian clock. However, cry disruption knockout mutants show a small phase delay ...


Ceramide Kinase Regulates Phospholipase C And Phosphatidylinositol 4, 5, Bisphosphate In Phototransduction, Ujjaini Dasgupta, Takeshi Bamba, Salvatore Chiantia, Pusha Karim, Ahmad N. Abou Tayoun Nov 2009

Ceramide Kinase Regulates Phospholipase C And Phosphatidylinositol 4, 5, Bisphosphate In Phototransduction, Ujjaini Dasgupta, Takeshi Bamba, Salvatore Chiantia, Pusha Karim, Ahmad N. Abou Tayoun

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) is a central effector for many biological responses regulated by G-protein-coupled receptors including Drosophila phototransduction where light sensitive channels are activated downstream of NORPA, a PLCbeta homolog. Here we show that the sphingolipid biosynthetic enzyme, ceramide kinase, is a novel regulator of PLC signaling and photoreceptor homeostasis. A mutation in ceramide kinase specifically leads to proteolysis of NORPA, consequent loss of PLC activity, and failure in light signal transduction. The mutant photoreceptors also undergo activity-dependent degeneration. Furthermore, we show that a significant increase in ceramide, resulting from lack of ceramide kinase, perturbs the membrane microenvironment of ...


Quantifying And Resolving Multiple Vector Transformants In S. Cerevisiae Plasmid Libraries, Thomas C. Scanlon, Elizabeth C. Gray, Karl E. Griswold Nov 2009

Quantifying And Resolving Multiple Vector Transformants In S. Cerevisiae Plasmid Libraries, Thomas C. Scanlon, Elizabeth C. Gray, Karl E. Griswold

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

In addition to providing the molecular machinery for transcription and translation, recombinant microbial expression hosts maintain the critical genotype-phenotype link that is essential for high throughput screening and recovery of proteins encoded by plasmid libraries. It is known that Escherichia coli cells can be simultaneously transformed with multiple unique plasmids and thusly complicate recombinant library screening experiments. As a result of their potential to yield misleading results, bacterial multiple vector transformants have been thoroughly characterized in previous model studies. In contrast to bacterial systems, there is little quantitative information available regarding multiple vector transformants in yeast. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the ...


Microbial Nad Metabolism: Lessons From Comparative Genomics, Francesca Gazzaniga, Rebecca Stebbins, Sheila Z. Chang, Mark A. Mcpeek, Charles Brenner Sep 2009

Microbial Nad Metabolism: Lessons From Comparative Genomics, Francesca Gazzaniga, Rebecca Stebbins, Sheila Z. Chang, Mark A. Mcpeek, Charles Brenner

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

NAD is a coenzyme for redox reactions and a substrate of NAD-consuming enzymes, including ADP-ribose transferases, Sir2-related protein lysine deacetylases, and bacterial DNA ligases. Microorganisms that synthesize NAD from as few as one to as many as five of the six identified biosynthetic precursors have been identified. De novo NAD synthesis from aspartate or tryptophan is neither universal nor strictly aerobic. Salvage NAD synthesis from nicotinamide, nicotinic acid, nicotinamide riboside, and nicotinic acid riboside occurs via modules of different genes. Nicotinamide salvage genes nadV and pncA, found in distinct bacteria, appear to have spread throughout the tree of life via ...


The Yeast Orthologue Of Grasp65 Forms A Complex With A Coiled-Coil Protein That Contributes To Er To Golgi Traffic, Rudy Behnia, Francis A. Barr, John J. Flanagan, Charles Barlowe, Sean Munro Jan 2007

The Yeast Orthologue Of Grasp65 Forms A Complex With A Coiled-Coil Protein That Contributes To Er To Golgi Traffic, Rudy Behnia, Francis A. Barr, John J. Flanagan, Charles Barlowe, Sean Munro

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The mammalian Golgi protein GRASP65 is required in assays that reconstitute cisternal stacking and vesicle tethering. Attached to membranes by an N-terminal myristoyl group, it recruits the coiled-coil protein GM130. The relevance of this system to budding yeasts has been unclear, as they lack an obvious orthologue of GM130, and their only GRASP65 relative (Grh1) lacks a myristoylation site and has even been suggested to act in a mitotic checkpoint. In this study, we show that Grh1 has an N-terminal amphipathic helix that is N-terminally acetylated and mediates association with the cis-Golgi. We find that Grh1 forms a complex with ...


A Proposal For Robust Temperature Compensation Of Circadian Rhythms, Christian I. Hong, Emery D. Conrad, John J. Tyson Jan 2007

A Proposal For Robust Temperature Compensation Of Circadian Rhythms, Christian I. Hong, Emery D. Conrad, John J. Tyson

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The internal circadian rhythms of cells and organisms coordinate their physiological properties to the prevailing 24-h cycle of light and dark on earth. The mechanisms generating circadian rhythms have four defining characteristics: they oscillate endogenously with period close to 24 h, entrain to external signals, suffer phase shifts by aberrant pulses of light or temperature, and compensate for changes in temperature over a range of 10°C or more. Most theoretical descriptions of circadian rhythms propose that the underlying mechanism generates a stable limit cycle oscillation (in constant darkness or dim light), because limit cycles quite naturally possess the first ...


The Allantois And Chorion, When Isolated Before Circulation Or Chorio-Allantoic Fusion, Have Hematopoietic Potential, Brandon M. Zeigler, Daisuke Sugiyama, Michael Chen, Yalin Guo, K. M. Downs, N. A. Speck Nov 2006

The Allantois And Chorion, When Isolated Before Circulation Or Chorio-Allantoic Fusion, Have Hematopoietic Potential, Brandon M. Zeigler, Daisuke Sugiyama, Michael Chen, Yalin Guo, K. M. Downs, N. A. Speck

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The chorio-allantoic placenta forms through the fusion of the allantois (progenitor tissue of the umbilical cord), with the chorionic plate. The murine placenta contains high levels of hematopoietic stem cells, and is therefore a stem cell niche. However, it is not known whether the placenta is a site of hematopoietic cell emergence, or whether hematopoietic cells originate from other sites in the conceptus and then colonize the placenta. Here, we show that the allantois and chorion, isolated prior to the establishment of circulation, have the potential to give rise to myeloid and definitive erythroid cells following explant culture. We further ...


The C. Elegans Heterochronic Gene Lin-46 Affects Developmental Timing At Two Larval Stages And Encodes A Relative Of The Scaffolding Protein Gephyrin, A. S.-R. Pepper, Jill E. Mccane, Kevin Kemper, Dennis Au Yeung, Rosalind C. Lee, Victor Ambros, Eric G. Moss Apr 2004

The C. Elegans Heterochronic Gene Lin-46 Affects Developmental Timing At Two Larval Stages And Encodes A Relative Of The Scaffolding Protein Gephyrin, A. S.-R. Pepper, Jill E. Mccane, Kevin Kemper, Dennis Au Yeung, Rosalind C. Lee, Victor Ambros, Eric G. Moss

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The succession of developmental events in the C. elegans larva is governed by the heterochronic genes. When mutated, these genes cause either precocious or retarded developmental phenotypes, in which stage-specific patterns of cell division and differentiation are either skipped or reiterated, respectively. We identified a new heterochronic gene, lin-46, from mutations that suppress the precocious phenotypes caused by mutations in the heterochronic genes lin-14 and lin-28. lin-46 mutants on their own display retarded phenotypes in which cell division patterns are reiterated and differentiation is prevented in certain cell lineages. Our analysis indicates that lin-46 acts at a step immediately downstream ...


Cbfa2 Is Required For The Formation Of Intra-Aortic Hematopoietic Clusters, Trista North, Ting-Lei Gu, Stacy Terryl, Qing Wang, Louisa Howard, Michael Binder, Miguel Marín-Padilla, Nancy A. Speck May 1999

Cbfa2 Is Required For The Formation Of Intra-Aortic Hematopoietic Clusters, Trista North, Ting-Lei Gu, Stacy Terryl, Qing Wang, Louisa Howard, Michael Binder, Miguel Marín-Padilla, Nancy A. Speck

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Cbfa2 (AML1) encodes the DNA-binding subunit of a transcription factor in the small family of core-binding factors (CBFs). Cbfa2 is required for the differentiation of all definitive hematopoietic cells, but not for primitive erythropoiesis. Here we show that Cbfa2 is expressed in definitive hematopoietic progenitor cells, and in endothelial cells in sites from which these hematopoietic cells are thought to emerge. Endothelial cells expressing Cbfa2 are in the yolk sac, the vitelline and umbilical arteries, and in the ventral aspect of the dorsal aorta in the aorta/genital ridge/mesonephros (AGM) region. Endothelial cells lining the dorsal aspect of the ...


Circadian Clock-Controlled Genes Isolated From Neurospora Crassa Are Late Night- To Early Morning-Specific, Deborah Bell-Pedersen, Mari L. Shinohara, Jennifer J. Loros, Jay C. Dunlap Nov 1996

Circadian Clock-Controlled Genes Isolated From Neurospora Crassa Are Late Night- To Early Morning-Specific, Deborah Bell-Pedersen, Mari L. Shinohara, Jennifer J. Loros, Jay C. Dunlap

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

An endogenous circadian biological clock controls the temporal aspects of life in most organisms, including rhythmic control of genes involved in clock output pathways. In the fungus Neurospora crassa, one pathway known to be under control of the clock is asexual spore (conidia) development. To understand more fully the processes that are regulated by the N. crassa circadian clock, systematic screens were carried out for genes that oscillate at the transcriptional level. Time-of-day-specific cDNA libraries were generated and used in differential screens to identify six new clock-controlled genes (ccgs). Transcripts specific for each of the ccgs preferentially accumulate ...


Circadian Clock Locus Frequency: Protein Encoded By A Single Open Reading Frame Defines Period Length And Temperature Compensation., Benjamin D. Aronson, Keith A. Johnson, Jay C. Dunlap Aug 1994

Circadian Clock Locus Frequency: Protein Encoded By A Single Open Reading Frame Defines Period Length And Temperature Compensation., Benjamin D. Aronson, Keith A. Johnson, Jay C. Dunlap

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The frequency (frq) locus encodes a key component, a state variable, in a cellular oscillator generating circadian rhythmicity. Two transcripts have been mapped to this region, and data presented here are consistent with the existence of a third transcript. Analysis of cDNA clones and clock mutants from this region focuses attention on one transcript encoding a protein. FRQ, which is a central clock component: (i) mutations in all of the semidominant frq alleles are the result of single amino acid substitutions and map to the open reading frame (ORF) encoding FRQ; (ii) deletion of this ORF, or a frameshift mutation ...