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Biochemistry

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Articles 1 - 10 of 10

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

A Lipid-Anchored Snare Supports Membrane Fusion, Hao Xu, Michael Zick, William T. Wickner, Youngsoo Jun Oct 2011

A Lipid-Anchored Snare Supports Membrane Fusion, Hao Xu, Michael Zick, William T. Wickner, Youngsoo Jun

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Intracellular membrane fusion requires R-SNAREs and Q-SNAREs to assemble into a four-helical parallel coiled-coil, with their hydrophobic anchors spanning the two apposed membranes. Based on the fusion properties of chemically defined SNARE- proteoliposomes, it has been proposed that the assembly of this helical bundle transduces force through the entire bilayer via the transmembrane SNARE anchor domains to drive fusion. However, an R-SNARE, Nyv1p, with a genetically engineered lipid anchor that spans half of the bilayer suffices for the fusion of isolated vacuoles, although this organelle has other R-SNAREs. To demonstrate unequivocally the fusion activity of lipid-anchored Nyv1p, we reconstituted proteoliposomes ...


Physical Interaction Between Vivid And White Collar Complex Regulates Photoadaptation In Neurospora, Chen-Hui H. Chen, Bradley S. Demay, Amy S. Gladfelter, Jay Dunlap, Jennifer J. Loros Sep 2010

Physical Interaction Between Vivid And White Collar Complex Regulates Photoadaptation In Neurospora, Chen-Hui H. Chen, Bradley S. Demay, Amy S. Gladfelter, Jay Dunlap, Jennifer J. Loros

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Photoadaptation, the ability to attenuate a light response on prolonged light exposure while remaining sensitive to escalating changes in light intensity, is essential for organisms to decipher time information appropriately, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. In Neurospora crassa, VIVID (VVD), a small LOV domain containing blue-light photoreceptor protein, affects photoadaptation for most if not all light-responsive genes. We report that there is a physical interaction between VVD and the white collar complex (WCC), the primary blue-light photoreceptor and the transcription factor complex that initiates light-regulated transcriptional responses in Neurospora. Using two previously characterized VVD mutants, we show ...


A Conserved Cam- And Radial Spoke–Associated Complex Mediates Regulation Of Flagellar Dynein Activity, Erin E. Dymek, Elizabeth F. Smith Nov 2007

A Conserved Cam- And Radial Spoke–Associated Complex Mediates Regulation Of Flagellar Dynein Activity, Erin E. Dymek, Elizabeth F. Smith

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

For virtually all cilia and eukaryotic flagella, the second messengers calcium and cyclic adenosine monophosphate are implicated in modulating dynein- driven microtubule sliding to regulate beating. Calmodulin (CaM) localizes to the axoneme and is a key calcium sensor involved in regulating motility. Using immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, we identify members of a CaM-containing complex that are involved in regulating dynein activity. This complex includes flagellar-associated protein 91 (FAP91), which shares considerable sequence similarity to AAT-1, a protein originally identified in testis as an A-kinase anchor protein (AKAP)- binding protein. FAP91 directly interacts with radial spoke protein 3 (an AKAP), which ...


The Yeast Integral Membrane Protein Apq12 Potentially Links Membrane Dynamics To Assembly Of Nuclear Pore Complexes, John J. Scarcelli, Christin A. Hodge, Charles N. Cole Aug 2007

The Yeast Integral Membrane Protein Apq12 Potentially Links Membrane Dynamics To Assembly Of Nuclear Pore Complexes, John J. Scarcelli, Christin A. Hodge, Charles N. Cole

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Although the structure and function of components of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) have been the focus of many studies, relatively little is known about NPC biogenesis. In this study, we report that Apq12 is required for efficient NPC biogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Apq12 is an integral membrane protein of the nuclear envelope (NE) and endoplasmic reticulum. Cells lacking Apq12 are cold sensitive for growth, and a subset of their nucleoporins (Nups), those that are primarily components of the cytoplasmic fibrils of the NPC, mislocalize to the cytoplasm. APQ12 deletion also causes defects in NE morphology. In the absence of ...


The Yeast Orthologue Of Grasp65 Forms A Complex With A Coiled-Coil Protein That Contributes To Er To Golgi Traffic, Rudy Behnia, Francis A. Barr, John J. Flanagan, Charles Barlowe, Sean Munro Jan 2007

The Yeast Orthologue Of Grasp65 Forms A Complex With A Coiled-Coil Protein That Contributes To Er To Golgi Traffic, Rudy Behnia, Francis A. Barr, John J. Flanagan, Charles Barlowe, Sean Munro

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The mammalian Golgi protein GRASP65 is required in assays that reconstitute cisternal stacking and vesicle tethering. Attached to membranes by an N-terminal myristoyl group, it recruits the coiled-coil protein GM130. The relevance of this system to budding yeasts has been unclear, as they lack an obvious orthologue of GM130, and their only GRASP65 relative (Grh1) lacks a myristoylation site and has even been suggested to act in a mitotic checkpoint. In this study, we show that Grh1 has an N-terminal amphipathic helix that is N-terminally acetylated and mediates association with the cis-Golgi. We find that Grh1 forms a complex with ...


The Allantois And Chorion, When Isolated Before Circulation Or Chorio-Allantoic Fusion, Have Hematopoietic Potential, Brandon M. Zeigler, Daisuke Sugiyama, Michael Chen, Yalin Guo, K. M. Downs, N. A. Speck Nov 2006

The Allantois And Chorion, When Isolated Before Circulation Or Chorio-Allantoic Fusion, Have Hematopoietic Potential, Brandon M. Zeigler, Daisuke Sugiyama, Michael Chen, Yalin Guo, K. M. Downs, N. A. Speck

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The chorio-allantoic placenta forms through the fusion of the allantois (progenitor tissue of the umbilical cord), with the chorionic plate. The murine placenta contains high levels of hematopoietic stem cells, and is therefore a stem cell niche. However, it is not known whether the placenta is a site of hematopoietic cell emergence, or whether hematopoietic cells originate from other sites in the conceptus and then colonize the placenta. Here, we show that the allantois and chorion, isolated prior to the establishment of circulation, have the potential to give rise to myeloid and definitive erythroid cells following explant culture. We further ...


Dictyostelium Myosin-Ie Is A Fast Molecular Motor Involved In Phagocytosis, Ulrike Durrwang, Setsuko Fujita-Becker, Muriel Erent, F. Jon Kull Oct 2006

Dictyostelium Myosin-Ie Is A Fast Molecular Motor Involved In Phagocytosis, Ulrike Durrwang, Setsuko Fujita-Becker, Muriel Erent, F. Jon Kull

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Class I myosins are single-headed motor proteins, implicated in various motile processes including organelle translocation, ion-channel gating, and cytoskeleton reorganization. Here we describe the cellular localization of myosin-IE and its role in the phagocytic uptake of solid particles and cells. A complete analysis of the kinetic and motor properties of Dictyostelium discoideum myosin-IE was achieved by the use of motor domain constructs with artificial lever arms. Class I myosins belonging to subclass IC like myosin-IE are thought to be tuned for tension maintenance or stress sensing. In contrast to this prediction, our results show myosin-IE to be a fast motor ...


Resolution Of Organelle Docking And Fusion Kinetics In A Cell-Free Assay, Alexey J. Merz, William T. Wickner Aug 2004

Resolution Of Organelle Docking And Fusion Kinetics In A Cell-Free Assay, Alexey J. Merz, William T. Wickner

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

In vitro assays of compartment mixing have been key tools in the biochemical dissection of organelle docking and fusion. Many such assays measure compartment mixing through the enzymatic modification of reporter proteins. Homotypic fusion of yeast vacuoles is measured with a coupled assay of proteolytic maturation of pro-alkaline phosphatase (pro-ALP). A kinetic lag is observed between the end of docking, marked by the acquisition of resistance to anti-SNARE reagents, and ALP maturation. We therefore asked whether the time taken for pro-ALP maturation adds a kinetic lag to the measured fusion signal. Prb1p promotes ALP maturation; overproduction of Prb1p accelerates ALP ...


The Kini Kinesin Kif2a Is Required For Bipolar Spindle Assembly Through A Functional Relationship With Mcak, Neil J. Ganem, Duane A. Compton Aug 2004

The Kini Kinesin Kif2a Is Required For Bipolar Spindle Assembly Through A Functional Relationship With Mcak, Neil J. Ganem, Duane A. Compton

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Although the microtubule-depolymerizing KinI motor Kif2a is abundantly expressed in neuronal cells, we now show it localizes to centrosomes and spindle poles during mitosis in cultured cells. RNAi-induced knockdown of Kif2a expression inhibited cell cycle progression because cells assembled monopolar spindles. Bipolar spindle assembly was restored in cells lacking Kif2a by treatments that altered microtubule assembly (nocodazole), eliminated kinetochore–microtubule attachment (loss of Nuf2), or stabilized microtubule plus ends at kinetochores (loss of MCAK). Thus, two KinI motors, MCAK and Kif2a, play distinct roles in mitosis, and MCAK activity at kinetochores must be balanced by Kif2a activity at poles for ...


Minus-End Capture Of Preformed Kinetochore Fibers Contributes To Spindle Morphogenesis, Alexey Khodjakov, Lily Copenagle, Michael B. Gordon, Duane A. Compton, Tarun M. Kapoor Mar 2003

Minus-End Capture Of Preformed Kinetochore Fibers Contributes To Spindle Morphogenesis, Alexey Khodjakov, Lily Copenagle, Michael B. Gordon, Duane A. Compton, Tarun M. Kapoor

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Near-simultaneous three-dimensional fluorescence/differential interference contrast microscopy was used to follow the behavior of microtubules and chromosomes in living alpha-tubulin/GFP-expressing cells after inhibition of the mitotic kinesin Eg5 with monastrol. Kinetochore fibers (K-fibers) were frequently observed forming in association with chromosomes both during monastrol treatment and after monastrol removal. Surprisingly, these K-fibers were oriented away from, and not directly connected to, centrosomes and incorporated into the spindle by the sliding of their distal ends toward centrosomes via a NuMA-dependent mechanism. Similar preformed K-fibers were also observed during spindle formation in untreated cells. In addition, upon monastrol removal, centrosomes established ...