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Biochemistry

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Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Biological Significance Of Photoreceptor Photocycle Length: Vivid Photocycle Governs The Dynamic Vivid-White Collar Complex Pool Mediating Photo-Adaptation And Response To Changes In Light Intensity, Arko Dasgupta, Chen-Hui Chen, Changhwan Lee, Amy S. Gladfelter, Jay C. Dunlap, Jennifer J. Loros May 2015

Biological Significance Of Photoreceptor Photocycle Length: Vivid Photocycle Governs The Dynamic Vivid-White Collar Complex Pool Mediating Photo-Adaptation And Response To Changes In Light Intensity, Arko Dasgupta, Chen-Hui Chen, Changhwan Lee, Amy S. Gladfelter, Jay C. Dunlap, Jennifer J. Loros

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Most organisms on earth sense light through the use of chromophore-bearing photoreceptive proteins with distinct and characteristic photocycle lengths, yet the biological significance of this adduct decay length is neither understood nor has been tested. In the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa VIVID (VVD) is a critical player in the process of photoadaptation, the attenuation of light-induced responses and the ability to maintain photosensitivity in response to changing light intensities. Detailed in vitro analysis of the photochemistry of the blue light sensing, FAD binding, LOV domain of VVD has revealed residues around the site of photo-adduct formation that influence the stability ...


Bioengineered Lysozyme Reduces Bacterial Burden And Inflammation In A Murine Model Of Mucoid Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Lung Infection, Charlotte C. Teneback, Thomas C. Scanlon, Matthew J. Wargo, Jenna L. Bement, Karl E. Griswold, Laurie W. Leclair Aug 2013

Bioengineered Lysozyme Reduces Bacterial Burden And Inflammation In A Murine Model Of Mucoid Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Lung Infection, Charlotte C. Teneback, Thomas C. Scanlon, Matthew J. Wargo, Jenna L. Bement, Karl E. Griswold, Laurie W. Leclair

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The spread of drug-resistant bacterial pathogens is a growing global concern and has prompted an effort to explore potential adjuvant and alternative therapies derived from nature's repertoire of bactericidal proteins and peptides. In humans, the airway surface liquid layer is a rich source of antibiotics, and lysozyme represents one of the most abundant and effective antimicrobial components of airway secretions. Human lysozyme is active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, ac


Insights Into Mrnp Biogenesis Provided By New Genetic Interactions Among Export And Transcription Factors, Francisco Estruch, Christine Hodge, Natalia Gómez-Navarro, Lorena Peiró-Chova, Catherine V. Heath, Charles N. Cole Sep 2012

Insights Into Mrnp Biogenesis Provided By New Genetic Interactions Among Export And Transcription Factors, Francisco Estruch, Christine Hodge, Natalia Gómez-Navarro, Lorena Peiró-Chova, Catherine V. Heath, Charles N. Cole

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The various steps of mRNP biogenesis (transcription, processing and export) are interconnected. It has been shown that the transcription machinery plays a pivotal role in mRNP assembly, since several mRNA export factors are recruited during transcription and physically interact with components of the transcription machinery. Although the shuttling DEAD-box protein Dbp5p is concentrated on the cytoplasmic fibrils of the NPC, previous studies demonstrated that it interacts physically and genetically with factors involved in transcription initiation. We investigated the effect of mutations affecting various components of the transcription initiation apparatus on the phenotypes of mRNA export mutant strains. Our results show ...


Mutant Alcohol Dehydrogenase Leads To Improved Ethanol Tolerance In Clostridium Thermocellum, Steven D. Brown, Adam M. Guss, Tatiana V. Karpinets, Jerry M. Parks Aug 2011

Mutant Alcohol Dehydrogenase Leads To Improved Ethanol Tolerance In Clostridium Thermocellum, Steven D. Brown, Adam M. Guss, Tatiana V. Karpinets, Jerry M. Parks

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Clostridium thermocellum is a thermophilic, obligately anaerobic, Gram-positive bacterium that is a candidate microorganism for converting cellulosic biomass into ethanol through consolidated bioprocessing. Ethanol intolerance is an important metric in terms of process economics, and tolerance has often been described as a complex and likely multigenic trait for which complex gene interactions come into play. Here, we resequence the genome of an ethanol-tolerant mutant, show that the tolerant phenotype is primarily due to a mutated bifunctional acetaldehyde-CoA/alcohol dehydrogenase gene (adhE), hypothesize based on structural analysis that cofactor specificity may be affected, and confirm this hypothesis using enzyme assays. Biochemical ...


Physical Interaction Between Vivid And White Collar Complex Regulates Photoadaptation In Neurospora, Chen-Hui H. Chen, Bradley S. Demay, Amy S. Gladfelter, Jay Dunlap, Jennifer J. Loros Sep 2010

Physical Interaction Between Vivid And White Collar Complex Regulates Photoadaptation In Neurospora, Chen-Hui H. Chen, Bradley S. Demay, Amy S. Gladfelter, Jay Dunlap, Jennifer J. Loros

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Photoadaptation, the ability to attenuate a light response on prolonged light exposure while remaining sensitive to escalating changes in light intensity, is essential for organisms to decipher time information appropriately, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. In Neurospora crassa, VIVID (VVD), a small LOV domain containing blue-light photoreceptor protein, affects photoadaptation for most if not all light-responsive genes. We report that there is a physical interaction between VVD and the white collar complex (WCC), the primary blue-light photoreceptor and the transcription factor complex that initiates light-regulated transcriptional responses in Neurospora. Using two previously characterized VVD mutants, we show ...


Genetic And Molecular Characterization Of A Cryptochrome From The Filamentous Fungus Neurospora Crassa, Allan C. Froehlich, Chen-Hui Chen, William J. Belden, Cornelia Madeti Mar 2010

Genetic And Molecular Characterization Of A Cryptochrome From The Filamentous Fungus Neurospora Crassa, Allan C. Froehlich, Chen-Hui Chen, William J. Belden, Cornelia Madeti

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

In plants and animals, cryptochromes function as either photoreceptors or circadian clock components. We have examined the cryptochrome from the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa and demonstrate that Neurospora cry encodes a DASH-type cryptochrome that appears capable of binding flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and methenyltetrahydrofolate (MTHF). The cry transcript and CRY protein levels are strongly induced by blue light in a wc-1-dependent manner, and cry transcript is circadianly regulated, with a peak abundance opposite in phase to frq. Neither deletion nor overexpression of cry appears to perturb the free-running circadian clock. However, cry disruption knockout mutants show a small phase delay ...


Integral Membrane Proteins Brr6 And Apq12 Link Assembly Of The Nuclear Pore Complex To Lipid Homeostasis In The Endoplasmic Reticulum, Christine A. Hodge, Vineet Choudhary, Michael J. Wolyniak, John J. Scarcelli, Roger Schneiter, Charles N. Cole Oct 2009

Integral Membrane Proteins Brr6 And Apq12 Link Assembly Of The Nuclear Pore Complex To Lipid Homeostasis In The Endoplasmic Reticulum, Christine A. Hodge, Vineet Choudhary, Michael J. Wolyniak, John J. Scarcelli, Roger Schneiter, Charles N. Cole

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking Apq12, a nuclear envelope (NE)-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) integral membrane protein, are defective in assembly of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), possibly because of defects in regulating membrane fluidity. We identified BRR6, which encodes an essential integral membrane protein of the NE-ER, as a dosage suppressor of apq12 Delta. Cells carrying the temperature-sensitive brr6-1 allele have been shown to have defects in nucleoporin localization, mRNA metabolism and nuclear transport. Electron microscopy revealed that brr6-1 cells have gross NE abnormalities and proliferation of the ER. brr6-1 cells were hypersensitive to compounds that affect membrane biophysical properties and ...


Microbial Nad Metabolism: Lessons From Comparative Genomics, Francesca Gazzaniga, Rebecca Stebbins, Sheila Z. Chang, Mark A. Mcpeek, Charles Brenner Sep 2009

Microbial Nad Metabolism: Lessons From Comparative Genomics, Francesca Gazzaniga, Rebecca Stebbins, Sheila Z. Chang, Mark A. Mcpeek, Charles Brenner

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

NAD is a coenzyme for redox reactions and a substrate of NAD-consuming enzymes, including ADP-ribose transferases, Sir2-related protein lysine deacetylases, and bacterial DNA ligases. Microorganisms that synthesize NAD from as few as one to as many as five of the six identified biosynthetic precursors have been identified. De novo NAD synthesis from aspartate or tryptophan is neither universal nor strictly aerobic. Salvage NAD synthesis from nicotinamide, nicotinic acid, nicotinamide riboside, and nicotinic acid riboside occurs via modules of different genes. Nicotinamide salvage genes nadV and pncA, found in distinct bacteria, appear to have spread throughout the tree of life via ...


Insulin Stimulates The Phosphorylation Of The Exocyst Protein Sec8 In Adipocytes, Patrick D. Lyons, Grantley R. Peck, Arminja N. Kettenbach, Scott A. Gerber, Liya Roudaia, Gustav E. Lienhard Aug 2009

Insulin Stimulates The Phosphorylation Of The Exocyst Protein Sec8 In Adipocytes, Patrick D. Lyons, Grantley R. Peck, Arminja N. Kettenbach, Scott A. Gerber, Liya Roudaia, Gustav E. Lienhard

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The signal transduction pathway leading from the insulin receptor to stimulate the fusion of vesicles containing the glucose transporter GLUT4 with the plasma membrane in adipocytes and muscle cells is not completely understood. Current evidence suggests that in addition to the Rab GTPase-activating protein AS160, at least one other substrate of Akt (also called protein kinase B), which is as yet unidentified, is required. Sec8 is a component of the exocyst complex that has been previously implicated in GLUT4 trafficking. In the present study, we report that insulin stimulates the phosphorylation of Sec8 on Ser-32 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. On the ...


The Yeast Integral Membrane Protein Apq12 Potentially Links Membrane Dynamics To Assembly Of Nuclear Pore Complexes, John J. Scarcelli, Christin A. Hodge, Charles N. Cole Aug 2007

The Yeast Integral Membrane Protein Apq12 Potentially Links Membrane Dynamics To Assembly Of Nuclear Pore Complexes, John J. Scarcelli, Christin A. Hodge, Charles N. Cole

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Although the structure and function of components of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) have been the focus of many studies, relatively little is known about NPC biogenesis. In this study, we report that Apq12 is required for efficient NPC biogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Apq12 is an integral membrane protein of the nuclear envelope (NE) and endoplasmic reticulum. Cells lacking Apq12 are cold sensitive for growth, and a subset of their nucleoporins (Nups), those that are primarily components of the cytoplasmic fibrils of the NPC, mislocalize to the cytoplasm. APQ12 deletion also causes defects in NE morphology. In the absence of ...


The Yeast Orthologue Of Grasp65 Forms A Complex With A Coiled-Coil Protein That Contributes To Er To Golgi Traffic, Rudy Behnia, Francis A. Barr, John J. Flanagan, Charles Barlowe, Sean Munro Jan 2007

The Yeast Orthologue Of Grasp65 Forms A Complex With A Coiled-Coil Protein That Contributes To Er To Golgi Traffic, Rudy Behnia, Francis A. Barr, John J. Flanagan, Charles Barlowe, Sean Munro

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The mammalian Golgi protein GRASP65 is required in assays that reconstitute cisternal stacking and vesicle tethering. Attached to membranes by an N-terminal myristoyl group, it recruits the coiled-coil protein GM130. The relevance of this system to budding yeasts has been unclear, as they lack an obvious orthologue of GM130, and their only GRASP65 relative (Grh1) lacks a myristoylation site and has even been suggested to act in a mitotic checkpoint. In this study, we show that Grh1 has an N-terminal amphipathic helix that is N-terminally acetylated and mediates association with the cis-Golgi. We find that Grh1 forms a complex with ...


The Allantois And Chorion, When Isolated Before Circulation Or Chorio-Allantoic Fusion, Have Hematopoietic Potential, Brandon M. Zeigler, Daisuke Sugiyama, Michael Chen, Yalin Guo, K. M. Downs, N. A. Speck Nov 2006

The Allantois And Chorion, When Isolated Before Circulation Or Chorio-Allantoic Fusion, Have Hematopoietic Potential, Brandon M. Zeigler, Daisuke Sugiyama, Michael Chen, Yalin Guo, K. M. Downs, N. A. Speck

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The chorio-allantoic placenta forms through the fusion of the allantois (progenitor tissue of the umbilical cord), with the chorionic plate. The murine placenta contains high levels of hematopoietic stem cells, and is therefore a stem cell niche. However, it is not known whether the placenta is a site of hematopoietic cell emergence, or whether hematopoietic cells originate from other sites in the conceptus and then colonize the placenta. Here, we show that the allantois and chorion, isolated prior to the establishment of circulation, have the potential to give rise to myeloid and definitive erythroid cells following explant culture. We further ...


Dictyostelium Myosin-Ie Is A Fast Molecular Motor Involved In Phagocytosis, Ulrike Durrwang, Setsuko Fujita-Becker, Muriel Erent, F. Jon Kull Oct 2006

Dictyostelium Myosin-Ie Is A Fast Molecular Motor Involved In Phagocytosis, Ulrike Durrwang, Setsuko Fujita-Becker, Muriel Erent, F. Jon Kull

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Class I myosins are single-headed motor proteins, implicated in various motile processes including organelle translocation, ion-channel gating, and cytoskeleton reorganization. Here we describe the cellular localization of myosin-IE and its role in the phagocytic uptake of solid particles and cells. A complete analysis of the kinetic and motor properties of Dictyostelium discoideum myosin-IE was achieved by the use of motor domain constructs with artificial lever arms. Class I myosins belonging to subclass IC like myosin-IE are thought to be tuned for tension maintenance or stress sensing. In contrast to this prediction, our results show myosin-IE to be a fast motor ...


A Novel Iron-Regulated Metal Transporter From Plants Identified By Functional Expression In Yeast., David Eide, Margaret Broderius, Jeanette Fett, Mary Lou Guerinot May 1996

A Novel Iron-Regulated Metal Transporter From Plants Identified By Functional Expression In Yeast., David Eide, Margaret Broderius, Jeanette Fett, Mary Lou Guerinot

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Iron is an essential nutrient for virtually all organisms. The IRT1 (iron-regulated transporter) gene of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, encoding a probable Fe(II) transporter, was cloned by functional expression in a yeast strain defective for iron uptake. Yeast expressing IRT1 possess a novel Fe(II) uptake activity that is strongly inhibited by Cd. IRT1 is predicted to be an integral membrane protein with a metal-binding domain. Data base comparisons and Southern blot analysis indicated that IRT1 is a member of a gene family in Arabidopsis. Related sequences were also found in the genomes of rice, yeast, nematodes, and humans ...


Circadian Clock Locus Frequency: Protein Encoded By A Single Open Reading Frame Defines Period Length And Temperature Compensation., Benjamin D. Aronson, Keith A. Johnson, Jay C. Dunlap Aug 1994

Circadian Clock Locus Frequency: Protein Encoded By A Single Open Reading Frame Defines Period Length And Temperature Compensation., Benjamin D. Aronson, Keith A. Johnson, Jay C. Dunlap

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The frequency (frq) locus encodes a key component, a state variable, in a cellular oscillator generating circadian rhythmicity. Two transcripts have been mapped to this region, and data presented here are consistent with the existence of a third transcript. Analysis of cDNA clones and clock mutants from this region focuses attention on one transcript encoding a protein. FRQ, which is a central clock component: (i) mutations in all of the semidominant frq alleles are the result of single amino acid substitutions and map to the open reading frame (ORF) encoding FRQ; (ii) deletion of this ORF, or a frameshift mutation ...