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Articles 1 - 30 of 113

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Tertiary Alphabet For The Observable Protein Structural Universe, Craig\ O. Mackenzie, Jianfu Zhou, Gevorg Grigoryan Nov 2016

Tertiary Alphabet For The Observable Protein Structural Universe, Craig\ O. Mackenzie, Jianfu Zhou, Gevorg Grigoryan

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Here, we systematically decompose the known protein structural universe into its basic elements, which we dub tertiary structural motifs (TERMs). A TERM is a compact backbone fragment that captures the secondary, tertiary, and quaternary environments around a given residue, comprising one or more disjoint segments (three on average). We seek the set of universal TERMs that capture all structure in the Protein Data Bank (PDB), finding remarkable degeneracy. Only ∼600 TERMs are sufficient to describe 50% of the PDB at sub-Angstrom resolution. However, more rare geometries also exist, and the overall structural coverage grows logarithmically with the number of TERMs ...


Dissection Of Molecular Assembly Dynamics By Tracking Orientation And Position Of Single Molecules In Live Cells, Shalin B. Mehta, Molly Mcquilken, Patrick J. La Riviere, Patricia Occhipinti, Amitabh Verma, Rudolf Oldenbourg, Amy Gladfelter, Tomomi Tani Sep 2016

Dissection Of Molecular Assembly Dynamics By Tracking Orientation And Position Of Single Molecules In Live Cells, Shalin B. Mehta, Molly Mcquilken, Patrick J. La Riviere, Patricia Occhipinti, Amitabh Verma, Rudolf Oldenbourg, Amy Gladfelter, Tomomi Tani

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Regulation of order, such as orientation and conformation, drives the function of most molecular assemblies in living cells but remains difficult to measure accurately through space and time. We built an instantaneous fluorescence polarization microscope, which simultaneously images position and orientation of fluorophores in living cells with single-molecule sensitivity and a time resolution of 100 ms. We developed image acquisition and analysis methods to track single particles that interact with higher-order assemblies of molecules. We tracked the fluctuations in position and orientation of molecules from the level of an ensemble of fluorophores down to single fluorophores. We tested our system ...


Flow-Dependent Myosin Recruitment During Drosophila Cellularization Requires Zygotic Dunk Activity, Bing He, Adam Martin, Eric Wieschaus May 2016

Flow-Dependent Myosin Recruitment During Drosophila Cellularization Requires Zygotic Dunk Activity, Bing He, Adam Martin, Eric Wieschaus

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Actomyosin contractility underlies force generation in morphogenesis ranging from cytokinesis to epithelial extension or invagination. In Drosophila, the cleavage of the syncytial blastoderm is initiated by an actomyosin network at the base of membrane furrows that invaginate from the surface of the embryo. It remains unclear how this network forms and how it affects tissue mechanics. Here, we show that during Drosophila cleavage, myosin recruitment to the cleavage furrows proceeds in temporally distinct phases of tension-driven cortical flow and direct recruitment, regulated by different zygotic genes. We identify the gene dunk, which we show is transiently transcribed when cellularization starts ...


Data Publication With The Structural Biology Data Grid Supports Live Analysis, Peter A. Meyer, Stephanie Socias, Jason Key, Elizabeth Ransey, Emily C. Tjon, Alejandro Buschiazzo, Ming Lei, Chris Botka, James Withrow, David Neau, Kanagalaghatta Rajashankar, Karen S. Anderson, Chung-I Chang, Walter J. Chazin, Kevin D. Corbett, Michael S. Cosgrove, Sean Crosson, Sirano Dhe-Paganon, Enrico Di Cera, Catherine L. Drennan, Michael J. Eck, Brandt F. Eichman, Qing R. Fan, Adrian R. Ferre-D’Amare, J. Christopher Fromme, K. Christopher Garcia, Rachelle Gaudet, Peng Gong, Stephen C. Harrison, Ekaterina E. Heldwein, Zongchao Jia, Robert J. Keenan, Andrew C. Kruse, Marc Kvansaku, Jason S. Mclellan Mar 2016

Data Publication With The Structural Biology Data Grid Supports Live Analysis, Peter A. Meyer, Stephanie Socias, Jason Key, Elizabeth Ransey, Emily C. Tjon, Alejandro Buschiazzo, Ming Lei, Chris Botka, James Withrow, David Neau, Kanagalaghatta Rajashankar, Karen S. Anderson, Chung-I Chang, Walter J. Chazin, Kevin D. Corbett, Michael S. Cosgrove, Sean Crosson, Sirano Dhe-Paganon, Enrico Di Cera, Catherine L. Drennan, Michael J. Eck, Brandt F. Eichman, Qing R. Fan, Adrian R. Ferre-D’Amare, J. Christopher Fromme, K. Christopher Garcia, Rachelle Gaudet, Peng Gong, Stephen C. Harrison, Ekaterina E. Heldwein, Zongchao Jia, Robert J. Keenan, Andrew C. Kruse, Marc Kvansaku, Jason S. Mclellan

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Access to experimental X-ray diffraction image data is fundamental for validation and reproduction of macromolecular models and indispensable for development of structural biology processing methods. Here, we established a diffraction data publication and dissemination system, Structural Biology Data Grid (SBDG; data.sbgrid.org), to preserve primary experimental data sets that support scientific publications. Data sets are accessible to researchers through a community driven data grid, which facilitates global data access. Our analysis of a pilot collection of crystallographic data sets demonstrates that the information archived by SBDG is sufficient to reprocess data to statistics that meet or exceed the quality ...


Analysis Of Lung Microbiota In Bronchoalveolar Lavage, Protected Brush And Sputum Samples From Subjects With Mild-To-Moderate Cystic Fibrosis Lung Disease, Deborah A. Hogan, Sven D. Willger, Emily L. Dolben, Thomas H. Hampton, Bruce A. Stanton, Hilary G. Morrison, Mitchell L. Sogin, Julianna Czum, Alix Ashare, Michael Tunney Mar 2016

Analysis Of Lung Microbiota In Bronchoalveolar Lavage, Protected Brush And Sputum Samples From Subjects With Mild-To-Moderate Cystic Fibrosis Lung Disease, Deborah A. Hogan, Sven D. Willger, Emily L. Dolben, Thomas H. Hampton, Bruce A. Stanton, Hilary G. Morrison, Mitchell L. Sogin, Julianna Czum, Alix Ashare, Michael Tunney

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) often acquire chronic lung infections that lead to irrevers- ible damage. We sought to examine regional variation in the microbial communities in the lungs of individuals with mild-to-moderate CF lung disease, to examine the relationship between the local microbiota and local damage, and to determine the relationships between microbiota in samples taken directly from the lung and the microbiota in spontaneously expectorated sputum. In this initial study, nine stable, adult CF patients with an FEV1>50% underwent regional sampling of different lobes of the right lung by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and protected brush (PB) sampling ...


Alternative Use Of Dna Binding Domains By The Neurospora White Collar Complex Dictates Circadian Regulation And Light Responses, Bin Wang, Xiaoying Zhou, Jennifer J. Loros, Jay C. Dunlap Dec 2015

Alternative Use Of Dna Binding Domains By The Neurospora White Collar Complex Dictates Circadian Regulation And Light Responses, Bin Wang, Xiaoying Zhou, Jennifer J. Loros, Jay C. Dunlap

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

In the Neurospora circadian system, the White Collar complex (WCC) of WC-1 and WC-2 drives transcription of the circadian pacemaker gene frequency (frq), whose gene product, FRQ, as a part of the FRQ-FRH complex (FFC), inhibits its own expression. The WCC is also the principal Neurospora photoreceptor; WCC-mediated light induction of frq resets the clock, and all acute light induction is triggered by WCC binding to promoters of light-induced genes. However, not all acutely light-induced genes are also clock regulated, and conversely, not all clock-regulated direct targets of WCC are light induced; the structural determinants governing the shift from WCC ...


Period-1 Encodes An Atp-Dependent Rna Helicase That Influences Nutritional Compensation Of The Neurospora Circadian Clock, Jillian M. Emerson, Bradley M. Bartholomai, Carol S. Ringelberg, Scott E. Baker, Jennifer Loros, Jay Dunlap Dec 2015

Period-1 Encodes An Atp-Dependent Rna Helicase That Influences Nutritional Compensation Of The Neurospora Circadian Clock, Jillian M. Emerson, Bradley M. Bartholomai, Carol S. Ringelberg, Scott E. Baker, Jennifer Loros, Jay Dunlap

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Mutants in the period-1 (prd-1) gene, characterized by a recessive allele, display a reduced growth rate and period lengthening of the developmental cycle controlled by the circadian clock. We refined the genetic location of prd-1 and used whole genome sequencing to find the mutation defining it, confirming the identity of prd-1 by rescuing the mutant circadian phenotype via transformation. PRD-1 is an RNA helicase whose orthologs, DDX5 [DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) Box Helicase 5] and DDX17 in humans and DBP2 (Dead Box Protein 2) in yeast, are implicated in various processes, including transcriptional regulation, elongation, and termination, ribosome biogenesis, and mRNA decay ...


Actin Filaments Target The Oligomeric Maturation Of The Dynamin Gtpase Drp1 To Mitochondrial Fission Sites, Wei-Ke Ji, Anna L. Hatch, Ronald A. Merrill, Stefan Strack, Henry N. Higgs Nov 2015

Actin Filaments Target The Oligomeric Maturation Of The Dynamin Gtpase Drp1 To Mitochondrial Fission Sites, Wei-Ke Ji, Anna L. Hatch, Ronald A. Merrill, Stefan Strack, Henry N. Higgs

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

While the dynamin GTPase Drp1 plays a critical role during mitochondrial fission, mechanisms controlling its recruitment to fission sites are unclear. A current assumption is that cytosolic Drp1 is recruited directly to fission sites immediately prior to fission. Using live-cell microscopy, we find evidence for a different model, progressive maturation of Drp1 oligomers on mitochondria through incorporation of smaller mitochondrially-bound Drp1 units. Maturation of a stable Drp1 oligomer does not forcibly lead to fission. Drp1 oligomers also translocate directionally along mitochondria. Ionomycin, a calcium ionophore, causes rapid mitochondrial accumulation of actin filaments followed by Drp1 accumulation at the fission site ...


Cell Type–Dependent Mechanisms For Formin-Mediated Assembly Of Filopodia, Lorna E. Young, Ernest G. Heimsath, Henry N. Higgs Oct 2015

Cell Type–Dependent Mechanisms For Formin-Mediated Assembly Of Filopodia, Lorna E. Young, Ernest G. Heimsath, Henry N. Higgs

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Filopodia are finger-like protrusions from the plasma membrane and are of fundamental importance to cellular physiology, but the mechanisms governing their assembly are still in question. One model, called convergent elongation, proposes that filopodia arise from Arp2/3 complex-nucleated dendritic actin networks, with factors such as formins elongating these filaments into filopodia. We test this model using constitutively active constructs of two formins, FMNL3 and mDia2. Surprisingly, filopodial assembly requirements differ between suspension and adherent cells. In suspension cells, Arp2/3 complex is required for filopodial assembly through either formin. In contrast, a subset of filopodia remains after Arp2/3 ...


Coupling Between Cytoplasmic Concentration Gradients Through Local Control Of Protein Mobility In The Caenorhabditis Elegans Zygote, Youjun Wu, Huaiying Zhang, Erik E. Griffin Jun 2015

Coupling Between Cytoplasmic Concentration Gradients Through Local Control Of Protein Mobility In The Caenorhabditis Elegans Zygote, Youjun Wu, Huaiying Zhang, Erik E. Griffin

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Cell polarity is characterized by the asymmetric distribution of factors at the cell cortex and in the cytoplasm. Although mechanisms that establish cortical asymmetries have been characterized, less is known about how persistent cytoplasmic asymmetries are generated. During the asymmetric division of the Caenorhabditis elegans zygote, the PAR proteins orchestrate the segregation of the cytoplasmic RNA-binding proteins MEX-5/6 to the anterior cytoplasm and PIE-1, POS-1, and MEX-1 to the posterior cytoplasm. In this study, we find that MEX-5/6 control the segregation of GFP::PIE-1, GFP::POS-1, and GFP::MEX-1 by locally increasing their mobility in the anterior cytoplasm ...


Biological Significance Of Photoreceptor Photocycle Length: Vivid Photocycle Governs The Dynamic Vivid-White Collar Complex Pool Mediating Photo-Adaptation And Response To Changes In Light Intensity, Arko Dasgupta, Chen-Hui Chen, Changhwan Lee, Amy S. Gladfelter, Jay C. Dunlap, Jennifer J. Loros May 2015

Biological Significance Of Photoreceptor Photocycle Length: Vivid Photocycle Governs The Dynamic Vivid-White Collar Complex Pool Mediating Photo-Adaptation And Response To Changes In Light Intensity, Arko Dasgupta, Chen-Hui Chen, Changhwan Lee, Amy S. Gladfelter, Jay C. Dunlap, Jennifer J. Loros

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Most organisms on earth sense light through the use of chromophore-bearing photoreceptive proteins with distinct and characteristic photocycle lengths, yet the biological significance of this adduct decay length is neither understood nor has been tested. In the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa VIVID (VVD) is a critical player in the process of photoadaptation, the attenuation of light-induced responses and the ability to maintain photosensitivity in response to changing light intensities. Detailed in vitro analysis of the photochemistry of the blue light sensing, FAD binding, LOV domain of VVD has revealed residues around the site of photo-adduct formation that influence the stability ...


Synthesis Of Bioinspired Carbohydrate Amphiphiles That Promote And Inhibit Biofilms, Eric L. Dane, Alicia E. Ballok, George A. O'Toole, Mark W. Grinstaff Feb 2015

Synthesis Of Bioinspired Carbohydrate Amphiphiles That Promote And Inhibit Biofilms, Eric L. Dane, Alicia E. Ballok, George A. O'Toole, Mark W. Grinstaff

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The synthesis and characterization of a new class of bioinspired carbohydrate amphiphiles that modulate Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation are reported. The carbohydrate head is an enantiopure poly-amido-saccharide (PAS) prepared by a controlled anionic polymerization of β-lactam monomers derived from either glucose or galactose. The supramolecular assemblies formed by PAS amphiphiles are investigated in solution using fluorescence assays and dynamic light scattering. Dried samples are investigated using X-ray, infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Additionally, the amphiphiles are evaluated for their ability to modulate biofilm formation by the Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Remarkably, from a library of eight amphiphiles, we identify ...


A Hierarchical Cascade Of Second Messengers Regulates Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Surface Behaviors, Yun Luo, Kun Zhao, Amy E. Baker, Sherry L. Kuchma, Kimberly A. Coggan, Matthew C. Wolfgang, Gerard C.L. Wong, George A. O’Toole Jan 2015

A Hierarchical Cascade Of Second Messengers Regulates Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Surface Behaviors, Yun Luo, Kun Zhao, Amy E. Baker, Sherry L. Kuchma, Kimberly A. Coggan, Matthew C. Wolfgang, Gerard C.L. Wong, George A. O’Toole

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Biofilms are surface-attached multicellular communities. Using single-cell tracking microscopy, we showed that apilY1 mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is defective in early biofilm formation. We leveraged the observation that PilY1 pro- tein levels increase on a surface to perform a genetic screen to identify mutants altered in surface-grown expression of this pro- tein. Based on our genetic studies, we found that soon after initiating surface growth, cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels increase, depen- dent on PilJ, a chemoreceptor-like protein of the Pil-Chp complex, and the type IV pilus (TFP). cAMP and its receptor protein Vfr, together with the FimS-AlgR two-component system (TCS ...


Ploidy Variation In Multinucleate Cells Changes Under Stress, Cori A. Anderson, Samantha Roberts, Huaiying Zhang, Courtney M. Kelly, Alexxy Kendall, Changhwan Lee, John Gerstenberger, Aaron B. Koenig, Ruth Kabeche, Amy S. Gladfelter Jan 2015

Ploidy Variation In Multinucleate Cells Changes Under Stress, Cori A. Anderson, Samantha Roberts, Huaiying Zhang, Courtney M. Kelly, Alexxy Kendall, Changhwan Lee, John Gerstenberger, Aaron B. Koenig, Ruth Kabeche, Amy S. Gladfelter

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Ploidy variation is found in contexts as diverse as solid tumors, drug resistance in fungal infection, and normal development. Altering chromosome or genome copy number supports adaptation to fluctuating environments but is also associated with fitness defects attributed to protein imbalances. Both aneuploidy and polyploidy can arise from multinucleate states after failed cytokinesis or cell fusion. The consequences of ploidy variation in syncytia are difficult to predict because protein imbalances are theoretically buffered by a common cytoplasm. We examined ploidy in a naturally multinucleate fungus, Ashbya gossypii. Using integrated lac operator arrays, we found that chromosome number varies substantially among ...


Fap206 Is A Microtubule-Docking Adapter For Ciliary Radial Spoke 2 And Dynein C, Krishna K. Vasudevan, Kangkang Song, Lea M. Alford, Winfield Sale, Erin E. Dymek, Elizabeth F. Smith, Todd Hennessey, Ewa Joachimiak, Paulina Urbanska, Dorota Wloga, William Dentler, Daniela Nicastro, Jacek Gaertig Dec 2014

Fap206 Is A Microtubule-Docking Adapter For Ciliary Radial Spoke 2 And Dynein C, Krishna K. Vasudevan, Kangkang Song, Lea M. Alford, Winfield Sale, Erin E. Dymek, Elizabeth F. Smith, Todd Hennessey, Ewa Joachimiak, Paulina Urbanska, Dorota Wloga, William Dentler, Daniela Nicastro, Jacek Gaertig

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Radial spokes are conserved macromolecular complexes that are essential for ciliary motility. A triplet of three radial spokes, RS1, RS2, and RS3, repeats every 96 nm along the doublet microtubules. Each spoke has a distinct base that docks to the doublet and is linked to different inner dynein arms. Little is known about the assembly and functions of individual radial spokes. A knockout of the conserved ciliary protein FAP206 in the ciliate Tetrahymena resulted in slow cell motility. Cryo–electron tomography showed that in the absence of FAP206, the 96-nm repeats lacked RS2 and dynein c. Occasionally, RS2 assembled but ...


Gaip Interacting Protein C-Terminus Regulates Autophagy And Exosome Biogenesis Of Pancreatic Cancer Through Metabolic Pathways, Santanu Bhattacharya, Krishnendu Pal, Anil K. Sharma, Shamit K. Dutta, Julie S. Lau, Irene K. Yan, Enfeng Wang, Ahmed Elkhanany, Khalid M. Alkharfy, Arunik Sanyal, Tushar C. Patel, Suresh T. Chari, Mark R. Spaller, Debabrata Mukhopadhyay Dec 2014

Gaip Interacting Protein C-Terminus Regulates Autophagy And Exosome Biogenesis Of Pancreatic Cancer Through Metabolic Pathways, Santanu Bhattacharya, Krishnendu Pal, Anil K. Sharma, Shamit K. Dutta, Julie S. Lau, Irene K. Yan, Enfeng Wang, Ahmed Elkhanany, Khalid M. Alkharfy, Arunik Sanyal, Tushar C. Patel, Suresh T. Chari, Mark R. Spaller, Debabrata Mukhopadhyay

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

GAIP interacting protein C terminus (GIPC) is known to play an important role in a variety of physiological and disease states. In the present study, we have identified a novel role for GIPC as a master regulator of autophagy and the exocytotic pathways in cancer. We show that depletion of GIPC-induced autophagy in pancreatic cancer cells, as evident from the upregulation of the autophagy marker LC3II. We further report that GIPC regulates cellular trafficking pathways by modulating the secretion, biogenesis, and molecular composition of exosomes. We also identified the involvement of GIPC on metabolic stress pathways regulating autophagy and microvesicular ...


The Formin Fmnl3 Assembles Plasma Membrane Protrusions That Participate In Cell–Cell Adhesion, Timothy J. Gauvin, Lorna E. Young, Henry N. Higgs Nov 2014

The Formin Fmnl3 Assembles Plasma Membrane Protrusions That Participate In Cell–Cell Adhesion, Timothy J. Gauvin, Lorna E. Young, Henry N. Higgs

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

FMNL3 is a vertebrate-specific formin protein previously shown to play a role in angiogenesis and cell migration. Here we define the cellular localization of endogenous FMNL3, the dynamics of GFP-tagged FMNL3 during cell migration, and the effects of FMNL3 suppression in mammalian culture cells. The majority of FMNL3 localizes in a punctate pattern, with >95% of these puncta being indistinguishable from the plasma membrane by fluorescence microscopy. A small number of dynamic cytoplasmic FMNL3 patches also exist, which enrich near cell–cell contact sites and fuse with the plasma membrane at these sites. These cytoplasmic puncta appear to be part ...


A Distinct Tethering Step Is Vital For Vacuole Membrane Fusion, Michael Zick, William T. Wickner Sep 2014

A Distinct Tethering Step Is Vital For Vacuole Membrane Fusion, Michael Zick, William T. Wickner

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Past experiments with reconstituted proteoliposomes, employing assays that infer membrane fusion from fluorescent lipid dequenching, have suggested that vacuolar SNAREs alone suffice to catalyze membrane fusion in vitro. While we could replicate these results, we detected very little fusion with the more rigorous assay of lumenal compartment mixing. Exploring the discrepancies between lipid-dequenching and content-mixing assays, we surprisingly found that the disposition of the fluorescent lipids with respect to SNAREs had a striking effect. Without other proteins, the association of SNAREs in trans causes lipid dequenching that cannot be ascribed to fusion or hemifusion. Tethering of the SNARE-bearing proteoliposomes was ...


Megadalton-Node Assembly By Binding Of Skb1 To The Membrane Anchor Slf1, Lin L. Deng, Ruth Kabeche, Ning Wang, Jian-Qiu Wu, James B. Moseley Jul 2014

Megadalton-Node Assembly By Binding Of Skb1 To The Membrane Anchor Slf1, Lin L. Deng, Ruth Kabeche, Ning Wang, Jian-Qiu Wu, James B. Moseley

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The plasma membrane contains both dynamic and static microdomains. Given the growing appreciation of cortical microdomains in cell biology, it is important to determine the organizational principles that underlie assembly of compartmentalized structures at the plasma membrane. The fission yeast plasma membrane is highly compartmentalized by distinct sets of cortical nodes, which control signaling for cell cycle progression and cytokinesis. The mitotic inhibitor Skb1 localizes to a set of cortical nodes that provide spatial control over signaling for entry into mitosis. However, it has been unclear whether these nodes contain other proteins and how they might be organized and tethered ...


Stoichiometries And Affinities Of Interacting Proteins From Concentration Series Of Solution Scattering Data: Decomposition By Least Squares And Quadratic Optimization, Himanshu Chandola, Tim E. Williamson, Bruce A. Craig, Alan M. Friedman, Chris Bailey-Kellogg Mar 2014

Stoichiometries And Affinities Of Interacting Proteins From Concentration Series Of Solution Scattering Data: Decomposition By Least Squares And Quadratic Optimization, Himanshu Chandola, Tim E. Williamson, Bruce A. Craig, Alan M. Friedman, Chris Bailey-Kellogg

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

In studying interacting proteins, complementary insights are provided by analyzing both the association model (the stoichiometry and affinity constants of the intermediate and final complexes) and the quaternary structure of the resulting complexes. Many current methods for analyzing protein interactions either give a binary answer to the question of association and no information about quaternary structure or at best provide only part of the complete picture. Presented here is a method to extract both types of information from X-ray or neutron scattering data for a series of equilibrium mixtures containing the initial components at different concentrations. The method determines the ...


Septin Assemblies Form By Diffusion-Driven Annealing On Membranes, Andrew A. Bridges, Huaiying Zhang, Shalin B. Mehta, Patricia Occhipinti, Tomomi Tani, Amy S. Gladfelter Feb 2014

Septin Assemblies Form By Diffusion-Driven Annealing On Membranes, Andrew A. Bridges, Huaiying Zhang, Shalin B. Mehta, Patricia Occhipinti, Tomomi Tani, Amy S. Gladfelter

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Septins assemble into filaments and higher-order structures that act as scaffolds for diverse cell functions including cytokinesis, cell polarity, and membrane remodeling. Despite their conserved role in cell organization, little is known about how septin filaments elongate and are knitted together into higher-order assemblies. Using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, we determined that cytosolic septins are in small complexes, suggesting that septin filaments are not formed in the cytosol. When the plasma membrane of live cells is monitored by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we see that septin complexes of variable size diffuse in two dimensions. Diffusing septin complexes collide and make ...


Redox-Dependent Stability, Protonation, And Reactivity Of Cysteine-Bound Heme Proteins, Fangfang Zhong, George P. Lisi, Daniel P. Collins, John H. Dawson, Ekaterina V. Pletneva Jan 2014

Redox-Dependent Stability, Protonation, And Reactivity Of Cysteine-Bound Heme Proteins, Fangfang Zhong, George P. Lisi, Daniel P. Collins, John H. Dawson, Ekaterina V. Pletneva

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Cysteine-bound hemes are key components of many enzymes and biological sensors. Protonation (deprotonation) of the Cys ligand often accompanies redox transformations of these centers. To characterize these phenomena, we have engineered a series of Thr78Cys/Lys79Gly/Met80X mutants of yeast cytochrome c (cyt c) in which Cys78 becomes one of the axial ligands to the heme. At neutral pH, the protonation state of the coordinated Cys differs for the ferric and ferrous heme species, with Cys binding as a thiolate and a thiol, respectively. Analysis of redox-dependent stability and alkaline transitions of these model proteins, as well as comparisons to ...


Gene Expression Studies For The Analysis Of Domoic Acid Production In The Marine Diatom Pseudo-Nitzschia Multiseries, Katie Boissonneault, Brooks M. Henningsen, Stephen S. Bates, Deborah L. Robertson, Sean Milton, Jerry Pelletier, Deborah A. Hogan, David E. Housman Nov 2013

Gene Expression Studies For The Analysis Of Domoic Acid Production In The Marine Diatom Pseudo-Nitzschia Multiseries, Katie Boissonneault, Brooks M. Henningsen, Stephen S. Bates, Deborah L. Robertson, Sean Milton, Jerry Pelletier, Deborah A. Hogan, David E. Housman

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries Hasle (Hasle) (Ps-n) is distinctive among the ecologically important marine diatoms because it produces the neurotoxin domoic acid. Although the biology of Ps-n has been investigated intensely, the characterization of the genes and biochemical pathways leading to domoic acid biosynthesis has been limited. To identify transcripts whose levels correlate with domoic acid production, we analyzed Ps-n under conditions of high and low domoic acid production by cDNA microarray technology and reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) methods. Our goals included identifying and validating robust reference genes for Ps-n RNA expression analysis under these conditions.


Killerflip: A Novel Lytic Peptide Specifically Inducing Cancer Cell Death, B Pennarun, G. Gaidos, O Bucur, A Tinari Oct 2013

Killerflip: A Novel Lytic Peptide Specifically Inducing Cancer Cell Death, B Pennarun, G. Gaidos, O Bucur, A Tinari

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

One of the objectives in the development of effective cancer therapy is induction of tumor-selective cell death. Toward this end, we have identified a small peptide that, when introduced into cells via a TAT cell-delivery system, shows a remarkably potent cytoxicity in a variety of cancer cell lines and inhibits tumor growth in vivo, whereas sparing normal cells and tissues. This fusion peptide was named killer FLIP as its sequence was derived from the C-terminal domain of c-FLIP, an anti-apoptotic protein. Using structure activity analysis, we determined the minimal bioactive core of killerFLIP, namely killerFLIP-E. Structural analysis of cells using ...


An Expanded View Of The Eukaryotic Cytoskeleton, James B. Moseley Oct 2013

An Expanded View Of The Eukaryotic Cytoskeleton, James B. Moseley

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

A rich and ongoing history of cell biology research has defined the major polymer systems of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. Recent studies have identified additional proteins that form filamentous structures in cells and can self-assemble into linear polymers when purified. This suggests that the eukaryotic cytoskeleton is an even more complex system than previously considered. In this essay, I examine the case for an expanded definition of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton and present a series of challenges for future work in this area.


Identification Of Cell Cycle–Regulated Genes Periodically Expressed In U2os Cells And Their Regulation By Foxm1 And E2f Transcription Factors, Gavin D. Grant, Lionel Brooks Iii, Xiaoyang Zhang, J. Matthew Mahoney, Viktor Martyanov, Tammara A. Wood, Gavin Sherlock, Chao Cheng, Michael L. Whitfield Sep 2013

Identification Of Cell Cycle–Regulated Genes Periodically Expressed In U2os Cells And Their Regulation By Foxm1 And E2f Transcription Factors, Gavin D. Grant, Lionel Brooks Iii, Xiaoyang Zhang, J. Matthew Mahoney, Viktor Martyanov, Tammara A. Wood, Gavin Sherlock, Chao Cheng, Michael L. Whitfield

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

We identify the cell cycle–regulated mRNA transcripts genome-wide in the osteosarcoma-derived U2OS cell line. This results in 2140 transcripts mapping to 1871 unique cell cycle–regulated genes that show periodic oscillations across multiple synchronous cell cycles. We identify genomic loci bound by the G2/M transcription factor FOXM1 by chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) and associate these with cell cycle–regulated genes. FOXM1 is bound to cell cycle–regulated genes with peak expression in both S phase and G2/M phases. We show that ChIP-seq genomic loci are responsive to FOXM1 using a real-time luciferase assay in ...


The Tethering Complex Hops Catalyzes Assembly Of The Soluble Snare Vam7 Into Fusogenic Trans-Snare Complexes, Michael Zick, William Wickner Sep 2013

The Tethering Complex Hops Catalyzes Assembly Of The Soluble Snare Vam7 Into Fusogenic Trans-Snare Complexes, Michael Zick, William Wickner

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The fusion of yeast vacuolar membranes depends on the disassembly of cis–soluble N-ethylmaleimide–sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complexes and the subsequent reassembly of new SNARE complexes in trans. The disassembly of cis-SNARE complexes by Sec17/Sec18p releases the soluble SNARE Vam7p from vacuolar membranes. Consequently, Vam7p needs to be recruited to the membrane at future sites of fusion to allow the formation of trans-SNARE complexes. The multisubunit tethering homotypic fusion and vacuole protein sorting (HOPS) complex, which is essential for the fusion of vacuolar membranes, was previously shown to have direct affinity for Vam7p ...


Bioengineered Lysozyme Reduces Bacterial Burden And Inflammation In A Murine Model Of Mucoid Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Lung Infection, Charlotte C. Teneback, Thomas C. Scanlon, Matthew J. Wargo, Jenna L. Bement, Karl E. Griswold, Laurie W. Leclair Aug 2013

Bioengineered Lysozyme Reduces Bacterial Burden And Inflammation In A Murine Model Of Mucoid Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Lung Infection, Charlotte C. Teneback, Thomas C. Scanlon, Matthew J. Wargo, Jenna L. Bement, Karl E. Griswold, Laurie W. Leclair

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The spread of drug-resistant bacterial pathogens is a growing global concern and has prompted an effort to explore potential adjuvant and alternative therapies derived from nature's repertoire of bactericidal proteins and peptides. In humans, the airway surface liquid layer is a rich source of antibiotics, and lysozyme represents one of the most abundant and effective antimicrobial components of airway secretions. Human lysozyme is active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, ac


Bayesian Reconstruction Of P(R) Directly From Two-Dimensional Detector Images Via A Markov Chain Monte Carlo Method, Sudeshna Paul, Alan M. Friedman, Chris Bailey-Kellogg, Bruce Craig Apr 2013

Bayesian Reconstruction Of P(R) Directly From Two-Dimensional Detector Images Via A Markov Chain Monte Carlo Method, Sudeshna Paul, Alan M. Friedman, Chris Bailey-Kellogg, Bruce Craig

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The interatomic distance distribution, P(r), is a valuable tool for evaluating the structure of a molecule in solution and represents the maximum structural information that can be derived from solution scattering data without further assumptions. Most current instrumentation for scattering experiments (typically CCD detectors) generates a finely pixelated two-dimensional image. In contin­uation of the standard practice with earlier one-dimensional detectors, these images are typically reduced to a one-dimensional profile of scattering inten­sities, I(q), by circular averaging of the two-dimensional image. Indirect Fourier transformation methods are then used to reconstruct P(r) from I(q). Substantial advantages ...


How Long Is A Piece Of Loop?, Yoonjoo Choi, Sumeet Agarwal, Charlotte M. Deane Feb 2013

How Long Is A Piece Of Loop?, Yoonjoo Choi, Sumeet Agarwal, Charlotte M. Deane

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Loops are irregular structures which connect two secondary structure elements in proteins. They often play important roles in function, including enzyme reactions and ligand binding. Despite their importance, their structure remains difficult to predict. Most protein loop structure prediction methods sample local loop segments and score them. In particular protein loop classifications and database search methods depend heavily on local properties of loops. Here we examine the distance between a loop's end points (span). We find that the distribution of loop span appears to be independent of the number of residues in the loop, in other words the separation ...