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Articles 1 - 14 of 14

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Prep-Hplc Method Development To Isolate Potentially-Carcinogenic, Arginine-Based Heterocyclic Amines, Victoria S. Kim Dec 2017

Prep-Hplc Method Development To Isolate Potentially-Carcinogenic, Arginine-Based Heterocyclic Amines, Victoria S. Kim

Honors Theses

Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are carcinogenic molecules generated from the reaction of creatin(in)e and amino acids at high cooking temperatures in meat. Previous research has shown that replacing creatine with arginine leads to new, uncharacterized HCA molecules. This research entails implementing and optimizing the preparative HPLC analysis of extracts from multiple burnings of arginine with phenylalanine. Isolated fractions from the prep-HPLC analysis were further analyzed using the Ames test to identify mutagenic compounds. Prep-HPLC provides quality control to the burning process along with isolation of larger quantities of materials for further characterization and molecular structure identification.


Quantification Of Hfshr Signaling To Determine Lipid Raft Residency, Gregory Geisel Jun 2017

Quantification Of Hfshr Signaling To Determine Lipid Raft Residency, Gregory Geisel

Honors Theses

Human follicle stimulating hormone (hFSH) is a gonadotropin responsible for regulating reproductive systems by stimulation of Sertoli cells in males and granulosa cells in females. The hFSH receptor (hFSHR) is a seven transmembrane receptor that belongs to the G protein coupled receptor family. The receptor is functionally connected to a G protein on the inside of the cell. Once FSH activates its receptor, a cascade of signaling begins, resulting in the activation of adenylyl cyclase, which increases the intracellular levels of cAMP. In addition, hFSHR stimulation also activates the p44/42 MAP kinase. The spike in cAMP activates the enzyme ...


Caveolin Binding Motif Mutation Yields A Variance In Follicle Stimulating Hormone Receptor Signaling, Justin Fleischer Jun 2017

Caveolin Binding Motif Mutation Yields A Variance In Follicle Stimulating Hormone Receptor Signaling, Justin Fleischer

Honors Theses

The human follicle stimulating hormone receptor (hFSHR) is a glycoprotein hormone receptor belonging to the g protein-coupled receptor family. It is important in both male and female reproductive processes; defects in hFSHR can lead to infertility, delayed puberty, reduced muscle bulk, and osteoporosis. Work in other labs has shown that GPCRs can be localized to microdomains located within the cell membrane called lipid rafts. These regions are highly resistant to detergents because of the high concentration of sphingolipids and cholesterol. Also within these domains, an intracellular protein, caveolin, is present. Our lab has shown that hFSHR also localizes to lipid ...


Use Of Crispr To Develop A Follicle Stimulating Hormone Receptor Knockout In Human Granulosa Cells To Study Lipid Raft Residency, Jenna Pradhuman Jun 2017

Use Of Crispr To Develop A Follicle Stimulating Hormone Receptor Knockout In Human Granulosa Cells To Study Lipid Raft Residency, Jenna Pradhuman

Honors Theses

Human follicle stimulating hormone (hFSH) is a protein hormone responsible for stimulating the gonads and is necessary for regulating reproductive systems in both females and males. The actions of hFSh are carried out by the hFSH receptor (hFSHR), a seven transmembrane receptor that belongs to the G protein-coupled receptor family. Once FSH activates its receptor, the G protein inside the cell that is associated with the receptor is activated and starts a cascade of signaling that results in activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and the p44/42 MAP kinase (MAPK). The activation of these secondary proteins is responsible for ...


Characterization Of P43lgrn-3, Kelly G. Hill May 2017

Characterization Of P43lgrn-3, Kelly G. Hill

Honors Theses

Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by extensive memory loss and cognitive deficits, which occur due to severe neuronal loss. Two hallmark lesions, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles composed of hyperphosphorylated tau and extracellular neuritic plaques formed by the aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ), are responsible for the progressive neuronal loss seen in AD brains. Neurotoxic Aβ aggregates are also known to cause inflammation within the brain. It has recently come to light that severe and acute inflammation, such as seen in traumatic brain injury (TBI), may also lead to AD-type dementia. This has raised the question whether some ...


The Preparation Of Synthetic Myod Mrna For Cellular Differentiation And Innate Immune Response Downstream Application, James D. Grenn May 2017

The Preparation Of Synthetic Myod Mrna For Cellular Differentiation And Innate Immune Response Downstream Application, James D. Grenn

Honors Theses

The development of therapeutic immune responses from the manipulation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) via induction of synthetic RNA with 5’ capped and 3’ poly(A)tailed ends would lead to development of stem cell therapy. A necessary step in attaining such a goal is to first produce an mRNA transcript from a plasmid containing the open reading frame (ORF) for a transcription factor for cellular activation.

In this research, the DNA plasmid pMD4 encoding MyoD was transcribed into synthetic mRNA. The plasmid was first amplified using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), and analyzed using gel electrophoresis. The amplified template was ...


Altering The Structure Of Carboxysomal Carbonic Anhydrase Csosca To Determine The Necessity Of The N-Terminal Domain In Csosca Function, Dana L. Dillistone May 2017

Altering The Structure Of Carboxysomal Carbonic Anhydrase Csosca To Determine The Necessity Of The N-Terminal Domain In Csosca Function, Dana L. Dillistone

Honors Theses

In this project, a DNA construct was designed and developed to remove the first fifty amino acids of the CsoSCA protein in the chemolithotrophic bacterium Halothiobacillus neapolitanus. The csoS3 gene codes for a carbonic anhydrase enzyme (CsoSCA) that is unique to a structure called a carboxysome. Carboxysomes are polyhedral microcompartments where carbon fixation is housed. The carbonic anhydrase is a shell-associated protein that improves the catalytic efficiency of ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO), the enzyme that catalyzes the fixation of carbon. By deleting the first fifty amino acids of the carbonic anhydrase, the necessity of the amino acids in carboxysome function ...


Elucidating The Interplay Between Sodium Selenite On The Tick Amblyomma Maculatum Selenoprotein Gene Expression, Afnan M. Beauti May 2017

Elucidating The Interplay Between Sodium Selenite On The Tick Amblyomma Maculatum Selenoprotein Gene Expression, Afnan M. Beauti

Honors Theses

Selenium (Se) is an element recognized as an essential micronutrient in eukaryote organisms. Selenoproteins contain selenium as selenocysteine, the 21st amino acid. Selenium plays a role in cell growth and functioning. At low concentrations, it can induce growth and at high concentrations, it can cause a cell to stop growing and potentially have toxic effects on the cell and organism. When selenium levels are high, oxidative stress results by the production of reactive oxidative species. Selenoproteins, however, can aid the antioxidant response in the cell. Ticks are arthropods of interest, as they are one of few that contain many selenogenes ...


Generation Of Mutant Snap-23 To Arrest Mast Cell Degranulation At Trans-Snare Complex Formation, Suzette Wafford-Turner May 2017

Generation Of Mutant Snap-23 To Arrest Mast Cell Degranulation At Trans-Snare Complex Formation, Suzette Wafford-Turner

Honors Theses

Regulated secretion of pro-inflammatory molecules (e.g, histamines, proteases) from mast cells plays critical roles in immunity, allergic reactions, cardiovascular disease and cancer. These molecules are stored in secretory granules inside the cell and are rapidly released into the extracellular environment when mast cells are activated. It is known that mast cell degranulation depends upon membrane anchored SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleidimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors) and accessory proteins that form the trans-SNARE complex, a 4 helical bundle central to exocytic fusion. There are three SNARE proteins that contribute to the 4-helical bundle during exocytosis; Syntaxin and VAMP proteins each provide one ...


Molecular Mass Of L-Arginine-Based Potentially Carcinogenic Heterocyclic Amines, Irene S. Hwang Apr 2017

Molecular Mass Of L-Arginine-Based Potentially Carcinogenic Heterocyclic Amines, Irene S. Hwang

Honors Theses

Investigation of cancer-inducing molecules in cooked foods has led to the discovery of mutagenic heterocyclic amines (HCAs) in meat. The amino acids creatin(in)e and L-phenylalanine form the precursors for these HCAs. Recent research here at Andrews University have found similar mutagenic HCAs produced from plant-based proteins when L-arginine, rather than creatin(in)e, is substituted in high temperature reactions (simulated cooking) with L-phenylalanine. Our research focused on developing HPLC methods to isolate individual candidates that are then screened for mutagenicity via the Ames test. Mass spectroscopy methods were also developed to identfy the molecular structure of these lead ...


Fluorescence Analysis Of Pamam Dendrimers, Ansel Nam Apr 2017

Fluorescence Analysis Of Pamam Dendrimers, Ansel Nam

Honors Theses

Despite their lack of conjugation, polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers are intrinsically fluorescent, and this fluorescent is somewhat manipulable through altering the dendrimer's solvent. This level of fluorescence is dependent on a number of the dendrimer's qualities: the pH of the solvent, the mass percent concentration of the dendrimer in solvent, and the generation size of the dendrimer. In past studies, fluorescent intensity increased as generation size increased and pH decreased. Thus, this research project will attempt to replicate those results as well as further analyze the efficiency of fluorescence of PAMAM dendrimer in comparison to fluorescein.


Vesicle-Membrane Tethering: The Interaction Of Sec1 And Exocyst Subunit Sec6, Lauren O'Connor Jan 2017

Vesicle-Membrane Tethering: The Interaction Of Sec1 And Exocyst Subunit Sec6, Lauren O'Connor

Honors Theses

The exocyst complex is a multi-subunit tethering complex that is used in the process of exocytosis. There are eight subunits in the complex, and these subunits interact with each other as well as proteins outside of the complex to facilitate membrane fusion. Prior research has shown that the exocyst subunit Sec6 and Sec1 from the Sec1/Munc18 (SM) family, a known regulator of membrane fusion, interact with each other. In this experiment, the goal was to crosslink the two proteins and in turn work to identify the interacting amino acid residues that are responsible for the proteins’ interaction. To do ...


Examining Interactions Between Opsins And Carotenoid Biosynthetic Proteins In Halophilic Archaea, Alexandru M. Plesa Jan 2017

Examining Interactions Between Opsins And Carotenoid Biosynthetic Proteins In Halophilic Archaea, Alexandru M. Plesa

Honors Theses

Organisms have evolved numerous specialized molecules for constantly responding to environmental changes. Examples of such molecules are the light-driven proton-pump rhodopsins, such as bacteriorhodopsin (BR) and cruxrhodopsin (cR), and the carotenoid pigments, such as retinal and bacterioruberin. In halophilic Archaea, retinal can covalently bind bacterioopsin (BO) and cruxopsin (CO) to form the corresponding protein complexes, and its biosynthesis is indirectly controlled by the activity of the lycopene elongase (Lye) enzyme, which converts lycopene, a retinal precursor, to a form of bacterioruberin. Interestingly, opsins were shown to inhibit the activity of Lye, thereby promoting retinal biosynthesis and indirectly regulating the apoprotein-cofactor ...


Investigating Medicinally Important Portein-Protein And Protein-Ligand Interactions : A Computational Approach, Cooper Ashley Taylor Jan 2017

Investigating Medicinally Important Portein-Protein And Protein-Ligand Interactions : A Computational Approach, Cooper Ashley Taylor

Honors Theses

Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and computational chemistry allow for an atomistic understanding of protein-protein and protein-ligand binding motifs. Through the use of MD, medicinally relevant complexes can be examined in detail unattainable by experimental methods. Within this work, systems pertinent to both Alzheimer’s Disease and HIV-1 are probed and thoroughly sampled to help elucidate potential therapeutic pathways. We used molecular dynamics and free energy estimations to gauge the affinity for the binary and ternary complexes of KLC1, APP and JIP1, three proteins all believed to be involved in the propagation of Alzheimer’s Disease. Two areas of thought exist ...