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Honors Theses

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Articles 1 - 30 of 103

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Analysis Of Septum Defects In Arabidopsis Organ Boundary Mutants, Katherine T. Anderson May 2019

Analysis Of Septum Defects In Arabidopsis Organ Boundary Mutants, Katherine T. Anderson

Honors Theses

Arabidopsis thaliana, a model plant species, has been heavily studied to determine the genetic contributions that lead to gynoecium development. The Arabidopsis fruit is created from two carpels that form a gynoecium, which contains the stigma, style, and ovary. The ovary is divided into two sub-compartments by a septum, and the ovules develop within the ovary. The fruit’s purpose is to protect, nurture, and eventually disperse the mature ovules, or seeds, and if the septum does not fuse properly, the plant’s fertility will be impacted. SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM) and ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA HOMEOBOX GENE1 (ATH1) are two genes that ...


The Effect Of Simulated Storm Passage On The Behavior Of Whitespotted Bamboo Sharks, Chiloscyllium Plagiosum And Golden Shiners, Notemigonus Chrysoleucas, Jordan A. Healy May 2019

The Effect Of Simulated Storm Passage On The Behavior Of Whitespotted Bamboo Sharks, Chiloscyllium Plagiosum And Golden Shiners, Notemigonus Chrysoleucas, Jordan A. Healy

Honors Theses

Environmental changes during a storm can affect animal behavior; for example, tagged sharks leave shallow waters during tropical storms. While changes in shark behavior during storm passage have been documented, there have been no experimental tests to determine which environmental parameters are responsible. In this study, we experimentally manipulated two environmental cues: barometric pressure, and thunder sounds, to determine their effect on whitespotted bamboo sharks, Chiloscyllium plagiosum, and golden shiners, Notemigonus crysoleucas. Elasmobranchs do not have a swim bladder to detect pressure change; therefore, we used golden shiners to compare the reaction of a fish with a swim bladder. The ...


Studies On Luminescent Gold And Platinum Nanoclusters For Biological Sensing And Catalysis, Richard Covington May 2019

Studies On Luminescent Gold And Platinum Nanoclusters For Biological Sensing And Catalysis, Richard Covington

Honors Theses

Nanoclusters are small nanoparticles that usually range around a micrometer in diameter. Gold Nanoclusters are known for their unique size and surface qualities and do not share metallic properties with nanoparticles or their respective bulk material. Some metal nanoclusters show high fluorescence and can be synthesized with protein mediation. Nanocluster formation depends on a number of variables, including temperature, pH, and type of reducing agent. This experiment was done to begin to understand how these variables may affect synthesis and what exactly they are. Pure Wild Type CSP-1 protein was induced, transformed, and purified in order to mediate gold and ...


When Life Gives You Lemons: Comparing Two Diffusion Methods For A Psychological Screening Tool In The Medical Field, Jessica Tran May 2019

When Life Gives You Lemons: Comparing Two Diffusion Methods For A Psychological Screening Tool In The Medical Field, Jessica Tran

Honors Theses

E.M. Rogers’ Diffusion of Innovation Theory is used to explain the process of how an idea or technology gains momentum and spreads through a particular population. The result of the diffusion is called adoption, meaning that over time the group has changed their initial behavior (i.e. using the new technology, purchasing and performing new behavior, etc.). There is considerable evidence for successful use of this theory in various fields. The study investigates the theory using a new psychological screening technology. A solicitation to hear information about the tool was presented to 19 physicians who were separated into two ...


Transformation Of Model Organisms With Munc13-1 For Subcloning And Protein Harvesting, Grace Dittmar May 2019

Transformation Of Model Organisms With Munc13-1 For Subcloning And Protein Harvesting, Grace Dittmar

Honors Theses

Exocytosis is the process by which cells release various molecules into the extracellular space. This mechanism is accomplished by membrane fusion, in which the membrane of the transport vesicle and that of the cell itself fuse to create one continuous membrane, allowing the release of the molecules inside the vesicle. A family of proteins, known as SNARE proteins, is responsible for facilitating membrane fusion. SNARE proteins form a complex between the vesicle membrane and the plasma membrane. For various cells, such as mast cells and neurons, exocytosis is essential to carry out their vital functions. Various accessory proteins are known ...


Yield Stress Analysis With Dv-Iii Rheometer, Leah Margaret Cook Apr 2019

Yield Stress Analysis With Dv-Iii Rheometer, Leah Margaret Cook

Honors Theses

The purpose of this thesis is to understand the behavior of everyday substances (toothpaste, lotions, ect.) and chemicals through the analysis of yield stress. By measuring the flow properties of these products, one can determine the stability, uses, and other properties of a substance. Yield stress is experienced everyday from squeezing a tube of toothpaste, to stirring a batch of cake batter, or canning products in a factory. Yield stress along with viscosity helps us predict the behavior of chemicals, cosmetics, and food that we handle daily. Yield stress, torque, and strain values were measured with a DV-III Rheometer and ...


Design And Synthesis Of A Novel Lsoxazoline As A Potential Pam-Agonist, Josselyn Roosenberg Apr 2019

Design And Synthesis Of A Novel Lsoxazoline As A Potential Pam-Agonist, Josselyn Roosenberg

Honors Theses

Progression of Alzheimer's disease is associated with a loss of Ml receptor activation in the brain. However, a lack of clinical success following attempts to activate the Ml receptor at the orthosteric site has contributed to a transition towards the allosteric pocket of the receptor. Here, positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) interact to potentiate the acetylcholine response. Recent research proposes that optimization of PAM activity at the expense of intrinsic agonism may posit a means to limit adverse side effects. Therefore, this project proposes a design and synthesis of a novel isoxazoline as a potent PAM agent with weak intrinsic ...


Analysis Of Dl-Amino Acid Ratios In Eggshells Using Reverse Phase-High Pressure Liquid Chromatography, Gergana Milkova Apr 2019

Analysis Of Dl-Amino Acid Ratios In Eggshells Using Reverse Phase-High Pressure Liquid Chromatography, Gergana Milkova

Honors Theses

HPLC methodology was developed to determine the concentrations and ratios of D to L amino acids in emu and ostrich eggshells treated with heat at different temperatures . We aimed to determine an internal standard and how ratios were affected under different conditions. An HPLC method was determined that gave consistent retention times and satisfactory enantioseparation . Calibration curves for each amino acid were developed from single and multi-amino acid containing dilution series producing a model that most closely replicates the eggshell-extracted amino acids.


Isolation And Characterization Of Novel Arginine-Derived Heterocyclic Amines, Nathaniel Srikureja Apr 2019

Isolation And Characterization Of Novel Arginine-Derived Heterocyclic Amines, Nathaniel Srikureja

Honors Theses

Most known heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are potent mutagens present at significant concentrations in cooked meats, and can be synthesized from burned mixtures of L-creatin(in)e with various amino acids. We hypothesize that novel mutagenic HCAs may be synthesized from a heated plant-based food simulating binary amino acid mL'\:ture: L-arginine and L-threonine. A two-part solid phase extraction was used to separate nitrogen heterocycles from byproducts followed by prep­ HPLC and the Ames mutagenicity assay using Salmonella TA98 to determine the mutagenicity of various isolates. The results indicate that this binary amino acid mixture does not yield a mutagenic sample.


Synthesis Of An Ideal Inhibitor For The Lpxc Enzyme, Taejun Lee Apr 2019

Synthesis Of An Ideal Inhibitor For The Lpxc Enzyme, Taejun Lee

Honors Theses

Due to the growing need of antibiotics in modern day medicine, this study attempts to apply a method of medicinal chemistry that would create a novel inhibitor for a lesser known target of gram negative bacteria, the LpxC enzyme. This study proposes that a synthetic plan which consists of combining components of different molecules would create a more effective inhibitor. These components include a binding group for the active site of the enzyme, a hydrophobic chain which has been shown to interact with an allosteric site on the LpxC enzyme, and the isoxazoline ring which interacts with the zinc ion ...


Cloning, Expression, And Purification Of Fadk And Its Application In Coa-Rna Capture, Jon-Michael L. Stork Apr 2019

Cloning, Expression, And Purification Of Fadk And Its Application In Coa-Rna Capture, Jon-Michael L. Stork

Honors Theses

Coenzyme A (CoA) is an important enzyme cofactor involved in acyl transfer reactions. Recently, CoA and its various thioesters were found to exist at the 5’ end of RNA molecules. Although the function of these molecules is still unknown due to difficulties in their isolation, their existence at the 5’ RNA end reveals potentially novel biological roles of RNA. We are exploiting the broad substrate tolerance of the medium chain fatty acid-coenzyme A ligase (FadK), hypothesizing that this enzyme will accept biotinylated medium chain fatty acid substrates, creating biotin-tagged CoA-RNA. This modified CoA-RNA can later be captured using streptavidin affinity ...


The Mechanism Of The Enzymatic Synthesis Of 2,4-Hydroxymethfufural Phosphate, Caroline Brown Apr 2019

The Mechanism Of The Enzymatic Synthesis Of 2,4-Hydroxymethfufural Phosphate, Caroline Brown

Honors Theses

This project stems from the desire to explore and eventually harness the enzymatic mechanism of 4-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furan-carboxaldehyde-phosphate synthase (MfnB). The enzyme of interest, MfnB, is found most prominently in methanogens and some bacteria and can catalyze five or more separate chemical transformations in a single active site. This singular enzyme takes two molecules of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and creates a furan-containing compound, 4- (hydroxymethyl)-2-furan-carboxaldehyde-phosphate (4-HMF-P). Furan-containing compounds have been highlighted for their high potential in the production of biofuels and biomaterial compounds; thus, research efforts seek to create a more efficient synthesis process for furan compounds. The broad industrial applications ...


Benchmark Structures And Harmonic Vibrational Frequencies Of Hydrated Halide Ions: X– (H2o)N, X = F, Cl, Br, And I (Where N = 1 – 4), Caroline Anne Rader Jan 2019

Benchmark Structures And Harmonic Vibrational Frequencies Of Hydrated Halide Ions: X– (H2o)N, X = F, Cl, Br, And I (Where N = 1 – 4), Caroline Anne Rader

Honors Theses

This study extends our efforts to generate benchmark structures and harmonic vi- brational frequencies from neutral hydrogen bonded clusters to solvated ions. The analytical gradients and Hessians developed for the N-body:Many-body integrated QM:QM method facilitate the computation of benchmark-quality properties near the CCSD(T) complete basis set limit. In this work, a series of solvated halide ion sys- tems (X−(H2O)n clusters, where X = F, Cl, Br and I and n = 1 to 4) is being characterized with the MP2 and 2-body:Many-body CCSD(T):MP2 (2b:Mb) meth- ods. For n ≥ 2, the latter technique uses ...


Preparation Of A Perylenebisimide Acceptor With Serinol And Nonadecyl-Swallowtail Imides For Use In Molecular Rectification, Tarrah Frederick Jan 2019

Preparation Of A Perylenebisimide Acceptor With Serinol And Nonadecyl-Swallowtail Imides For Use In Molecular Rectification, Tarrah Frederick

Honors Theses

Several attempts were made to add 2-amino-1,3-propanediol to the acceptor perylene monoanhydride (PMA). The theoretical product, N-(10-nonadecyl)-N'-(1,3-dihydroxypropan-2-yl)perylene-3,4,9,10-bis(dicarboximide), is intended for use in unimolecular rectification because the perylenebisimide core is classified as a good acceptor due to its high electron affinity. Rectification usually utilizes donor-σ-acceptor molecules, whose localized orbitals permit electron transfer when placed between metal electrodes of asymmetric voltages. However, according to an “asymmetric rectification” analysis, an electron can pass from one electrode, through the LUMO of the acceptor, and then to the other electrode when said electrodes are held ...


Assessing The Effects Of Antioxidants On Oxidative Stress In Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells Via Protein Carbonylation, Dalton Sheffield Jan 2019

Assessing The Effects Of Antioxidants On Oxidative Stress In Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells Via Protein Carbonylation, Dalton Sheffield

Honors Theses

Breast cancer is a highly complex, heterogeneous disease, and potential effective treatment options are being continuously researched in order to provide a method of halting cancer growth and metastasis. One area in particular involves alleviating oxidative stress within cancer cells. Oxidative stress is generally defined as an imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant species in favor of the oxidants. Cancer cells use this oxidative stress to initiate carcinogenesis in cells through different mechanisms, and protein carbonylation is a primary biomarker used to quantify oxidative stress levels. Antioxidant compounds are those used to alleviate oxidative stress within cells. Here breast cancer cells ...


Lost In Translation: Challenges And Solutions To Language Barriers In Healthcare In Mississippi, Galina Ostrovsky Jan 2019

Lost In Translation: Challenges And Solutions To Language Barriers In Healthcare In Mississippi, Galina Ostrovsky

Honors Theses

Language barriers can impede access to healthcare and compromise quality of care for limited English proficiency (LEP) patients. Although a rights-based framework would suggest and federal mandates require healthcare facilities to provide language access services, multiple factors result in the persistence of language barriers in healthcare. As the literature review shows, these factors include limitations in policy, enforcement, standardization, resources, and ability to recruit and retain professional interpreters. This thesis uses a multi-method case study entailing Mississippi in general and information from two specific sites, a rural Delta county and an urban central county, to assess the issue of language ...


Protein Templated Silver Nanoclusters, Greyson Keel Jan 2019

Protein Templated Silver Nanoclusters, Greyson Keel

Honors Theses

Nanoclusters are smaller than their nanoparticle counterparts and have unique properties. Most research has been done on gold nanoclusters, but silver nanoclusters are said to be more robust. During the process of trying to create nanoclusters, several methods in the procedure were changed when gathering data: determining a successful silver concentration, working with the correct buffer, mixing gold and silver metals together, observing the effects of pH, and finding a good reducing agent. After experimenting with those changes, a successful protocol was adapted and modified from literature (Journal of Materials Chemistry, 2011, 21, 11205-11212) to produce the protein-templated Ag clusters ...


Synthesis Of Oxygenated Boronic Acid Substituted A-Cyanostilbenes For Use As Antibacterial, Yewon Kim Apr 2018

Synthesis Of Oxygenated Boronic Acid Substituted A-Cyanostilbenes For Use As Antibacterial, Yewon Kim

Honors Theses

Stilbenes are naturally occurring compounds that have exhibited antibacterial activity, although the biological effect of various stilbenes differs for Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains of bacteria. In prior research, cyanostilbenes have shown slight antibacterial activity (Brownlee, et al. 1943). This project aims to explore whether hybrid oxygenated a-cyanostilbenes possessing a boronic acid pharmacophore exhibits significant antibacterial activity (Das et al. 2013). The biological activity against Staphylocococcus aureus (Gram-positive) and Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) was tested using the Kirby-Bauer text. No inhibition of E. coli growth was shown while S. aureus was partially inhibited.


Evaluating Mutagenicity Of Burned Arginine-Based Heterocyclic Amines And Anti-Mutagenicity Effect Of Chinese Medicinal Herbs, Rayford C. Alva Apr 2018

Evaluating Mutagenicity Of Burned Arginine-Based Heterocyclic Amines And Anti-Mutagenicity Effect Of Chinese Medicinal Herbs, Rayford C. Alva

Honors Theses

From the unexpected finding that cooked grains and meat substitutes elicit a mutagenic response in Salmonella typhimurium TA98, our work has been aimed at deconstructing this finding via a survey of heated binary amino acid combinations, involving arginine, a plant-based amino acid. secondly, our work has looked towards sing phytochemical extracts from traditional Chinese medicinal herbs to inhibit the mutagenic activity of heterocyclic amines (main culprit for mutagenicity in meat). Two fractions from the burned products of arginine and phenylalanine (RF-HCA-06 and -07) were statistically significant inducers of mutagenesis; Scutellaria barbata and Oldenlandia diffusa, both separately and together, were statistically ...


Testing Bacterial Antibiotic Production Under Carbohydrate And Protein Starvation, Briley Baird Jan 2018

Testing Bacterial Antibiotic Production Under Carbohydrate And Protein Starvation, Briley Baird

Honors Theses

Bacteria produce antibiotics when they are under stress, including starvation stress. Bacteria were tested under carbohydrate and protein starvation against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli (due to the respective Gram positivity and negativity), in order to check for antibiotic production. The bacteria being tested were isolated by past Microbiology classes and stored in a -80°C freezer in the basement of Jones Science Center at Ouachita Baptist University. These test bacteria were grown on tryptic soy agar (TSA) to produce isolated bacterial colonies. Samples of isolated test colonies were then grown under conditions of carbohydrate starvation (M9 salts agar with ...


Effectiveness And Mechanicanism Of Action Of Modified Porphyrins For Photodynamic Therapy Of Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells, Alex Abbott Jan 2018

Effectiveness And Mechanicanism Of Action Of Modified Porphyrins For Photodynamic Therapy Of Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells, Alex Abbott

Honors Theses

Triple negative breast cancer is an aggressive family of cancers that are extremely difficult to treat. Therefore, the prognosis for most patients with TNBC is poor. The goal of this research is to determine if photodynamic therapy could be a possible option for TNBC in the future using MDA-MB231 cells. MDA-MB231 cells were originally isolated from a patient with triple negative breast cancer and have been used for many studies, so they would work well for this study. Photodynamic therapy uses compounds called photosensitizing agents which are taken up by all tissues in the body and then activated by light ...


Investigating Phosphorylation Patterns And Their Effect On The Activity Of Transcription Factor Taabf1 In Imbibing Cereal Grains, Grace Uwase Jan 2018

Investigating Phosphorylation Patterns And Their Effect On The Activity Of Transcription Factor Taabf1 In Imbibing Cereal Grains, Grace Uwase

Honors Theses

The wheat transcription factor TaABF1 plays an important role in hormone-mediated regulation of seed dormancy and germination of cereal grains. Evidence shows that TaABF1 activity is regulated by phosphorylation, and previous work in our lab showed that when serine residues in its conserved regions; S36, S37, S113, S115 were altered to phosphomimetic aspartate, the 4xD TaABF1 mutant had increased activity as a transcription factor. However, when only S113 was altered, TaABF1’s activity was greatly reduced. The work presented here explored whether the S36D/S37D/S115D mutant would have stronger activity than the 4xD mutant. Using the particle bombardment technique ...


Haloferax Volcanii For Carotenoid Production, Erika Smith Jan 2018

Haloferax Volcanii For Carotenoid Production, Erika Smith

Honors Theses

Carotenoids are used as natural colorants and have been shown to have numerous health benefits, making these molecules highly desirable in the aquaculture, pharmaceutical, and nutraceutical markets. There is increasing consumer demand for the natural synthesis of carotenoids, but current methods are limited by the cost and difficulty of extraction from organisms. The halophilic archaeon Haloferax volcanii is amenable to extraction and has an endogenous carotenoid biosynthetic pathway that culminates in the accumulation of the carotenoid bacterioruberin; however, H. volcanii also synthesizes important precursors that can be converted into more highly-desired carotenoids, such as β-carotene and astaxanthin, in the presence ...


Prep-Hplc Method Development To Isolate Potentially-Carcinogenic, Arginine-Based Heterocyclic Amines, Victoria S. Kim Dec 2017

Prep-Hplc Method Development To Isolate Potentially-Carcinogenic, Arginine-Based Heterocyclic Amines, Victoria S. Kim

Honors Theses

Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are carcinogenic molecules generated from the reaction of creatin(in)e and amino acids at high cooking temperatures in meat. Previous research has shown that replacing creatine with arginine leads to new, uncharacterized HCA molecules. This research entails implementing and optimizing the preparative HPLC analysis of extracts from multiple burnings of arginine with phenylalanine. Isolated fractions from the prep-HPLC analysis were further analyzed using the Ames test to identify mutagenic compounds. Prep-HPLC provides quality control to the burning process along with isolation of larger quantities of materials for further characterization and molecular structure identification.


Quantification Of Hfshr Signaling To Determine Lipid Raft Residency, Gregory Geisel Jun 2017

Quantification Of Hfshr Signaling To Determine Lipid Raft Residency, Gregory Geisel

Honors Theses

Human follicle stimulating hormone (hFSH) is a gonadotropin responsible for regulating reproductive systems by stimulation of Sertoli cells in males and granulosa cells in females. The hFSH receptor (hFSHR) is a seven transmembrane receptor that belongs to the G protein coupled receptor family. The receptor is functionally connected to a G protein on the inside of the cell. Once FSH activates its receptor, a cascade of signaling begins, resulting in the activation of adenylyl cyclase, which increases the intracellular levels of cAMP. In addition, hFSHR stimulation also activates the p44/42 MAP kinase. The spike in cAMP activates the enzyme ...


Caveolin Binding Motif Mutation Yields A Variance In Follicle Stimulating Hormone Receptor Signaling, Justin Fleischer Jun 2017

Caveolin Binding Motif Mutation Yields A Variance In Follicle Stimulating Hormone Receptor Signaling, Justin Fleischer

Honors Theses

The human follicle stimulating hormone receptor (hFSHR) is a glycoprotein hormone receptor belonging to the g protein-coupled receptor family. It is important in both male and female reproductive processes; defects in hFSHR can lead to infertility, delayed puberty, reduced muscle bulk, and osteoporosis. Work in other labs has shown that GPCRs can be localized to microdomains located within the cell membrane called lipid rafts. These regions are highly resistant to detergents because of the high concentration of sphingolipids and cholesterol. Also within these domains, an intracellular protein, caveolin, is present. Our lab has shown that hFSHR also localizes to lipid ...


Use Of Crispr To Develop A Follicle Stimulating Hormone Receptor Knockout In Human Granulosa Cells To Study Lipid Raft Residency, Jenna Pradhuman Jun 2017

Use Of Crispr To Develop A Follicle Stimulating Hormone Receptor Knockout In Human Granulosa Cells To Study Lipid Raft Residency, Jenna Pradhuman

Honors Theses

Human follicle stimulating hormone (hFSH) is a protein hormone responsible for stimulating the gonads and is necessary for regulating reproductive systems in both females and males. The actions of hFSh are carried out by the hFSH receptor (hFSHR), a seven transmembrane receptor that belongs to the G protein-coupled receptor family. Once FSH activates its receptor, the G protein inside the cell that is associated with the receptor is activated and starts a cascade of signaling that results in activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and the p44/42 MAP kinase (MAPK). The activation of these secondary proteins is responsible for ...


Characterization Of P43lgrn-3, Kelly G. Hill May 2017

Characterization Of P43lgrn-3, Kelly G. Hill

Honors Theses

Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by extensive memory loss and cognitive deficits, which occur due to severe neuronal loss. Two hallmark lesions, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles composed of hyperphosphorylated tau and extracellular neuritic plaques formed by the aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ), are responsible for the progressive neuronal loss seen in AD brains. Neurotoxic Aβ aggregates are also known to cause inflammation within the brain. It has recently come to light that severe and acute inflammation, such as seen in traumatic brain injury (TBI), may also lead to AD-type dementia. This has raised the question whether some ...


The Preparation Of Synthetic Myod Mrna For Cellular Differentiation And Innate Immune Response Downstream Application, James D. Grenn May 2017

The Preparation Of Synthetic Myod Mrna For Cellular Differentiation And Innate Immune Response Downstream Application, James D. Grenn

Honors Theses

The development of therapeutic immune responses from the manipulation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) via induction of synthetic RNA with 5’ capped and 3’ poly(A)tailed ends would lead to development of stem cell therapy. A necessary step in attaining such a goal is to first produce an mRNA transcript from a plasmid containing the open reading frame (ORF) for a transcription factor for cellular activation.

In this research, the DNA plasmid pMD4 encoding MyoD was transcribed into synthetic mRNA. The plasmid was first amplified using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), and analyzed using gel electrophoresis. The amplified template was ...


Altering The Structure Of Carboxysomal Carbonic Anhydrase Csosca To Determine The Necessity Of The N-Terminal Domain In Csosca Function, Dana L. Dillistone May 2017

Altering The Structure Of Carboxysomal Carbonic Anhydrase Csosca To Determine The Necessity Of The N-Terminal Domain In Csosca Function, Dana L. Dillistone

Honors Theses

In this project, a DNA construct was designed and developed to remove the first fifty amino acids of the CsoSCA protein in the chemolithotrophic bacterium Halothiobacillus neapolitanus. The csoS3 gene codes for a carbonic anhydrase enzyme (CsoSCA) that is unique to a structure called a carboxysome. Carboxysomes are polyhedral microcompartments where carbon fixation is housed. The carbonic anhydrase is a shell-associated protein that improves the catalytic efficiency of ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO), the enzyme that catalyzes the fixation of carbon. By deleting the first fifty amino acids of the carbonic anhydrase, the necessity of the amino acids in carboxysome function ...