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Articles 1 - 11 of 11

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Inhibitors: Action And Resistance, Pamela K. Garcia-Moreno Nov 2018

Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Inhibitors: Action And Resistance, Pamela K. Garcia-Moreno

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Tuberculosis, an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has been a global health problem for years. The emergence of drug resistance in this organism generates the necessity of exploring novel targets and developing new drugs. Topoisomerases are enzymes found in all kingdoms of life responsible for overcoming the topological barriers encountered during essential cellular processes. The genomes of mycobacteria encode only one type IA topoisomerase (MtopI), which has been validated as a novel TB drug target. The goal of this study is to obtain new information on the mechanism and resistance of endogenous and synthetic inhibitors of MtopI.

Rv1495 is ...


Epigenetic Instability Induced By Dna Base Lesion Via Dna Base Excision Repair, Zhongliang Jiang Sep 2017

Epigenetic Instability Induced By Dna Base Lesion Via Dna Base Excision Repair, Zhongliang Jiang

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

DNA damage can cause genome instability, which may lead to human cancer. The most common form of DNA damage is DNA base damage, which is efficiently repaired by DNA base excision repair (BER). Thus BER is the major DNA repair pathway that maintains the stability of the genome. On the other hand, BER mediates DNA demethylation that can occur on the promoter region of important tumor suppressor genes such as Breast Cancer 1 (BRCA1) gene that is also involved in prevention and development of cancer. In this study, employing cell-based and in vitro biochemical approaches along with bisulfite DNA sequencing ...


The Effect Of Target-Specific Biomolecules In Breast Cancer, Mohannad Garoub Jun 2017

The Effect Of Target-Specific Biomolecules In Breast Cancer, Mohannad Garoub

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cancer is the second leading cause of mortality in the United States and the World, therefore, early effective prevention, diagnosis, and therapy is needed. Estrogens play a major role in the initiation and progression of breast cancer. Elevated lifetime exposure to estrogens is associated with an increased risk of developing breast cancer. Estrogens through influencing mitochondria contribute to estrogen induced breast carcinogenesis; however, the exact mitochondrial mechanisms underlying the estrogen carcinogenic effect in breast tissue are not clearly understood. For this dissertation, the mitotoxic and cytotoxic effects of triphenylphosphonium cation (TPP) and Origanum majorana organic extract (OME) as well as ...


Enzyme Catalyzed And Ultrasound Assisted Transformation Of Selected Pollutants, Yi Tan Feb 2017

Enzyme Catalyzed And Ultrasound Assisted Transformation Of Selected Pollutants, Yi Tan

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The widespread use of synthetic drugs and as feed additives has resulted in the release of large amounts of biologically active chemicals into the environment. Exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of chemicals can have severe effects on human health. Therefore, effective degradation of these synthetic, biologically active compounds is of paramount importance.

Diphenhydramine (DPH) has been selected as a target compound for ultrasound remediation. The results demonstrated that ultrasound-induced degradation has potential applications in managing aqueous media contaminated with DPH.

Atorvastatin and roxarsone have been selected as representative substrates for chloroperoxidase (CPO) catalyzed transformation of pollutants. These studies demonstrate atorvastatin ...


The Degradation Of Pharmaceutical Pollutants In Wastewater Catalyzed By Chloroperoxidase And The Construction Of Chloroperoxidase H105r Mutant, Qinghao He Jun 2016

The Degradation Of Pharmaceutical Pollutants In Wastewater Catalyzed By Chloroperoxidase And The Construction Of Chloroperoxidase H105r Mutant, Qinghao He

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Trace amounts of pharmaceuticals have been detected in water, from nanograms per liter to micrograms per liter, and have a negatively effect in the aquatic environment and an increased potential risk of drug poisoning for human and animals. In order to address the problem, drug degradation catalyzed by chloroperoxidase (CPO) has been investigated. CPO is a heme-containing glycoprotein secreted by the fungus, Caldariomyces fumago, it catalyzes two major types of oxidations, two one-electron oxidations as catalyzed by most peroxidases and two-electron oxidations which are rare for conventional peroxidases.

Five common drugs from a variety of classes which were persistent in ...


Conformational Dynamics And Stability Associated With Magnesium Or Calcium Binding To Dream In The Regulation Of Interactions Between Dream And Dna Or Presenilins, Khoa Ngoc Pham Jun 2016

Conformational Dynamics And Stability Associated With Magnesium Or Calcium Binding To Dream In The Regulation Of Interactions Between Dream And Dna Or Presenilins, Khoa Ngoc Pham

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM) is involved in various interactions with targets both inside and outside of the nucleus. In the cytoplasm, DREAM interacts with the C-terminal fragments of presenilins to facilitate the production of β-amyloid plaques in Alzheimer’s disease. In the nucleus, Ca2+ free DREAM directly binds to specific downstream regulatory elements of prodynorphin/c-fos gene to repress the gene transcription in pain modulation. These interactions are regulated by Ca2+ and/or Mg2+ association at the EF-hands in DREAM. Therefore, understanding the conformational dynamics and stability associated with Ca2+ and/or Mg ...


Extraction, Purification And Partial Characterization Of A Carotenoid Binding Protein (Cbp) From The Epidermis Of The Monarch Butterfly Larvae (Danaus Plexippus), Nan Fang Jun 2016

Extraction, Purification And Partial Characterization Of A Carotenoid Binding Protein (Cbp) From The Epidermis Of The Monarch Butterfly Larvae (Danaus Plexippus), Nan Fang

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation describes the purification and partial characterization of CBP from the epidermis of the monarch butterfly larvae (Danaus plexippus). A yellow protein-carotenoid complex was extracted from the yellow pigmented epidermal tissue from monarch butterfly larvae by homogenization. Additional steps in the purification process included differential precipitation with ammonium sulfate, cation and anion chromatography, and lastly size exclusion chromatography. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrates that a single protein was isolated (M-LBP) having a ~60 kDa molecular weight, the value has subsequently been confirmed by HR-tandem MS. Lutein is the sole carotenoid bound by M-LBP with a stoichiometry of the binding of ...


Conjugated Polymer-Based Biomaterials Through Controlled Self-Assembly, Megan Twomey Mar 2016

Conjugated Polymer-Based Biomaterials Through Controlled Self-Assembly, Megan Twomey

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Synthetic polymeric materials have gained significant use as biological materials (biomaterials) in biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. As a result, a demand for well-defined polymers with tunable properties has emerged. The synthetic versatility of polymeric biomaterials allows the opportunity to understand the structure-property relationship of materials and their cellular interactions. A novel class of polymeric biomaterials are conjugated polymers (CPs), which possess desirable physicochemical and excellent photophysical properties, including inherent fluorescence. The synthetic versatility of CPs allows easy modification of the conjugated backbone to tune emission and side chain structures to adjust biocompatibility through increased water solubility, controlled biodegradability, and incorporation ...


Understanding Ten-Eleven Translocation-2 In Hematological And Nervous Systems, Feng Pan Dec 2014

Understanding Ten-Eleven Translocation-2 In Hematological And Nervous Systems, Feng Pan

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

I proposed the study of two distinct aspects of Ten-Eleven Translocation 2 (TET2) protein for understanding specific functions in different body systems.

In Part I, I characterized the molecular mechanisms of Tet2 in the hematological system. As the second member of Ten-Eleven Translocation protein family, TET2 is frequently mutated in leukemic patients. Previous studies have shown that the TET2 mutations frequently occur in 20% myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasm (MDS/MPN), 10% T-cell lymphoma leukemia and 2% B-cell lymphoma leukemia. Genetic mouse models also display distinct phenotypes of various types of hematological malignancies. I performed 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq ...


Design And Synthesis Of S-Ribosylhomocysteine Analogues, Christiane Chbib Mar 2014

Design And Synthesis Of S-Ribosylhomocysteine Analogues, Christiane Chbib

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Bacteria are known to release a large variety of small molecules known as autoinducers (AI) which effect quorum sensing (QS) initiation. The interruption of QS effects bacterial communication, growth and virulence.

Three novel classes of S-ribosylhomocysteine (SRH) analogues as potential inhibitors of S-ribosylhomocysteinase (LuxS enzyme) and AI-2 modulators of QS were developed. The synthesis of 2-deoxy-2-bromo-SRH analogues was attempted by coupling of the corresponding 2-bromo-2-deoxypentafuranosyl precursors with the homocysteinate anion. The displacement of the bromide from C2 rather than the expected substitution of the mesylate from C5 was observed. The synthesis of 4-C-alkyl/aryl-S-ribosylhomocysteine analogues involved the following ...


Aspects Of The Innate Immune System In The Caribbean Octocoral Swiftia Exserta, Lorenzo P. Menzel Nov 2013

Aspects Of The Innate Immune System In The Caribbean Octocoral Swiftia Exserta, Lorenzo P. Menzel

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The immune systems of cnidaria are important to study for two reasons: to gain a better understanding of the evolution of immune responses, and to provide a basis to partially redress the precipitous world-wide die-offs of reef corals, some of which have been attributed to diseases and stress. Many immune responses share ancient evolutionary origins and are common across many taxa.

Using Swiftia exserta, an azooxanthellate ahermatypic local octocoral, as a proxy model organism to study aspects of innate immunity in corals and cnidaria allows us to address both of the reasons listed above while not using endangered species. Utilizing ...