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Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Investigating The Rotary Mechanism Of Atp Synthase Using Molecular Dynamics Simulations, Angela Marcela Murcia Rios Apr 2019

Investigating The Rotary Mechanism Of Atp Synthase Using Molecular Dynamics Simulations, Angela Marcela Murcia Rios

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

F1-ATPase is a motor protein that can use ATP hydrolysis to drive rotation of the central subunit. The γ C-terminal helix constitutes of the rotor tip that is seated in an apical bearing formed by the α3β3 head. It remains uncertain to what extent the γ conformation during rotation differs from that seen in rigid crystal structures. Existing models assume that the entire γ subunit participates in every rotation. Here we develop a molecular dynamics (MD) strategy to model the off-axis forces acting on γ in F1-ATPase. MD runs showed stalling of the ...


Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics Analysis Of Bioactive Proteins In Emd That Modulate Adhesion Of Gingival Fibroblast To Improve Bio-Integration Of Dental Implants, David Zuanazzi Machado Jr Mar 2019

Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics Analysis Of Bioactive Proteins In Emd That Modulate Adhesion Of Gingival Fibroblast To Improve Bio-Integration Of Dental Implants, David Zuanazzi Machado Jr

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Titanium implants are used in dental practice to replace damaged or lost teeth. The implant needs to integrate with the surrounding gingiva to protect it against bacterial invasion that leads to implant loss. The biointegration is dependent on the implant surface that interacts with proteins from biological fluids to modulate tissues response. Tailoring the surface with specific proteins from the enamel matrix derivative (EMD) would be beneficial to improve the implant-gingiva interface since EMD can affect various cells including gingival fibroblasts. A surface-affinity approach using three different titanium surfaces and saliva was utilized as a model in combination with tandem ...


Investigation Of Flow Disturbances And Multi-Directional Wall Shear Stress In The Stenosed Carotid Artery Bifurcation Using Particle Image Velocimetry, Amanda L. Dicarlo Dec 2018

Investigation Of Flow Disturbances And Multi-Directional Wall Shear Stress In The Stenosed Carotid Artery Bifurcation Using Particle Image Velocimetry, Amanda L. Dicarlo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Hemodynamics and shear forces are associated with pathological changes in the vascular wall and its function, resulting in the focal development of atherosclerosis. Flow complexities that develop in the presence of established plaques create environments favourable to thrombosis formation and potentially plaque rupture leading to stroke. The carotid artery bifurcation is a common site of atherosclerosis development. Recently, the multi-directional nature of shear stress acting on the endothelial layer has been highlighted as a risk factor for atherogenesis, emphasizing the need for accurate measurements of shear stress magnitude as well direction. In the absence of comprehensive patient specific datasets numerical ...


A Comprehensive Catalog Of Post-Translational Modifications Of Drosophila Melanogaster Hox Protein, Sex Combs Reduced, Anirban Banerjee Oct 2018

A Comprehensive Catalog Of Post-Translational Modifications Of Drosophila Melanogaster Hox Protein, Sex Combs Reduced, Anirban Banerjee

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

During formation of the anterior-posterior axis, Homeotic selector (HOX) proteins determine the identity of Drosophila body segments. HOX proteins are transcription factors that regulate gene expression during development. Besides a highly conserved DNA-binding homeodomain (HD), HOX proteins also contain functionally important, evolutionarily conserved small motifs. These short motifs found in HOX proteins may be Short Linear Motifs (SLiMs). SLiMs are proposed to be sites of phosphorylation and this may regulate the activity of HOX proteins. The primary aim of this work was to develop a comprehensive catalogue of the sites of phosphorylation and other post-translational modifications (PTMs) for Fushi tarazu ...


The 2Β Insert Perturbs Folding, Stability And Hydrophobic Exposure Of Stromal Interaction Molecules, Steve Chung Oct 2018

The 2Β Insert Perturbs Folding, Stability And Hydrophobic Exposure Of Stromal Interaction Molecules, Steve Chung

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Stromal interaction molecule (STIM)1 and 2 regulate agonist-induced and basal cytosolic calcium (Ca2+) levels through oligomerization and translocation to endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-plasma membrane (PM) junctions. At these junctions, the STIM cytosolic coiled-coil domains couple to PM Orai1 protein subunits to form Ca2+ released activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels that facilitate store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE). One splice variant of STIM2, STIM2β, contains an extra 8-residue (2β insert) located within the coiled-coils and inhibits SOCE through an unresolved mechanism, adding another layer of complexity to Ca2+ regulation in mammals. I hypothesize that the 2β insert perturbs the coiled-coil conformation and dynamics ...


Effects Of Maternal Protein Restriction On The Pulmonary Surfactant System During The Early Life And Adulthood, Reza Khazaee Oct 2018

Effects Of Maternal Protein Restriction On The Pulmonary Surfactant System During The Early Life And Adulthood, Reza Khazaee

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is defined by low birth weight and contributes to a variety of adult-onset diseases with different severities between males and females. However, the effects of FGR on the pulmonary surfactant are not fully elucidated. In this thesis, first, we investigated the FGR effects on the lung function and the surfactant system at the early postnatal life. It was hypothesized that FGR contributes to alterations of lung mechanics and the surfactant system during the neonatal period. Second, we assessed the FGR effects on the surfactant system in response to sepsis in adulthood. It was hypothesized that FGR ...


Characterization Of Interleukin (Il)-1Β Regulatory Elements And Chromatin Conformation In Macrophage Activation, Woohyun Cho Aug 2018

Characterization Of Interleukin (Il)-1Β Regulatory Elements And Chromatin Conformation In Macrophage Activation, Woohyun Cho

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

IL-1β is a potent inflammatory cytokine promptly expressed in activated myeloid cells. PU.1 is a lineage-determining transcription factor that regulates myeloid-specific genes by activating distal enhancers. This study addresses the functional importance of a potential enhancer of IL-1β, and how PU.1 regulates its activity state. A putative enhancer RNA (eRNA) was transcribed from the enhancer, and eRNA knock-down with antisense oligonucleotides inhibited IL-1β production. Furthermore, enhancer-promoter interactions in stimulated macrophages were detected via chromatin conformation capture (3C) analysis. The role of PU.1 was examined in PU.1-overexpressed B16-BL6 cells, which responded to LPS and expressed IL-1β mRNA ...


Production Of A Candidate Recombinant Protein Vaccine For Mannheimia Haemolytica In Lettuce And Tobacco Chloroplasts, Coby K. Martin Jul 2018

Production Of A Candidate Recombinant Protein Vaccine For Mannheimia Haemolytica In Lettuce And Tobacco Chloroplasts, Coby K. Martin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The cattle industry worldwide is ravaged by bovine respiratory disease (BRD), a bacterial disease caused by Mannheimia haemolytica. Recent efforts to design vaccines against M. haemolytica focus on a virulence factor, leukotoxin, in addition to surface lipoproteins. Plant-based protein production is a safe and inexpensive alternative to traditional methods. Edible vaccines deliver antigens to pharyngeal tissues, which can provide local immunization against M. haemolytica prior to its progression into the lungs. In this project, a chimeric protein containing M. haemolytica antigens was produced in tobacco chloroplasts as a candidate edible vaccine for BRD. Attempts were made to transform lettuce chloroplasts ...


Investigating The Cortical, Metabolic And Behavioral Effects Of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation In Preparation For Combined Rehabilitation, Kayla N. Ryan Jul 2018

Investigating The Cortical, Metabolic And Behavioral Effects Of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation In Preparation For Combined Rehabilitation, Kayla N. Ryan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The goal of this thesis was to determine the cortical reorganization that occurs in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) after surgical decompression and to implement this knowledge into a new rehabilitation strategy. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive technique to modulate human behavior. Due to the novel electrode montage used, it was first pertinent that we determine how tDCS would modulate cortical, metabolic and motor behavior in healthy individuals.

We observed the longitudinal functional adaptations that occur in patients with CSM using functional MRI. Enhanced excitation of supplementary motor area (SMA) was observed following surgical decompression and ...


Functional And Structural Mimicry Of A-Kinase Anchoring Proteins By Human Adenovirus E1a, Cason R. King Feb 2018

Functional And Structural Mimicry Of A-Kinase Anchoring Proteins By Human Adenovirus E1a, Cason R. King

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

As an obligate intracellular parasite, human adenovirus (HAdV) must utilize host factors for survival and replication. Early during infection, its multifunctional E1A protein interacts with an impressive range of cellular target proteins to exert control over the cellular environment. Through these virus-host interactions, E1A massively reprograms both viral and cellular transcription to activate the other HAdV genes, downregulate the host’s immune response, and induce the cell cycle. Consequently, E1A converts the infected cell into a compliant state more amenable for HAdV replication, resulting from its numerous protein-protein interactions. I sought to examine E1A’s interaction with cellular protein kinase ...


Regulation Of Liver Mitochondrial Metabolism During Hibernation By Post-Translational Modification, Katherine E. Mathers Dec 2017

Regulation Of Liver Mitochondrial Metabolism During Hibernation By Post-Translational Modification, Katherine E. Mathers

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Hibernation, characterized by a seasonal reduction in metabolism and body temperature, allows animals to conserve energy when environmental conditions (e.g. temperature, food availability) are unfavourable. During hibernation, small mammals such as the 13-lined ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) cycle between two distinct metabolic states: torpor, where metabolic rate is suppressed by >95% and body temperature falls to ~5 °C, and interbout euthermia (IBE), where metabolic rate and body temperature rapidly increase and are maintained at euthermic levels several hours. Suppression of metabolism during entrance into torpor is paralleled by rapid suppression of liver mitochondrial metabolism. In my thesis, I aimed ...


Role Of Asparagine As A Nitrogen Signal And Characterization Of A Nitrogen Responsive Glutamine Amidotransferase, Gat1_2.1 In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Shrikaar Kambhampati Dec 2017

Role Of Asparagine As A Nitrogen Signal And Characterization Of A Nitrogen Responsive Glutamine Amidotransferase, Gat1_2.1 In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Shrikaar Kambhampati

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Maintaining the proper balance between carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) metabolism is critical to the sustained growth of organisms. In plant leaves, this balance is achieved by photoperiod dependent cross-talk between the processes of photosynthesis, respiration, and amino acid metabolism. A crucial mechanism in maintaining C/N balance is the GS/GOGAT cycle, which is well known to serve as a cross-road between C and N metabolism. Importantly, non-photosynthetic tissues (e.g. roots, germinating seeds) lack a sufficient supply of carbon skeletons under high N conditions and hence may resort to other mechanisms, along with the GS/GOGAT cycle, to ...


Nbpmf: Novel Network-Based Inference Methods For Peptide Mass Fingerprinting, Zhewei Liang Nov 2017

Nbpmf: Novel Network-Based Inference Methods For Peptide Mass Fingerprinting, Zhewei Liang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Proteins are large, complex molecules that perform a vast array of functions in every living cell. A proteome is a set of proteins produced in an organism, and proteomics is the large-scale study of proteomes. Several high-throughput technologies have been developed in proteomics, where the most commonly applied are mass spectrometry (MS) based approaches. MS is an analytical technique for determining the composition of a sample. Recently it has become a primary tool for protein identification, quantification, and post translational modification (PTM) characterization in proteomics research. There are usually two different ways to identify proteins: top-down and bottom-up. Top-down approaches ...


Effect On Pellicle Proteome Upon Adsorption Of Salivary Peptide On Hydroxyapatite And Their Effects On Enamel Demineralization, Rajesh Kr. Gupta Nov 2017

Effect On Pellicle Proteome Upon Adsorption Of Salivary Peptide On Hydroxyapatite And Their Effects On Enamel Demineralization, Rajesh Kr. Gupta

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

According to WHO, oral health is an important indicator of overall health. Poor oral health cause serious health problems (cardiovascular, stroke, diabetes, liver, and respiratory related), in different age groups, costing billions of dollars. So, proper oral health care management has assumed top priority. Salivary antimicrobial peptides (histatin and statherin), are part of enamel pellicle, required for the oral homeostasis. Current work focused to study the demineralization protection and pellicle proteome modulation capabilities of novel peptide constructs (single and tandem duplicate histatin constructs DR9, DR9-DR9 and histatin-statherin hybrid construct DR9-RR14). For the first time, we provided evidence that, these peptide ...


Identification Of Novel Binding Partners And Substrates Of Histone H3k4 Specific Demethylase Kdm5b/Jarid1b, Qi Fang Nov 2017

Identification Of Novel Binding Partners And Substrates Of Histone H3k4 Specific Demethylase Kdm5b/Jarid1b, Qi Fang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

It has been 50 years since the first histone methylation was identified. From then, numerous studies have verified that histone methylation neutralizes the positive charges of lysine, alters chromatin architectures, and recruits other DNA binding complexes. In this study, we examined the molecular basis of a histone demethylase – KDM5B in both its substrate and binding machineries. We hypothesized that KDM5B has alternative binding partners and substrates besides its known target H3K4me3. By utilizing biochemical approaches such as in vitro pull-down assays and fluorescence polarization assays, we were able to identify potential KDM5B binding partners – H2BK43me0/2. Also, we reinvestigated the ...


Amelioration Of Prenatal Alcohol Effects By Environmental Enrichment In A Mouse Model Of Fasd, Aniruddho Chokroborty-Hoque Aug 2017

Amelioration Of Prenatal Alcohol Effects By Environmental Enrichment In A Mouse Model Of Fasd, Aniruddho Chokroborty-Hoque

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy results in a spectrum of behavioural and cognitive deficits collectively known as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Currently, little is know about if and how the external environment may modulate these deficits. I have used C57BL/6 mice to study this interaction between prenatal alcohol exposure and the postnatal environment. Alcohol exposure during synaptogenesis produces high levels of anxiety-like traits and decreased memory performance. Alcohol-exposed mice (and matched unexposed controls) were put in 'environmentally-enriched' conditions of voluntary exercise, physical activities and cognitive stimulation to ascertain the effects of a positive postnatal environment. The results show ...


Genetic Engineering Studies Of Escherichia Coli And Microalgae For Expression Of Hydrolytic Enzymes And Development Of High Throughput Screening Technique, Shreyas S. Yedahalli Jul 2017

Genetic Engineering Studies Of Escherichia Coli And Microalgae For Expression Of Hydrolytic Enzymes And Development Of High Throughput Screening Technique, Shreyas S. Yedahalli

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The field of biochemical engineering has made substantial progress through major advances in genetic and metabolic engineering with applications in various sectors such as energy, food science, pharmaceuticals, etc. The hosts used for this work are constantly broadening. A host particularly important for energy applications are microalgae. The potential to enhance microalgae genetically for energy applications is not well explored and was therefore investigated in this thesis. Non-photosynthetic micro-organisms and photosynthetic microalgae offer a potential approach to enhance sustainable biochemical production. In this study expression vectors for Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) were constructed for the ...


Structural And Functional Characterization Of Non-Homologous End Joining Factors, Huasheng Wang Jul 2017

Structural And Functional Characterization Of Non-Homologous End Joining Factors, Huasheng Wang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

DNA double strand breaks represent the most toxic form of DNA damage. In mammals, non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) is the primary DNA repair pathway for such damage, preventing both carcinogenesis and accelerated aging. Structural understanding of this repair pathway has received considerable attention, but has been significantly limited by the inability to obtain structures of higher order nucleoprotein complexes. A main obstacle in this respect has been difficulty in obtaining highly purified proteins, sufficient for structural determination. Improved protein expression and purification methods developed in this thesis permitted several NHEJ complexes to be selected for structural studies. Among these, Ku70-DNA and ...


Expression, Characterization And Metallation Studies Of Human Metallothionein Isoform 2a Using Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry, Devika P. Jayawardena Jul 2017

Expression, Characterization And Metallation Studies Of Human Metallothionein Isoform 2a Using Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry, Devika P. Jayawardena

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Maintenance of the homeostasis of zinc (Zn) is very important in regulating bodily functions. There are over 300 Zn dependent enzymes identified, where Zn plays a structural or catalytic role. However, excess of Zn in a cell is toxic and free Zn ions are tightly controlled. Metallothioneins (MTs) are small cysteine rich proteins, which can bind up to seven Zn ions and act as a Zn reservoir. The MT2a isoform is predominantly found in the liver. My research focused on the overexpression of human MT2a in Escherichia coli and the investigation of Zn binding pathways of MT2a in vitro. At ...


Gmmyb176 Interactome And Regulation Of Isoflavonoid Biosynthesis In Soybean, Arun Kumaran Anguraj Vadivel Jun 2017

Gmmyb176 Interactome And Regulation Of Isoflavonoid Biosynthesis In Soybean, Arun Kumaran Anguraj Vadivel

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

MYB transcription factors are one of the largest transcription factor families characterized in plants. They are classified into four types: R1 MYB, R2R3 MYB, R3 MYB and R4 MYB. GmMYB176 is an R1MYB transcription factor that regulates Chalcone synthase (CHS8) gene expression and isoflavonoid biosynthesis in soybean. Silencing of GmMYB176 suppressed the expression of the GmCHS8 gene and reduced the accumulation of isoflavonoids in soybean hairy roots. However, overexpression of GmMYB176 does not alter either GmCHS8 gene expression or isoflavonoid levels suggesting that GmMYB176 alone is not sufficient for GmCHS8 gene regulation. I hypothesized that GmMYB176 acts cooperatively with another ...


Pore-Lining Residues And Intracellular Magnesium Concentration Influence Connexin50 Gap Junction Unitary Channel Conductance, Mary Grace M. Tejada Jun 2017

Pore-Lining Residues And Intracellular Magnesium Concentration Influence Connexin50 Gap Junction Unitary Channel Conductance, Mary Grace M. Tejada

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Gap junction (GJ) channels mediate direct intercellular communication. Each GJ channel consists of two hemichannels and each hemichannel is a hexamer of connexins. GJs formed by different connexins display different unitary channel conductance (γj) and intracellular magnesium modulation. The underlying mechanisms are not fully clear. The present study investigates the effect of mutating putative pore-lining residues (G8, G46, and V53 individually or together) into glutamate in Cx50 on homotypic GJ channel properties. Expression of the triple and individual mutants in GJ-deficient N2A cells resulted in the formation of functional GJ channels similar to that of Cx50 GJs. However, the ...


Investigation Of The Interactions Between Elg1 And Pcna Involved In The Dna Damage Response, Jingwei Yan Jun 2017

Investigation Of The Interactions Between Elg1 And Pcna Involved In The Dna Damage Response, Jingwei Yan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Elg1, the major component of an alternative PCNA loader, is vital in maintaining chromosomal stability. PCNA is an essential coordinator for DNA replication and the damage response through protein-protein interactions. The N-terminus of Elg1 interacts with PCNA and preferentially SUMOylated PCNA (sPCNA) and contains five putative motifs for PCNA and SUMO binding. How these motifs contribute to PCNA interactions is unclear. In this study, we biochemically characterized the interactions between Elg1 and PCNA and found that i) two PCNA-interacting protein boxes (PIP boxes) participate in the interaction with PCNA, which may be interfered by the SUMO-interacting motifs (SIMs); ii) the ...


Characterizing The Cofactor Specificity Of Nqo2, Shahed Al Massri Jun 2017

Characterizing The Cofactor Specificity Of Nqo2, Shahed Al Massri

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Quinone Reductase 2 (NQO2) is a part of an enzyme family implicated in detoxification of the cell. This enzyme differs from its highly similar sister protein Quinone Reductase 1 (NQO1) by its unique cofactor preference for dihydro-nicotinamide riboside (NRH) instead of NADH. Cellular levels of NRH have not been characterized, contributing to the mystery surrounding the physiological role of NQO2. This project focused on identifying what determines the cofactor specificity of NQO2, and engineering it to use NADH instead of NRH. The investigation included optimization of protein purification, an in silico analysis that revealed the different stereochemistry of NQO2/1 ...


Evolutionary Genetic Aspects Of Host Association In Generalist Ectoparasites, Benoit Talbot May 2017

Evolutionary Genetic Aspects Of Host Association In Generalist Ectoparasites, Benoit Talbot

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Despite the use of the host for dispersal by most parasite species, the extremely loose relationship typical between highly mobile hosts and generalist ectoparasites may lead to very different gene flow patterns between the two, leading in turn to different spatial genetic structure, and potentially different demographic history. I examined how similar gene flow patterns are between Cimex adjunctus, a generalist ectoparasite of bats present throughout North America, and two of its key bat hosts. I first analyzed the continent-scale genetic structure and demographic history of C. adjunctus and compared it to that of two of its hosts, the little ...


The Cdk-Resistant Prb-E2f1 Complex Recruits Chromatin-Organizing Proteins To Repetitive Dna Sequences, Charles A. Ishak Apr 2017

The Cdk-Resistant Prb-E2f1 Complex Recruits Chromatin-Organizing Proteins To Repetitive Dna Sequences, Charles A. Ishak

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis investigates mechanistic links between genome integrity and the recruitment of chromatin organizing proteins to repetitive DNA sequences mediated by the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (pRB). I demonstrate that a CDK-resistant interaction between the pRB C-terminus and the E2F1 coiled-coil marked box domain establishes a scaffold that facilitates recruitment of multiple chromatin-organizing proteins to repetitive sequences across the genome throughout the cell cycle. Specifically, pRB recruits the enhancer-of-zeste-homologue 2 (EZH2) histone methyltransferase to establish repressive facultative heterochromatin at repetitive sequences, and the Condensin II complex to ensure proper DNA replication and mitotic progression. To disrupt the CDK-resistant pRB-E2F1 interaction ...


Metalation And Structural Properties Of Apo-Metallothioneins, Gordon W. Irvine Apr 2017

Metalation And Structural Properties Of Apo-Metallothioneins, Gordon W. Irvine

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Metals are required by a quarter of all proteins to achieve their biological function, whether in an active site involved in catalytic chemistry or in a structural capacity. Metals are tightly regulated at the cellular level due to their propensity to cause unwanted side reactions and to be scavenged for use by pathogens. One of the proteins involved in this regulation of metal homeostasis is metallothionein (MT) which is a small, cysteine rich protein primarily involved in the regulation of zinc and copper homeostasis and heavy metal detoxification. MT is unique in its high cysteine content (~30% of the residues ...


Autoinhibition And Activation Of Parkin, Jacob D. Aguirre Apr 2017

Autoinhibition And Activation Of Parkin, Jacob D. Aguirre

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Mutations in the gene encoding parkin, an E3-ubiquitin ligase, result in 50% of Autosomal Recessive Juvenile Parkinsonism cases. Parkin has been identified as a key mediator of mitochondrial regeneration following oxidative stress, and pathogenic mutations have been shown to impair its ubiquitin ligase activity. Neurodegeneration of dopamine-producing neurons appears to be a downstream consequence of parkin loss-of-function, resulting in early-onset forms of Parkinson’s disease. Although ubiquitination activity is essential for its neuroprotective function, parkin is autoinhibited in its native state by various mechanisms, including its N-terminal ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain. Therefore, the overarching objective of this thesis was to structurally ...


Investigating E2f Independent Cell Cycle Control And Tumor Suppression By Prb, Michael J. Thwaites Apr 2017

Investigating E2f Independent Cell Cycle Control And Tumor Suppression By Prb, Michael J. Thwaites

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Cellular division is primarily controlled at the G1 to S-phase transition of the cell cycle by the retinoblastoma tumor-suppressor protein (pRB). The ability of pRB to restrict S-phase entry is primarily attributed to the repression of E2F transcription factors required to upregulate cell cycle target genes necessary for cellular division. Interestingly, while pRB is disrupted in the vast majority of human cancers, mutations typically target upstream regulators of pRB leading to inactivation through hyperphosphorylation. The rarity of direct pRB mutations suggests that the regulation of the cell cycle by pRB may involve additional mechanisms outside of E2F repression, as this ...


Building Muscle: The Role Of Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein-6 And Insulin-Like Growth Factors In The Differentiation Of Placental Mesenchymal Stem Cells Into Skeletal Muscle, Doaa Aboalola Apr 2017

Building Muscle: The Role Of Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein-6 And Insulin-Like Growth Factors In The Differentiation Of Placental Mesenchymal Stem Cells Into Skeletal Muscle, Doaa Aboalola

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Human placenta is a readily available source for isolation of adult mesenchymal stem cell (MSC), for potential use in regenerative therapies. MSC fate is influenced by the microenvironment in vivo, and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are critical components of the stem cell niche, as they regulate proliferation and differentiation into different lineages including bone, fat, and skeletal muscle. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-6 (IGFBP-6), relative to other IGFBPs, has high affinity for IGF2 and is believed to be the main modulator of IGF-2 function. However, the role of IGFBP-6 in muscle development has not been clearly defined. In this study ...


Assessing The Role Of Ku70 Vwa Domain Phosphorylation In The Inhibition Of Aurora B And Activation Of The Dna Damage Response, Elizabeth A. Walden Apr 2017

Assessing The Role Of Ku70 Vwa Domain Phosphorylation In The Inhibition Of Aurora B And Activation Of The Dna Damage Response, Elizabeth A. Walden

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Ku is a key component of the Non-Homologous End Joining DNA repair pathway. Recently, a function for Ku in DNA damage response (DDR) signalling was identified through studies exploring a Ku70 S155D phosphomimetic mutant. We hypothesize that Ku70 S155D mimics phosphorylation of Ku70 in response to DNA damage, and that Ku S155 phosphorylation inhibits Aurora B and causes sustained DDR activation. In this study we show that the S155D mutant is competent for heterodimerization, and its expression does not induce DNA damage. Phosphorylated Ku70 associates with Aurora B by co-immunoprecipitation and this association was demonstrated in situ with Ku70 S155D ...