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Articles 1 - 30 of 268

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Role Of The Glycerophosphocholine Acyltransferase, Gpc1, In Phosphatidylcholine (Pc) Biosynthesis And Remodeling In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Sanket Anaokar May 2019

Role Of The Glycerophosphocholine Acyltransferase, Gpc1, In Phosphatidylcholine (Pc) Biosynthesis And Remodeling In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Sanket Anaokar

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Biomembranes are permeable barriers that enclose the cell and the intracellular organelles in a cell. The selective nature of these robust barriers acts as the first line of defense towards the harsh factors that can compromise cell survival. Biomembranes primarily consist of membrane lipids that are organized into layers to form a dynamic bilayer structure. The dynamic nature of the membrane requires the synchronized modulation of lipid composition through de novo synthesis, degradation, intracellular movement, and remodeling. Phospholipids are the major membrane lipid class, and phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the most abundant phospholipid in most eukaryotic biomembranes.

PC is primarily produced ...


Glycine Receptor Expression Across Identified Retinal Ganglion Cell Types., Ian Scot Pyle May 2019

Glycine Receptor Expression Across Identified Retinal Ganglion Cell Types., Ian Scot Pyle

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) represent the culmination of all retinal signaling and their output forms the substrate for vision throughout the rest of the brain. About 40 different RGC types have been defined by differences in their visually evoked responses, morphology, and genetic makeup. These responses arise from interactions between inhibition and excitation throughout the retinal circuit (Franke et al., 2017; Masland, 2012; Sanes & Masland, 2015; Werblin, 2011). Unlike most other areas of the central nervous system (CNS), the retina utilizes both GABA and glycine inhibitory neurotransmitters to refine glutamatergic excitatory signals (Franke & Baden, 2017; Werblin, 2011; C. Zhang, Nobles, & McCall, 2015). Glycine receptors (GlyRs) are heteromers composed of a single β subunit and one of four α subunits, with a stoichiometry of 3β:2α (Grudzinska et al., 2005; Heinze, Harvey, Haverkamp, & Wassle, 2007; Lynch ...


The Q Rule In Bacteriodetes And The Identification And Characterization Of Porphyromonas Gingivalis Glutaminyl Cyclase., John Andrew Houston May 2019

The Q Rule In Bacteriodetes And The Identification And Characterization Of Porphyromonas Gingivalis Glutaminyl Cyclase., John Andrew Houston

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background: Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major pathogen associated with chronic periodontitis, secretes variety of proteins, majority of which begins with glutamine. Several of these proteins were found with pyroglutamate (pGlu) at N-terminus suggesting the presence of this posttranslational modification pathway in P.gingivalis. The observation that N-terminal glutamine is over-represented as the first amino acid after signal peptide cleavage, and subsequent confirmation of pGlu formation on the nascent protein via mass spectrometry, led us to conclude that an enzyme must be present as the executor of this reaction. Hypothesis: PG2157 is a glutaminyl cyclase and is responsible for the cyclization of ...


Disease Resistance In Wheat And Its Relatives, Ethan James Andersen Jan 2019

Disease Resistance In Wheat And Its Relatives, Ethan James Andersen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Plants have evolved a complex defense system against pests and pathogens utilizing many types of receptors, signaling factors, and defense compounds to detect pathogen presence and respond effectively. Since many pathogens have evolved immunesuppressing effectors used to reduce plant resistance, plants have evolved a family of receptors that detect pathogenic effectors as a result of an evolutionary arms race. These receptors contain Nucleotide-Binding Site and Leucine-Rich Repeat domains and are called NBS-LRR or NLR proteins. Many grasses possess huge genomes with hundreds of NLR-encoding genes, often found in clusters at the extra-pericentromeric regions of chromosomes, where unequal crossing over causes ...


Virulence Regulation In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Via The Alginate Regulators, Algu And Algr, The Posttranscriptional Regulator, Rsma, And The Two-Component System, Algz/R, Sean Stacey Dec 2018

Virulence Regulation In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Via The Alginate Regulators, Algu And Algr, The Posttranscriptional Regulator, Rsma, And The Two-Component System, Algz/R, Sean Stacey

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacillus able to colonize a wide variety of environments. In the human host, P. aeruginosa can establish an acute infection or persist and create a chronic infection. P. aeruginosa is able to establish a niche and persist in human hosts by using a wide array of virulence factors used for: movement, killing host cells, and evading immune cells and antibiotics. Understanding virulence factors and their regulation has proved to be an important means of combating the morbidity and mortality of P. aeruginosa as well as the ever-increasing threat of drug resistance. By targeting virulence factors ...


The Study Of Alcoholic Liver Diseases, Seun Emmanuel Owoseni Dec 2018

The Study Of Alcoholic Liver Diseases, Seun Emmanuel Owoseni

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Excessive alcohol consumption is the primary contributing factor in the development of alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). Nicotine contained in tobacco is a major addictive alkaloid, which enhances the effects of ALDs. The major enzyme involved in nicotine metabolism is cytochrome P450 2A5 (CYP2A5) which is produced in the liver. Alcohol can stimulate the CYP2A5 enzyme. We utilized cyp2a5-/- knockout mice in this research to examine the effects of CYP2A5.

The cyp2a5-/- mice and wild-type (WT) mice were fed liquid ethanol diet with or without nicotine to induce ALD. Nicotine enhancing effects on ALD were observed in WT mice but not ...


Temperature And Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid’S Effect On Daphnia Magna Reproduction, Mark Albright Dec 2018

Temperature And Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid’S Effect On Daphnia Magna Reproduction, Mark Albright

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Organisms adapt to their environments by adjusting their biochemistry and physiology; such adaptation is limited by resource availability and physiological constraints. The freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna inhabits a wide range of environments and must survive and reproduce within a range of temperatures. One limit to low-temperature adaptation is thought to be the availability of unsaturated fatty acids necessary to maintain proper fluidity of cellular membranes. D. magna maintained at 10 ºC on a diet poor in unsaturated fatty acids have been observed to produce clutches that fail to develop. However, this has not been observed on a diet rich in ...


Coagulation Factor Xiiia: Biochemical Properties Underlying Physiological Function., Boris Anokhin Dec 2018

Coagulation Factor Xiiia: Biochemical Properties Underlying Physiological Function., Boris Anokhin

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Factor XIIIA (FXIIIA) is a transglutaminase that crosslinks intra- and extracellular protein substrates. The oligomeric state of active FXIIIA remains controversial, and the present work commenced with addressing this issue. The results of size exclusion chromatography and analytical ultracentrifugation confirmed a dimeric state for zymogen and, for the first time, indicated a monomeric state for the active FXIIIA in solution. Comparing sedimentation properties of proteolytically and nonproteolytically activated FXIIIA suggested conformational and functional differences between the two forms. Those differences were further assessed in a series of catalytic activity studies. Kinetic analysis revealed affinity for the glutamine substrate was higher ...


Functional Consequence Of Psat1 Association On Pkm2'S Inherent Enzymatic Activity., Alexis Avidan Vega Dec 2018

Functional Consequence Of Psat1 Association On Pkm2'S Inherent Enzymatic Activity., Alexis Avidan Vega

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) is predominantly found in tumors, where it allows the cancer cell to adapt to metabolic conditions through allosteric regulation of its activity. We recently discovered that phosphoserine aminotransferase 1 (PSAT1) associates with and activates PKM2. Here, I sought to affirm PSAT1's ability to increase PKM2 activity through kinetic and association studies of wild-type or mutant PKM2 enzymes. I demonstrate that His-tagged WT and mutant PKM2 enzymes are active, exhibit different kinetics, yet cannot be activated by PSAT1. Comparison studies using untagged WT PKM2 suggest that inclusion of the His-tag disrupts PSAT1 association. In support, pull-down ...


Effect Of Arsenic Exposure On Early Eye Development In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Remy S. Babich Aug 2018

Effect Of Arsenic Exposure On Early Eye Development In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Remy S. Babich

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Arsenic is a metalloid that contaminates drinking water supplies worldwide. Due to concerns for human health, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have established a safe level in drinking water of ≤ 10 ppb. Arsenic has been shown to have carcinogenic effects in humans at high and low doses. Chronic exposure may result in dermal conditions such as hyperkeratosis and hyperpigmentation. Recently, arsenic exposure has also been linked to lower IQ values in children. The effect of arsenic on neurogenesis, specifically eye development, has not been widely explored. This study aimed to examine the ...


Metabolic Plasticity In The Cellular Stress Response, Ying Li Aug 2018

Metabolic Plasticity In The Cellular Stress Response, Ying Li

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Changes to the metabolism of the cardiomyocyte are driven by complex signaling pathways in order to adjust to stress. For instance, HIF-1α is classically known to upregulate glycolytic metabolism to compensate for oxygen deficiency. Other important effects upon glucose metabolism, which we investigate here more extensively, were also observed. Hearts derived from mice with the cardiac-restricted expression of a stabilized form of HIF-1α are remarkably ischemia stress-tolerant. Here, stable isotope-resolved metabolomic analyses were utilized to investigate glucose cardiometabolism remodeling by HIF-1αduring ischemia. We found that 13C-lactate accumulation was significantly elevated in HIF-1α expressing hearts while paradoxically glycogen was maintained ...


Deciphering The Role Of Human Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase 1 (Nat1) In Breast Cancer Cell Metabolism Using A Systems Biology Approach., Samantha Marie Carlisle Aug 2018

Deciphering The Role Of Human Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase 1 (Nat1) In Breast Cancer Cell Metabolism Using A Systems Biology Approach., Samantha Marie Carlisle

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background: Human arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) is a phase II xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme found in almost all tissues. NAT1 can additionally hydrolyze acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) in the absence of an arylamine substrate. NAT1 expression varies inter-individually and is elevated in several cancers including estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancers. Additionally, multiple studies have shown the knockdown of NAT1, by both small molecule inhibition and siRNA methods, in breast cancer cells leads to decreased invasive ability and proliferation and decreased anchorage-independent colony formation. However, the exact mechanism by which NAT1 expression affects cancer risk and progression remains unclear. Additionally, consequences ...


Canonical Nuclear Factor-Κb Signaling In Satellite Stem Cell Homeostasis And Function., Alex R. Straughn Aug 2018

Canonical Nuclear Factor-Κb Signaling In Satellite Stem Cell Homeostasis And Function., Alex R. Straughn

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Satellite cells are adult stem cells that are required for the regeneration of skeletal muscle following injury. However, the signaling mechanisms that regulate satellite stem cell homeostasis and function in adult animals remain less understood. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) is a major nuclear transcription factor that regulates the gene expression of a plethora of molecules involved in cellular proliferation, differentiation, survival, and the inflammatory immune response. NF-kB can be activated through a canonical or non-canonical pathway. However, the role of canonical NF-kB signaling in the regulation of satellite stem cell function during skeletal muscle regeneration has not been yet investigated ...


Egfr Signaling From The Early Endosome., Julie A. Gosney Aug 2018

Egfr Signaling From The Early Endosome., Julie A. Gosney

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is an integral component of proliferative signaling. When activated by a ligand at the plasma membrane, EGFR dimerizes with another ErbB family receptor, leading to kinase domain activation and transphosphorylation of C-terminus tyrosine residues. These phosphotyrosines act as crucial regulators of EGFR signaling as effector proteins dock to the receptor at these sites. The receptor undergoes clathrin-mediated endocytosis into early endosomes, where it can then be trafficked to a lysosome for degradation. However, the kinase domain of EGFR retains its activity during trafficking, suggesting that EGFR can continue ...


The N-Terminal Methyltransferase Homologs Nrmt1 And Nrmt2 Exhibit Novel Regulation Of Activity Through Heterotrimer Formation., Jon David Faughn Aug 2018

The N-Terminal Methyltransferase Homologs Nrmt1 And Nrmt2 Exhibit Novel Regulation Of Activity Through Heterotrimer Formation., Jon David Faughn

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Protein, DNA, and RNA methyltransferases have an ever-expanding list of novel substrates and catalytic activities. Even within families and between homologs, it is becoming clear the intricacies of methyltransferase specificity and regulation are far more diverse than originally thought. In addition to specific substrates and distinct methylation levels, methyltransferase activity can be altered through formation of complexes with close homologs. This work involves the N-terminal methyltransferase homologs NRMT1 and NRMT2. NRMT1 is a ubiquitously expressed distributive trimethylase. NRMT2 is a monomethylase expressed at low levels and in a tissue-specific manner. They are both nuclear methyltransferases with overlapping target consensus sequences ...


Bayesian Analytical Approaches For Metabolomics : A Novel Method For Molecular Structure-Informed Metabolite Interaction Modeling, A Novel Diagnostic Model For Differentiating Myocardial Infarction Type, And Approaches For Compound Identification Given Mass Spectrometry Data., Patrick J. Trainor Aug 2018

Bayesian Analytical Approaches For Metabolomics : A Novel Method For Molecular Structure-Informed Metabolite Interaction Modeling, A Novel Diagnostic Model For Differentiating Myocardial Infarction Type, And Approaches For Compound Identification Given Mass Spectrometry Data., Patrick J. Trainor

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Metabolomics, the study of small molecules in biological systems, has enjoyed great success in enabling researchers to examine disease-associated metabolic dysregulation and has been utilized for the discovery biomarkers of disease and phenotypic states. In spite of recent technological advances in the analytical platforms utilized in metabolomics and the proliferation of tools for the analysis of metabolomics data, significant challenges in metabolomics data analyses remain. In this dissertation, we present three of these challenges and Bayesian methodological solutions for each. In the first part we develop a new methodology to serve a basis for making higher order inferences in metabolomics ...


Melatonin-Micronutrients Osteopenia Treatment Study (Mots): A Translational Study Assessing The Effects Of Melatonin, Strontium Citrate, Vitamin D3 And Vitamin K2 On Bone Density, Bone Turnover Markers And Health-Related Quality Of Life In Postmenopausal Osteopenic Women Following A One-Year Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial And On Osteoblast-Osteoclast Co-Cultures, Sifat Maria May 2018

Melatonin-Micronutrients Osteopenia Treatment Study (Mots): A Translational Study Assessing The Effects Of Melatonin, Strontium Citrate, Vitamin D3 And Vitamin K2 On Bone Density, Bone Turnover Markers And Health-Related Quality Of Life In Postmenopausal Osteopenic Women Following A One-Year Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial And On Osteoblast-Osteoclast Co-Cultures, Sifat Maria

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess if a novel combination of melatonin and three other natural bone-aiding micronutrients: strontium citrate, vitamins D3 and K2 (MSDK) could improve bone health by modulating the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in favor of balanced bone remodeling and by improving the overall health-related quality of life in postmenopausal osteopenic women.

Methods: The Melatonin-micronutrients Osteopenia Treatment Study (MOTS) is a translational research study that used both clinical and in vitro approaches to assess the efficacy of MSDK on bone health in women and to identify potential mechanisms for its effects ...


Detrital Protein Contributes To Oyster Nutrition And Growth In The Damariscotta Estuary, Maine, Usa, Cheyenne M. Adams May 2018

Detrital Protein Contributes To Oyster Nutrition And Growth In The Damariscotta Estuary, Maine, Usa, Cheyenne M. Adams

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Oyster aquaculture is an expanding industry that relies on identifying and utilizing natural estuarine conditions for the economically viable production of a filter-feeding crop. The eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, is the principal species currently cultured in Maine. In addition to preferentially consumed phytoplankton, various detrital complexes (non-algal and/or non-living organic matter) may provide some nutrition to C. virginica between times of phytoplankton abundance. Here I investigated the importance of detrital proteins in supporting the growth of oysters cultured in the upper Damariscotta Estuary. Oyster aquaculture in this area is highly successful and previous reports indicate that labile detrital protein ...


Biophysical Exploration Of Conformational Environments In Zymogen Prothrombin And Blood Coagulant Thrombin., Ramya Billur May 2018

Biophysical Exploration Of Conformational Environments In Zymogen Prothrombin And Blood Coagulant Thrombin., Ramya Billur

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The serine protease thrombin plays important roles in coagulation, anticoagulation, and platelet activation. Thrombin is initially expressed as the inactive zymogen prothrombin (ProT). The final cleaved and activated form of thrombin has mature anion binding exosites (ABEs) and several regulatory loops. Engagement with these exosites helps define the fate of thrombin as a procoagulant or an anticoagulant. Researchers previously reported that zymogen ProT may already bind exosite ligands. Little is known about conformational changes associated with ProT maturation, resultant ligand binding affinities, individual ligand-protein contacts, and long-range communication between thrombin exosites. Protease Activated Receptors (PARs) play critical roles in controlling ...


Photonic Tools For Advanced Sensing And Imaging At The Nanoscale., Jafar Hamed Ghithan May 2018

Photonic Tools For Advanced Sensing And Imaging At The Nanoscale., Jafar Hamed Ghithan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation reports a novel bio-sensing strategy based on single-mode, electro-active, integrated optical waveguide (SM-EA-IOW) platforms. It also reports the development of a super-resolved far-field optical imaging tool to enable optical, electronic, and spectroelectrochemical investigations at the nanoscale. SM-EA-IOW platforms with its outstanding sensitivity for spectroelectrochemical interrogation was combined with a sandwich bioassay for the development of a novel immunosensing based strategy for label-free detection of infectious pathogens. The strategy begins with the functionalization of the electroactive waveguide surface with a capturing antibody aimed at a specific target analyte. Once the target analyte is bound to the photonic interface, it ...


Functional And Structural Impact Of The Loss Of The Leucine-Rich Repeat Protein Lrit1 In The Mouse Retina., Catherine Ann Cobb May 2018

Functional And Structural Impact Of The Loss Of The Leucine-Rich Repeat Protein Lrit1 In The Mouse Retina., Catherine Ann Cobb

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Mutations in genes encoding the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins nyctalopin and LRIT3 lead to complete congenital stationary night blindness because they are critical to depolarizing bipolar cell function in the retina. LRIT3 has two closely related family members, LRIT1 and LRIT2. In silico analyses of publicly available RNA-Seq data showed that Lrit1 was highly expressed in the retina. Here I describe the expression pattern and impact of loss of LRIT1 on retinal function. To enable these studies, we used CRISPR/Cas9 technology to create an Lrit1-/- mouse line. Retinal morphology and morphometry analyses showed no gross changes in retinal structure ...


Improving The Detection Limit Of Tau Aggregates For Use With Biological Samples, Emily Rickman Hager Jan 2018

Improving The Detection Limit Of Tau Aggregates For Use With Biological Samples, Emily Rickman Hager

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The protein Tau is found in neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's disease and over 20 other neurodegenerative diseases. An assay has been developed to detect minute amounts of fibrils from human brain tissue. This assay subjects brain tissue extract and recombinant Tau to several rounds of sonication and incubation. Incubation allows recombinant Tau to add itself to the ends of the existing fibrils in brain tissue extract. Sonication breaks the existing fibrils in the brain tissue extract offering more ends for Tau to add onto. Cycles of sonication and incubation have been shown to allow for amplification of Tau fibrils ...


Superresolved Three-Dimensional Analysis Of The Spatial Arrangement Of The Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 (Hiv-1) Envelope Glycoprotein At Sites Of Viral Assembly, Carmen Anne Buttler Jan 2018

Superresolved Three-Dimensional Analysis Of The Spatial Arrangement Of The Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 (Hiv-1) Envelope Glycoprotein At Sites Of Viral Assembly, Carmen Anne Buttler

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) replicates by forcing infected host cells to produce new virus particles, which assemble form protein components on the inner leaflet of the host cell's plasma membrane. This involves incorporation of the essential viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) into a structural lattice of viral Gag proteins. The mechanism of Env recruitment and incorporation is not well understood. To better define this process, we seek to describe the timing of Env-Gag encounters during particle assembly by measuring angular positions of Env proteins about the surfaces of budding particles. Using three-dimensional superresolution microscopy, we show that Env ...


The Investigation Of Lactoferrin Nitration: Quantification, Function, And Inhibition, Amani Yahya Alhalwani Jan 2018

The Investigation Of Lactoferrin Nitration: Quantification, Function, And Inhibition, Amani Yahya Alhalwani

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Lactoferrin (LF) is an iron-binding glycoprotein of molecular mass ca. 80 kDa that is predominantly found in mammalian body fluids. Lactoferrin is a multifunctional protein that has a wide range of properties such as antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and anti-allergic functions. Tyrosine residues in the protein play a part in many lactoferrin functions. Protein tyrosine nitration modification represents an oxidative and nitrosative stress process which can be caused by the exposure of proteins to oxidants from air pollution or disease. Understanding the way nitrated lactoferrin interacts with the biochemical environment of the body is thus important to the broader goal of ...


Learning From Disorder And Noise In Physical Biology, Taylor Emil Firman Jan 2018

Learning From Disorder And Noise In Physical Biology, Taylor Emil Firman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Stochasticity, disorder, and noise play crucial roles in the functioning of many biological systems over many different length scales. On the molecular scale, most proteins are envisioned as pristinely folded structures, but intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) have no such folded state and still serve distinct purposes within the cell. At the scale of gene regulation, realistic in vivo conditions produce stochastic fluctuations in gene expression that can lead to advantageous bet-hedging strategies, but can be difficult to characterize using a deterministic framework. Even at the organismal scale, germband extension (GBE) in Drosophila melanogaster embryos systematically elongates the epithelial tissue using ...


Evaluating The Interaction Between The Human Mealanocortin-2 Receptor And The Accessory Protein, Mrap1: Chimeric Receptor And Alanine Substitution Studies On Transmembrane Domain 4, Extracellular Loop 2, And Transmembrane Domain 5, Perry Victoria Davis Jan 2018

Evaluating The Interaction Between The Human Mealanocortin-2 Receptor And The Accessory Protein, Mrap1: Chimeric Receptor And Alanine Substitution Studies On Transmembrane Domain 4, Extracellular Loop 2, And Transmembrane Domain 5, Perry Victoria Davis

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The melanocortin-2 receptor (MC2R) is the most complex due to its trafficking and ligand selectivity requirements for proper activation. The MC2R requires the melanocortin receptor accessory protein-1 (MRAP1) for proper trafficking and activation of the receptor by the melanocortin hormone, ACTH. MRAP1 is a single transmembrane-spanning domain protein that creates a homodimer with another MRAP1 protein. Furthermore, MRAP2 creates a heterodimer with the MC2R. Previous studies have shown that the MRAP1 protein contains an activation motif required for activation of MC2R and this activation motif located on the extracellular space side of the plasma membrane of the cell. The objective ...


Brønsted Acid Catalyzed Carbon-Carbon Bond Forming Reactions, Jiangyue Miao Jan 2018

Brønsted Acid Catalyzed Carbon-Carbon Bond Forming Reactions, Jiangyue Miao

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The focus of this research project lies in the development of new methodology in the field of Brønsted acid catalysis enabling rapid synthesis of medicinally relevant compounds. It is foreseen that small molecule sulfonic acids evaluated in this research project will unveil new asymmetric carbon carbon bond forming reactions between substrates hitherto unexplored with Brønsted acid catalysis. It has been established that strong Brønsted acids, such as phosphoric acids, are capable of mediating highly selective transformations operating through unique mechanistic manifolds.

Specific focus for the sulfonic acid catalysts was geared towards asymmetric coupling reactions with synthetically useful precursors such as ...


Development Of Low Frequency Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Methods And Instrumentation For Biological Applications, Laura A. Buchanan Jan 2018

Development Of Low Frequency Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Methods And Instrumentation For Biological Applications, Laura A. Buchanan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

EPR is a powerful biophysical tool that can be used to measure tumor physiology. With the addition of magnetic field gradients, the spectral properties of paramagnetic species can be mapped. To facilitate EPR imaging, methods and instrumentation at frequencies between 250 MHz and 1 GHz were developed.

At low spin concentrations, the rapid scan background signal is often many times larger than the EPR signal of interest. To help remove the background contribution, a data acquisition procedure that takes advantage of a cross-loop resonator and bipolar power supplies was developed at 250 MHz. In this procedure, two scans are collected ...


A Comprehensive Analysis Of Aromatic-Proton Mediated Hydrogen Bonds, Mona S. Alshamrani Jan 2018

A Comprehensive Analysis Of Aromatic-Proton Mediated Hydrogen Bonds, Mona S. Alshamrani

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Hydrogen bonds play critical role in folding, structure and recognition of biological macromolecules (e.g., proteins, RNA, DNA). In addition to classical hydrogen bonds (e.g., ─OH---O=, ─OH---O─, ─NH---O─ etc.), structural analysis of protein and nucleic acids, almost a decade ago, showed that hydrogen bonds (e.g., CH---O) with hydrogen atoms on aliphatic carbon atoms (hereafter, aliphatic-protons) also play very important role in the structure and function of biomolecules. Even though, protons of aromatic ring systems (hereafter, aromatic-protons) are more polar than the aliphatic-protons, systematic analysis of hydrogen bonds of aromatic-protons have not been carried out. Therefore, I carried out ...


Study Of Anti-Proliferative Activity Of Cucurbitacins Inspired Estrone Analogs On Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Sara Elgazwi Jan 2018

Study Of Anti-Proliferative Activity Of Cucurbitacins Inspired Estrone Analogs On Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Sara Elgazwi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is considered the third leading cause of death from cancer. Overall survival rate is significantly low, due to the emerging resistance to chemotherapeutic agents and lack of selectivity. Recent studies have demonstrated that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a promising molecular target for cancer therapy, especially HCC. Current studies showed that cucurbitacins are potent anticancer compounds which target EGFR. This prompted us to investigate the antiproliferative activity of novel cucurbitacins inspired estrone analogs (CIEA) against sensitive and resistant HepG2 cell lines. Anti-proliferation activity of 20 CIEA analogs were examined against HepG2 using MTT assay and showed ...