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Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology Commons

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Chemistry Faculty Publications

2017

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Articles 1 - 10 of 10

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Defining Electron Bifurcation In The Electron-Transferring Flavoprotein Family, Amaya M. Garcia Costas, Saroj Poudel, Anne-Frances Miller, Gerrit J. Schut, Rhesa N. Ledbetter, Kathryn R. Fixen, Lance C. Seefeldt, Michael W. W. Adams, Caroline S. Harwood, Eric S. Boyd, John W. Peters Nov 2017

Defining Electron Bifurcation In The Electron-Transferring Flavoprotein Family, Amaya M. Garcia Costas, Saroj Poudel, Anne-Frances Miller, Gerrit J. Schut, Rhesa N. Ledbetter, Kathryn R. Fixen, Lance C. Seefeldt, Michael W. W. Adams, Caroline S. Harwood, Eric S. Boyd, John W. Peters

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Electron bifurcation is the coupling of exergonic and endergonic redox reactions to simultaneously generate (or utilize) low- and high-potential electrons. It is the third recognized form of energy conservation in biology and was recently described for select electron-transferring flavoproteins (Etfs). Etfs are flavin-containing heterodimers best known for donating electrons derived from fatty acid and amino acid oxidation to an electron transfer respiratory chain via Etf-quinone oxidoreductase. Canonical examples contain a flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) that is involved in electron transfer, as well as a non-redox-active AMP. However, Etfs demonstrated to bifurcate electrons contain a second FAD in place of the ...


Organelle-Specific Single-Molecule Imaging Of Α4Β2 Nicotinic Receptors Reveals The Effect Of Nicotine On Receptor Assembly And Cell-Surface Trafficking, Ashley M. Fox-Lee, Faruk H. Moonschi, Christopher I. Richards Oct 2017

Organelle-Specific Single-Molecule Imaging Of Α4Β2 Nicotinic Receptors Reveals The Effect Of Nicotine On Receptor Assembly And Cell-Surface Trafficking, Ashley M. Fox-Lee, Faruk H. Moonschi, Christopher I. Richards

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) assemble in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and traffic to the cell surface as pentamers composed of α and β subunits. Many nAChR subtypes can assemble with varying subunit ratios, giving rise to multiple stoichiometries exhibiting different subcellular localization and functional properties. In addition to the endogenous neurotransmitter acetylcholine, nicotine also binds and activates nAChRs and influences their trafficking and expression on the cell surface. Currently, no available technique can specifically elucidate the stoichiometry of nAChRs in the ER versus those in the plasma membrane. Here, we report a method involving single-molecule fluorescence measurements to determine the ...


Real-Time Sensing Of Single-Ligand Delivery With Nanoaperture-Integrated Microfluidic Devices, W. Elliott Martin, Ning Ge, Bernadeta R. Srijanto, Emily Furnish, C. Patrick Collier, Christine A. Trinkle, Christopher I. Richards Jul 2017

Real-Time Sensing Of Single-Ligand Delivery With Nanoaperture-Integrated Microfluidic Devices, W. Elliott Martin, Ning Ge, Bernadeta R. Srijanto, Emily Furnish, C. Patrick Collier, Christine A. Trinkle, Christopher I. Richards

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The measurement of biological events on the surface of live cells at the single-molecule level is complicated by several factors including high protein densities that are incompatible with single-molecule imaging, cellular autofluorescence, and protein mobility on the cell surface. Here, we fabricated a device composed of an array of nanoscale apertures coupled with a microfluidic delivery system to quantify single-ligand interactions with proteins on the cell surface. We cultured live cells directly on the device and isolated individual epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) in the apertures while delivering fluorescently labeled epidermal growth factor. We observed single ligands binding to EGFRs ...


Mechanism-Informed Refinement Reveals Altered Substrate-Binding Mode For Catalytically Competent Nitroreductase, Warintra Pitsawong, Chad A. Haynes, Ronald L. Koder, David W. Rodgers, Anne-Frances Miller Jul 2017

Mechanism-Informed Refinement Reveals Altered Substrate-Binding Mode For Catalytically Competent Nitroreductase, Warintra Pitsawong, Chad A. Haynes, Ronald L. Koder, David W. Rodgers, Anne-Frances Miller

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Nitroreductase from Enterobacter cloacae (NR) reduces diverse nitroaromatics including herbicides, explosives and prodrugs, and holds promise for bioremediation, prodrug activation and enzyme-assisted synthesis. We solved crystal structures of NR complexes with bound substrate or analog for each of its two half-reactions. We complemented these with kinetic isotope effect (KIE) measurements elucidating H-transfer steps essential to each half-reaction. KIEs indicate hydride transfer from NADH to the flavin consistent with our structure of NR with the NADH analog nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide (NAAD). The KIE on reduction of p-nitrobenzoic acid (p-NBA) also indicates hydride transfer, and requires revision of prior ...


Inhibiting Translesion Dna Synthesis As An Approach To Combat Drug Resistance To Dna Damaging Agents, Jung-Suk Choi, Seol Kim, Edward Motea, Anthony J. Berdis Jun 2017

Inhibiting Translesion Dna Synthesis As An Approach To Combat Drug Resistance To Dna Damaging Agents, Jung-Suk Choi, Seol Kim, Edward Motea, Anthony J. Berdis

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Anti-cancer agents exert therapeutic effects by damaging DNA. Unfortunately, DNA polymerases can effectively replicate the formed DNA lesions to cause drug resistance and create more aggressive cancers. To understand this process at the cellular level, we developed an artificial nucleoside that visualizes the replication of damaged DNA to identify cells that acquire drug resistance through this mechanism. Visualization is achieved using "click" chemistry to covalently attach azide-containing fluorophores to the ethynyl group present on the nucleoside analog after its incorporation opposite damaged DNA. Flow cytometry and microscopy techniques demonstrate that the extent of nucleotide incorporation into genomic DNA is enhanced ...


Physiological Effects Of Five Different Marine Natural Organic Matters (Noms) And Three Different Metals (Cu, Pb, Zn) On Early Life Stages Of The Blue Mussel (Mytilus Galloprovincialis), Lygia Sega Nogueira, Adalto Bianchini, Scott Smith, Marianna Basso Jorge, Rachael L. Diamond, Chris M. Wood Apr 2017

Physiological Effects Of Five Different Marine Natural Organic Matters (Noms) And Three Different Metals (Cu, Pb, Zn) On Early Life Stages Of The Blue Mussel (Mytilus Galloprovincialis), Lygia Sega Nogueira, Adalto Bianchini, Scott Smith, Marianna Basso Jorge, Rachael L. Diamond, Chris M. Wood

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Metals are present in aquatic environments as a result of natural and anthropogenic inputs, and may induce toxicity to organisms. One of the main factors that influence this toxicity in fresh water is natural organic matter (NOM) but all NOMs are not the same in this regard. In sea water, possible protection by marine NOMs is not well understood. Thus, our study isolated marine NOMs by solid-phase extraction from five different sites and characterized them by excitation-emission fluorescence analysis—one inshore (terrigenous origin), two offshore (autochthonous origin), and two intermediate in composition (indicative of a mixed origin). The physiological effects ...


Oxidation Of Substituted Catechols At The Air-Water Interface: Production Of Carboxylic Acids, Quinones, And Polyphenols, Elizabeth A. Pillar, Marcelo I. Guzman Apr 2017

Oxidation Of Substituted Catechols At The Air-Water Interface: Production Of Carboxylic Acids, Quinones, And Polyphenols, Elizabeth A. Pillar, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Anthropogenic activities contribute benzene, toluene, and anisole to the environment, which in the atmosphere are converted into the respective phenols, cresols, and methoxyphenols by fast gas-phase reaction with hydroxyl radicals (HO(•)). Further processing of the latter species by HO(•) decreases their vapor pressure as a second hydroxyl group is incorporated to accelerate their oxidative aging at interfaces and in aqueous particles. This work shows how catechol, pyrogallol, 3-methylcatechol, 4-methylcatechol, and 3-methoxycatechol (all proxies for oxygenated aromatics derived from benzene, toluene, and anisole) react at the air-water interface with increasing O3(g) during τc ≈ 1 μs contact time and contrasts their ...


Reactivity Of Ketyl And Acetyl Radicals From Direct Solar Actinic Photolysis Of Aqueous Pyruvic Acid, Alexis J. Eugene, Marcelo I. Guzman Mar 2017

Reactivity Of Ketyl And Acetyl Radicals From Direct Solar Actinic Photolysis Of Aqueous Pyruvic Acid, Alexis J. Eugene, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The variable composition of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) contributes to the large uncertainty for predicting radiative forcing. A better understanding of the reaction mechanisms leading to aerosol formation such as for the photochemical reaction of aqueous pyruvic acid (PA) at λ ≥ 305 nm can contribute to constrain these uncertainties. Herein, the photochemistry of aqueous PA (5-300 mM) continuously sparged with air is re-examined in the laboratory under comparable irradiance at 38° N at noon on a summer day. Several analytical methods are employed to monitor the time series of the reaction, including (1) the derivatization of carbonyl (C═O) functional ...


Dual-Functional-Tag-Facilitated Protein Labeling And Immobilization, Xinyi Zhang, Wei Lu, Kevin Kwan, Dibakar Bhattacharyya, Yinan Wei Feb 2017

Dual-Functional-Tag-Facilitated Protein Labeling And Immobilization, Xinyi Zhang, Wei Lu, Kevin Kwan, Dibakar Bhattacharyya, Yinan Wei

Chemistry Faculty Publications

An important strategy in the construction of biomimetic membranes and devices is to use natural proteins as the functional components for incorporation in a polymeric or nanocomposite matrix. Toward this goal, an important step is to immobilize proteins with high efficiency and precision without disrupting the protein function. Here, we developed a dual-functional tag containing histidine and the non-natural amino acid azidohomoalanine (AHA). AHA is metabolically incorporated into the protein, taking advantage of the Met-tRNA and Met-tRNA synthetase. Histidine in the tag can facilitate metal-affinity purification, whereas AHA can react with an alkyne-functionalized probe or surface via well-established click chemistry ...


Comparative Proteomic Analyses Of The Parietal Lobe From Rhesus Monkeys Fed A High-Fat/Sugar Diet With And Without Resveratrol Supplementation, Relative To A Healthy Diet: Insights Into The Roles Of Unhealthy Diets And Resveratrol On Function, Aaron M. Swomley, Judy C. Triplett, Jeriel T. Keeney, Govind Warrier, Kevin J. Pearson, Julie A. Mattison, Rafael De Cabo, Jian Cai, Jon B. Klein, D. Allan Butterfield Jan 2017

Comparative Proteomic Analyses Of The Parietal Lobe From Rhesus Monkeys Fed A High-Fat/Sugar Diet With And Without Resveratrol Supplementation, Relative To A Healthy Diet: Insights Into The Roles Of Unhealthy Diets And Resveratrol On Function, Aaron M. Swomley, Judy C. Triplett, Jeriel T. Keeney, Govind Warrier, Kevin J. Pearson, Julie A. Mattison, Rafael De Cabo, Jian Cai, Jon B. Klein, D. Allan Butterfield

Chemistry Faculty Publications

A diet consisting of a high intake of saturated fat and refined sugars is characteristic of a Western-diet and has been shown to have a substantial negative effect on human health. Expression proteomics were used to investigate changes to the parietal lobe proteome of rhesus monkeys consuming either a high fat and sugar (HFS) diet, a HFS diet supplemented with resveratrol (HFS+RSV), or a healthy control diet for 2 years. Here we discuss the modifications in the levels of 12 specific proteins involved in various cellular systems including metabolism, neurotransmission, structural integrity, and general cellular signaling following a nutritional ...