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Chemistry Faculty Publications

Cleveland State University

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Articles 1 - 30 of 35

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Manganese Oxide/Hemin-Functionalized Graphene As A Platform For Peroxynitrite Sensing, Haitham F. Kalil, Shaimaa Maher, Tiyash Bose, Mekki Bayachou Aug 2018

Manganese Oxide/Hemin-Functionalized Graphene As A Platform For Peroxynitrite Sensing, Haitham F. Kalil, Shaimaa Maher, Tiyash Bose, Mekki Bayachou

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Peroxynitrite (ONOO−, PON) is a powerful oxidizing agent generated in vivo by the diffusion-limited reaction of nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide (O2˙) radicals. Under oxidative stress, cumulated peroxynitrite levels are associated with chronic inflammatory disorders and other pathophysiological conditions. The accurate detection of peroxynitrite in biological systems is important, not only to understand the genesis and development of diseases, but also to explore and design potential therapeutics. Herein, a manganese oxide/hemin-modified graphene interface is explored as a platform for peroxynitrite amperometric detection. Hemin-functionalized reduced graphene oxide was further modified with manganese oxide nanoparticles to provide a composite material ...


N-Glycosylation In The Protease Domain Of Trypsin-Like Serine Proteases Mediates Calnexin-Assisted Protein Folding, Hao Wang, Shuo Li, Juejin Wang, Shenghan Chen, Xue-Long Sun, Qingyu Wu Jun 2018

N-Glycosylation In The Protease Domain Of Trypsin-Like Serine Proteases Mediates Calnexin-Assisted Protein Folding, Hao Wang, Shuo Li, Juejin Wang, Shenghan Chen, Xue-Long Sun, Qingyu Wu

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Trypsin-like serine proteases are essential in physiological processes. Studies have shown that N-glycans are important for serine protease expression and secretion, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we report a common mechanism of N-glycosylation in the protease domains of corin, enteropeptidase and prothrombin in calnexin-mediated glycoprotein folding and extracellular expression. This mechanism, which is independent of calreticulin and operates in a domain-autonomous manner, involves two steps: direct calnexin binding to target proteins and subsequent calnexin binding to monoglucosylated N-glycans. Elimination of N-glycosylation sites in the protease domains of corin, enteropeptidase and prothrombin inhibits corin and enteropeptidase cell surface ...


Inhibiting Translesion Dna Synthesis As An Approach To Combat Drug Resistance To Dna Damaging Agents, Jung-Suk Choi, Seol Kim, Edward Motea, Anthony J. Berdis Jun 2017

Inhibiting Translesion Dna Synthesis As An Approach To Combat Drug Resistance To Dna Damaging Agents, Jung-Suk Choi, Seol Kim, Edward Motea, Anthony J. Berdis

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Anti-cancer agents exert therapeutic effects by damaging DNA. Unfortunately, DNA polymerases can effectively replicate the formed DNA lesions to cause drug resistance and create more aggressive cancers. To understand this process at the cellular level, we developed an artificial nucleoside that visualizes the replication of damaged DNA to identify cells that acquire drug resistance through this mechanism. Visualization is achieved using "click" chemistry to covalently attach azide-containing fluorophores to the ethynyl group present on the nucleoside analog after its incorporation opposite damaged DNA. Flow cytometry and microscopy techniques demonstrate that the extent of nucleotide incorporation into genomic DNA is enhanced ...


Metabolomics Reveals New Mechanisms For Pathogenesis In Barth Syndrome And Introduces Novel Roles For Cardiolipin In Cellular Function, Yana Sandlers, Kelly Mercier, Wimal Pathmasiri, Jim Carlson, Susan Mcritchie, Susan Sumner, Hilary J. Vernon Mar 2016

Metabolomics Reveals New Mechanisms For Pathogenesis In Barth Syndrome And Introduces Novel Roles For Cardiolipin In Cellular Function, Yana Sandlers, Kelly Mercier, Wimal Pathmasiri, Jim Carlson, Susan Mcritchie, Susan Sumner, Hilary J. Vernon

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Barth Syndrome is the only known Mendelian disorder of cardiolipin remodeling, with characteristic clinical features of cardiomyopathy, skeletal myopathy, and neutropenia. While the primary biochemical defects of reduced mature cardiolipin and increased monolysocardiolipin are well-described, much of the downstream biochemical dysregulation has not been uncovered, and biomarkers are limited. In order to further expand upon the knowledge of the biochemical abnormalities in Barth Syndrome, we analyzed metabolite profiles in plasma from a cohort of individuals with Barth Syndrome compared to age-matched controls via 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A clear distinction between metabolite profiles of ...


The Dual Regulatory Role Of Amino Acids Leu480 And Gln481 Of Prothrombin, Joesph R. Wiencek, Jamila Hirbawi, Vivien C. Yee, Michael Kalafatis Jan 2016

The Dual Regulatory Role Of Amino Acids Leu480 And Gln481 Of Prothrombin, Joesph R. Wiencek, Jamila Hirbawi, Vivien C. Yee, Michael Kalafatis

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Prothrombin (FII) is activated to α-thrombin (IIa) by prothrombinase. Prothrombinase is composed of a catalytic subunit, factor Xa (fXa), and a regulatory subunit, factor Va (fVa), assembled on a membrane surface in the presence of divalent metal ions. We constructed, expressed, and purified several mutated recombinant FII (rFII) molecules within the previously determined fVa-dependent binding site for fXa (amino acid region 473–487 of FII). rFII molecules bearing overlapping deletions within this significant region first established the minimal stretch of amino acids required for the fVa-dependent recognition exosite for fXa in prothrombinase within the amino acid sequence Ser478–Val ...


Reclaiming The Efficacy Of Β-Lactam–Β-Lactamase Inhibitor Combinations: Avibactam Restores The Susceptibility Of Cmy-2-Producing Escherichia Coli To Ceftazidime, Krisztina M. Papp-Wallace, Marisa L. Winkler, Julian A. Gatta, Magdalena A. Taracila, Sujatha Chilakala, Yan Xu, J. Kristie Johnson, Robert A. Bonomo May 2014

Reclaiming The Efficacy Of Β-Lactam–Β-Lactamase Inhibitor Combinations: Avibactam Restores The Susceptibility Of Cmy-2-Producing Escherichia Coli To Ceftazidime, Krisztina M. Papp-Wallace, Marisa L. Winkler, Julian A. Gatta, Magdalena A. Taracila, Sujatha Chilakala, Yan Xu, J. Kristie Johnson, Robert A. Bonomo

Chemistry Faculty Publications

CMY-2 is a plasmid-encoded Ambler class C cephalosporinase that is widely disseminated in Enterobacteriaceae and is responsible for expanded-spectrum cephalosporin resistance. As a result of resistance to both ceftazidime and β-lactamase inhibitors in strains carrying blaCMY, novel β-lactam–β-lactamase inhibitor combinations are sought to combat this significant threat to β-lactam therapy. Avibactam is a bridged diazabicyclo [3.2.1]octanone non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor in clinical development that reversibly inactivates serine β-lactamases. To define the spectrum of activity of ceftazidime-avibactam, we tested the susceptibilities of Escherichia coli clinical isolates that carry blaCMY-2 or blaCMY-69 and investigated the inactivation kinetics of CMY-2 ...


Insights Into The Roles Of Desolvation And Π-Electron Interactions During Dna Polymerization, Edward A. Motea, Irene Lee, Anthony J. Berdis Mar 2013

Insights Into The Roles Of Desolvation And Π-Electron Interactions During Dna Polymerization, Edward A. Motea, Irene Lee, Anthony J. Berdis

Chemistry Faculty Publications

This report describes the use of several isosteric non-natural nucleotides as probes to evaluate the roles of nucleobase shape, size, solvation energies, and π-electron interactions as forces influencing key kinetic steps of the DNA polymerization cycle. Results are provided using representative high- and low-fidelity DNA polymerases. Results generated with the E. coli Klenow fragment reveal that this high-fidelity polymerase utilizes hydrophobic nucleotide analogues with higher catalytic efficiencies compared to hydrophilic analogues. These data support a major role for nucleobase desolvation during nucleotide selection and insertion. In contrast, the low-fidelity HIV-1 reverse transcriptase discriminates against hydrophobic analogues and only tolerates non-natural ...


Voltage-Controlled Enzyme-Catalyzed Glucose–Gluconolactone Conversion Using A Field-Effect Enzymatic Detector, Siu Tung Yau, Yan Xu, Yang Song, Ye Feng, Jiapeng Wang Jan 2013

Voltage-Controlled Enzyme-Catalyzed Glucose–Gluconolactone Conversion Using A Field-Effect Enzymatic Detector, Siu Tung Yau, Yan Xu, Yang Song, Ye Feng, Jiapeng Wang

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The field-effect enzymatic detection (FEED) technique was used to control the kinetics of the enzymatic conversion of glucose to gluconolactone. The glucose–gluconolactone conversion occurring at an enzyme-immobilized electrode, a well-studied process, was confirmed using mass spectrometry. Electrochemical studies showed that the glucose oxidation current depends on the gating voltage VG and the ion concentration of the sample solution. Additionally, the depletion of glucose in the sample also showed a dependence on VG. FEED was used to detect H2O2 on the zepto-molar level in order to show the ultrasensitive detection capability of the technique. These results, while providing evidence for ...


Spectroscopic Analysis Of Polymerization And Exonuclease Proofreading By A High-Fidelity Dna Polymerase During Translesion Dna Synthesis, Babho Devadoss, Irene Lee, Anthony J. Berdis Jan 2013

Spectroscopic Analysis Of Polymerization And Exonuclease Proofreading By A High-Fidelity Dna Polymerase During Translesion Dna Synthesis, Babho Devadoss, Irene Lee, Anthony J. Berdis

Chemistry Faculty Publications

High fidelity DNA polymerases maintain genomic fidelity through a series of kinetic steps that include nucleotide binding, conformational changes, phosphoryl transfer, polymerase translocation, and nucleotide excision. Developing a comprehensive understanding of how these steps are coordinated during correct and pro-mutagenic DNA synthesis has been hindered due to lack of spectroscopic nucleotides that function as efficient polymerase substrates. This report describes the application of a non-natural nucleotide designated 5-naphthyl-indole-2′-deoxyribose triphosphate which behaves as a fluorogenic substrate to monitor nucleotide incorporation and excision during the replication of normal DNA versus two distinct DNA lesions (cyclobutane thymine dimer and an abasic site ...


Exploring The Role Of A Conserved Class A Residue In The Ω-Loop Of Kpc-2 Β-Lactamase: A Mechanism For Ceftazidime Hydrolysis Sep 2012

Exploring The Role Of A Conserved Class A Residue In The Ω-Loop Of Kpc-2 Β-Lactamase: A Mechanism For Ceftazidime Hydrolysis

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Gram-negative bacteria harboring KPC-2, a class A β-lactamase, are resistant to all β-lactam antibiotics and pose a major public health threat. Arg-164 is a conserved residue in all class A β-lactamases and is located in the solvent-exposed Ω-loop of KPC-2. To probe the role of this amino acid in KPC-2, we performed site-saturation mutagenesis. When compared with wild type, 11 of 19 variants at position Arg-164 in KPC-2 conferred increased resistance to the oxyimino-cephalosporin, ceftazidime (minimum inhibitory concentration; 32→128 mg/liter) when expressed in Escherichia coli. Using the R164S variant of KPC-2 as a representative β-lactamase for more detailed ...


Understanding The Molecular Determinants Of Substrate And Inhibitor Specificities In The Carbapenemase Kpc-2: Exploring The Roles Of Arg220 And Glu276 Aug 2012

Understanding The Molecular Determinants Of Substrate And Inhibitor Specificities In The Carbapenemase Kpc-2: Exploring The Roles Of Arg220 And Glu276

Chemistry Faculty Publications

β-Lactamases are important antibiotic resistance determinants expressed by bacteria. By studying the mechanistic properties of β-lactamases, we can identify opportunities to circumvent resistance through the design of novel inhibitors. Comparative amino acid sequence analysis of class A β-lactamases reveals that many enzymes possess a localized positively charged residue (e.g., R220, R244, or R276) that is critical for interactions with β-lactams and β-lactamase inhibitors. To better understand the contribution of these residues to the catalytic process, we explored the roles of R220 and E276 in KPC-2, a class A β-lactamase that inactivates carbapenems and β-lactamase inhibitors. Our study reveals that ...


Removal Of Uracil By Uracil Dna Glycosylase Limits Pemetrexed Cytotoxicity: Overriding The Limit With Methoxyamine To Inhibit Base Excision Repair, A. D. Bulgar, L. D. Weeks, Y. Miao, S. Yang, Yan Xu, C. Guo, S. Markowitz, N. Oleinick, S. L. Gerson, Lili Liu Jan 2012

Removal Of Uracil By Uracil Dna Glycosylase Limits Pemetrexed Cytotoxicity: Overriding The Limit With Methoxyamine To Inhibit Base Excision Repair, A. D. Bulgar, L. D. Weeks, Y. Miao, S. Yang, Yan Xu, C. Guo, S. Markowitz, N. Oleinick, S. L. Gerson, Lili Liu

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) specifically removes uracil bases from DNA, and its repair activity determines the sensitivity of the cell to anticancer agents that are capable of introducing uracil into DNA. In the present study, the participation of UDG in the response to pemetrexed-induced incorporation of uracil into DNA was studied using isogenic human tumor cell lines with or without UDG (UDG+/+/UDG−/−). UDG−/− cells were very sensitive to pemetrexed. Cell killing by pemetrexed was associated with genomic uracil accumulation, stalled DNA replication, and catastrophic DNA strand breaks. By contrast, UDG+/+ cells were >10 times more resistant to pemetrexed due ...


Development Of A ‘Clickable’ Non-Natural Nucleotide To Visualize The Replication Of Non-Instructional Dna Lesions, Edward A. Motea, Irene Lee, Anthony J. Berdis Jan 2012

Development Of A ‘Clickable’ Non-Natural Nucleotide To Visualize The Replication Of Non-Instructional Dna Lesions, Edward A. Motea, Irene Lee, Anthony J. Berdis

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The misreplication of damaged DNA is an important biological process that produces numerous adverse effects on human health. This report describes the synthesis and characterization of a non-natural nucleotide, designated 3-ethynyl-5-nitroindolyl-2′-deoxyriboside triphosphate (3-Eth-5-NITP), as a novel chemical reagent that can probe and quantify the misreplication of damaged DNA. We demonstrate that this non-natural nucleotide is efficiently inserted opposite an abasic site, a commonly formed and potentially mutagenic non-instructional DNA lesion. The strategic placement of the ethynyl moiety allows the incorporated nucleoside triphosphate to be selectively tagged with an azide-containing fluorophore using ‘click’ chemistry. This reaction provides a facile way ...


Exploring The Roles Of Nucleobase Desolvation And Shape Complementarity During The Misreplication Of O6-Methylguanine, Delia Chavarria, Andrea Ramos Serrano, Ichiro Hirao, Anthony J. Berdis Sep 2011

Exploring The Roles Of Nucleobase Desolvation And Shape Complementarity During The Misreplication Of O6-Methylguanine, Delia Chavarria, Andrea Ramos Serrano, Ichiro Hirao, Anthony J. Berdis

Chemistry Faculty Publications

O6-methylguanine is a miscoding DNA lesion arising from the alkylation of guanine. This report uses the bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase as a model to probe the roles hydrogen-bonding interactions, shape/size, and nucleobase desolvation during the replication of this miscoding lesion. This was accomplished by using transient kinetic techniques to monitor the kinetic parameters for incorporating and extending natural and non-natural nucleotides. In general, the efficiency of nucleotide incorporation does not depend on the hydrogen-bonding potential of the incoming nucleotide. Instead, nucleobase hydrophobicity and shape complementarity appear to be the preeminent factors controlling nucleotide incorporation. In addition, shape complementarity plays ...


The Exonuclease Activity Of Hpmc2 Is Required For Transcriptional Regulation Of The Qr Gene And Repair Of Estrogen-Induced Abasic Sites, N. Krishnamurthy, C. R. Ngam, Anthony J. Berdis, M. M. Montano May 2011

The Exonuclease Activity Of Hpmc2 Is Required For Transcriptional Regulation Of The Qr Gene And Repair Of Estrogen-Induced Abasic Sites, N. Krishnamurthy, C. R. Ngam, Anthony J. Berdis, M. M. Montano

Chemistry Faculty Publications

We have previously reported that the expression of antioxidative stress enzymes is upregulated by trans-hydroxytamoxifen (TOT) in breast epithelial cell lines providing protection against estrogen-induced DNA damage. This regulation involves Estrogen Receptor β (ERβ) recruitment to the Electrophile Response Element (EpRE) and a novel protein, human homolog of Xenopus gene which Prevents Mitotic Catastrophe (hPMC2). We have also demonstrated that ERβ and hPMC2 are required for TOT-dependent recruitment of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) and Topoisomerase IIβ (Topo IIβ) to the EpRE. Sequence analysis reveals that the C-terminus of hPMC2 encodes a putative exonuclease domain. Using in vitro kinetic assays ...


Epistatic Roles For Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Muts And Dinb (Dna Pol Iv) In Coping With Reactive Oxygen Species-Induced Dna Damage, Laurie H. Sanders, Babho Devadoss, Geraldine V. Raja, Jaime O'Connor, Shengchang Su, Daniel J. Wozniak, Daniel J. Hassett, Anthony J. Berdis, Mark D. Sutton Apr 2011

Epistatic Roles For Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Muts And Dinb (Dna Pol Iv) In Coping With Reactive Oxygen Species-Induced Dna Damage, Laurie H. Sanders, Babho Devadoss, Geraldine V. Raja, Jaime O'Connor, Shengchang Su, Daniel J. Wozniak, Daniel J. Hassett, Anthony J. Berdis, Mark D. Sutton

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is especially adept at colonizing the airways of individuals afflicted with the autosomal recessive disease cystic fibrosis (CF). CF patients suffer from chronic airway inflammation, which contributes to lung deterioration. Once established in the airways, P. aeruginosa continuously adapts to the changing environment, in part through acquisition of beneficial mutations via a process termed pathoadaptation. MutS and DinB are proposed to play opposing roles in P. aeruginosa pathoadaptation: MutS acts in replication-coupled mismatch repair, which acts to limit spontaneous mutations; in contrast, DinB (DNA polymerase IV) catalyzes error-prone bypass of DNA lesions, contributing to mutations. As part of ...


Quantifying The Energetic Contributions Of Desolvation And Π-Electron Density During Translesion Dna Synthesis, Edward A. Motea, Irene Lee, Anthony J. Berdis Mar 2011

Quantifying The Energetic Contributions Of Desolvation And Π-Electron Density During Translesion Dna Synthesis, Edward A. Motea, Irene Lee, Anthony J. Berdis

Chemistry Faculty Publications

This report examines the molecular mechanism by which high-fidelity DNA polymerases select nucleotides during the replication of an abasic site, a non-instructional DNA lesion. This was accomplished by synthesizing several unique 5-substituted indolyl 2′-deoxyribose triphosphates and defining their kinetic parameters for incorporation opposite an abasic site to interrogate the contributions of π-electron density and solvation energies. In general, the Kd, app values for hydrophobic non-natural nucleotides are ∼10-fold lower than those measured for isosteric hydrophilic analogs. In addition, kpol values for nucleotides that contain less π-electron densities are slower than isosteric analogs possessing higher degrees of π-electron density. The ...


Dnmt1 Stability Is Regulated By Proteins Coordinating Deubiquitination And Acetylation-Driven Ubiquitination, Zhanwen Du, Jing Song, Yong Wang, Yiqing Zhao, Kishore Guda, Shuming Yang, Hung Ying Kao, Yan Xu, Joseph Willis, Sanford D. Markowitz, David Sedwick, Robert M. Ewing, Zhenghe Wang Nov 2010

Dnmt1 Stability Is Regulated By Proteins Coordinating Deubiquitination And Acetylation-Driven Ubiquitination, Zhanwen Du, Jing Song, Yong Wang, Yiqing Zhao, Kishore Guda, Shuming Yang, Hung Ying Kao, Yan Xu, Joseph Willis, Sanford D. Markowitz, David Sedwick, Robert M. Ewing, Zhenghe Wang

Chemistry Faculty Publications

DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) is the primary enzyme that maintains DNA methylation. We describe a previously unknown mode of regulation of DNMT1 protein stability through the coordinated action of an array of DNMT1-associated proteins. DNMT1 was destabilized by acetylation by the acetyltransferase Tip60, which triggered ubiquitination by the E3 ligase UHRF1, thereby targeting DNMT1 for proteasomal degradation. In contrast, DNMT1 was stabilized by histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) and the deubiquitinase HAUSP (herpes virus–associated ubiquitin-specific protease). Analysis of the abundance of DNMT1 and Tip60, as well as the association between HAUSP and DNMT1, suggested that during the cell cycle the ...


Dna Polymerases: Perfect Enzymes For An Imperfect World, Anthony J. Berdis May 2010

Dna Polymerases: Perfect Enzymes For An Imperfect World, Anthony J. Berdis

Chemistry Faculty Publications

This Special Thematic Issue explores the molecular properties of DNA polymerases as extraordinary biological catalysts. In this short introductory chapter, I briefly highlight some of the most important concepts from the articles contained within this Special Issue. The contents of this Special Issue are arranged into distinct sub-categories corresponding to mechanistic studies of faithful DNA polymerization, studies of "specialized" DNA polymerases that function on damaged DNA, and DNA polymerases that are of therapeutic importance against various diseases. Emphasis is placed on understanding the dynamic cellular roles and biochemical functions of DNA polymerases, and how their structure and mechanism impact their ...


Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase: The Story Of A Misguided Dna Polymerase, Edward A. Motea, Anthony J. Berdis May 2010

Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase: The Story Of A Misguided Dna Polymerase, Edward A. Motea, Anthony J. Berdis

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Nearly every DNA polymerase characterized to date exclusively catalyzes the incorporation of mononucleotides into a growing primer using a DNA or RNA template as a guide to direct each incorporation event. There is, however, one unique DNA polymerase designated terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase that performs DNA synthesis using only single-stranded DNA as the nucleic acid substrate. In this chapter, we review the biological role of this enigmatic DNA polymerase and the biochemical mechanism for its ability to perform DNA synthesis in the absence of a templating strand. We compare and contrast the molecular events for template-independent DNA synthesis catalyzed by terminal ...


Non-Natural Nucleotides As Probes For The Mechanism And Fidelity Of Dna Polymerases, Irene Lee, Anthony J. Berdis May 2010

Non-Natural Nucleotides As Probes For The Mechanism And Fidelity Of Dna Polymerases, Irene Lee, Anthony J. Berdis

Chemistry Faculty Publications

DNA is a remarkable macromolecule that functions primarily as the carrier of the genetic information of organisms ranging from viruses to bacteria to eukaryotes. The ability of DNA polymerases to efficiently and accurately replicate genetic material represents one of the most fundamental yet complex biological processes found in nature. The central dogma of DNA polymerization is that the efficiency and fidelity of this biological process is dependent upon proper hydrogen-bonding interactions between an incoming nucleotide and its templating partner. However, the foundation of this dogma has been recently challenged by the demonstration that DNA polymerases can effectively and, in some ...


4-Hydroxyphenylretinamide (4hpr) Derivatives Regulate Aromatase Activity And Expression In Breast Cancer Cells, Bin Su, Serena M. Mershon, Laura A. Stonerock, Robert W. Curley Jr., Robert W. Brueggemeier Mar 2008

4-Hydroxyphenylretinamide (4hpr) Derivatives Regulate Aromatase Activity And Expression In Breast Cancer Cells, Bin Su, Serena M. Mershon, Laura A. Stonerock, Robert W. Curley Jr., Robert W. Brueggemeier

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Recent studies exhibit that 4-hydroxyphenylretinamide (4HPR) decreases aromatase activity in breast and placental cells. The effect of synthetic 4HPR analogs on aromatase and expression was examined in three breast cancer cell lines. Most derivatives did not decrease cellular aromatase activity. Two of the analogs even stimulated aromatase activity at the transcriptional level. Only one derivative significantly decreased aromatase in all three breast cancer cell lines and also suppressed CYP19 gene expression in one of the cell line. Placental microsomal aromatase assay rule out the possibility that this compound directly inhibits the aromatase enzyme. A non-genomic mechanism in suppression of cellular ...


Optimization Of Non-Natural Nucleotides For Selective Incorporation Opposite Damaged Dna, Diana Vineyard, Xuemei Zhang, Alison Donnelley, Irene Lee, Anthony J. Berdis Oct 2007

Optimization Of Non-Natural Nucleotides For Selective Incorporation Opposite Damaged Dna, Diana Vineyard, Xuemei Zhang, Alison Donnelley, Irene Lee, Anthony J. Berdis

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The promutagenic process known as translesion DNA synthesis reflects the ability of a DNA polymerase to misinsert a nucleotide opposite a damaged DNA template. To study the underlying mechanism of nucleotide selection during this process, we quantified the incorporation of various non-natural nucleotide analogs opposite an abasic site, a non-templating DNA lesion. Our kinetic studies using the bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase reveal that the π-electron surface area of the incoming nucleotide substantially contributes to the efficiency of incorporation opposite an abasic site. A remaining question is whether the selective insertion of these non-hydrogen-bonding analogs can be achieved through optimization of ...


The Use Of Non-Natural Nucleotides To Probe Template-Independent Dna Synthesis, Anthony J. Berdis, David Mccutcheon Aug 2007

The Use Of Non-Natural Nucleotides To Probe Template-Independent Dna Synthesis, Anthony J. Berdis, David Mccutcheon

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The vast majority of DNA polymerases use the complementary templating strand of DNA to guide each nucleotide incorporation. There are instances, however, in which polymerases can efficiently incorporate nucleotides in the absence of templating information. This process, known as translesion DNA synthesis, can alter the proper genetic code of an organism. To further elucidate the mechanism of template-independent DNA synthesis, we monitored the incorporation of various nucleotides at the “blunt-end” of duplex DNA by the high-fidelity bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase. Although natural nucleotides are not incorporated at the blunt-end, a limited subset of non-natural indolyl analogues containing extensive π-electron surface ...


Fluorescent Analysis Of Translesion Dna Synthesis By Using A Novel, Non-Natural Nucleotide Analogue, Irene Lee, Anthony J. Berdis Jan 2006

Fluorescent Analysis Of Translesion Dna Synthesis By Using A Novel, Non-Natural Nucleotide Analogue, Irene Lee, Anthony J. Berdis

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The replication of damaged DNA is a promutagenic process that can lead to disease development. This report evaluates the dynamics of nucleotide incorporation opposite an abasic site, a commonly formed DNA lesion, by using two fluorescent nucleotide analogues, 2-aminopurine deoxyribose triphosphate (2-APTP) and 5-phenylindole deoxyribose triphosphate (5-PhITP). In both cases, the kinetics of incorporation were compared by using a 32 P-radiolabel extension assay versus a fluorescence-quenching assay. Although 2-APTP is efficiently incorporated opposite a templating nucleobase (thymine), the kinetics for incorporation opposite an abasic site are significantly slower. The lower catalytic efficiency hinders its use as a probe to study ...


Recent Developments Inthe Mechanistic Enzymology Of The Atp-Dependent Lon Protease From Escherichia Coli: Highlights From Kinetic Studies, Irene Lee, Anthony J. Berdis, Carolyn K. Suzuki Jan 2006

Recent Developments Inthe Mechanistic Enzymology Of The Atp-Dependent Lon Protease From Escherichia Coli: Highlights From Kinetic Studies, Irene Lee, Anthony J. Berdis, Carolyn K. Suzuki

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Lon protease, also known as protease La, is one of the simplest ATP-dependent proteases that plays vital roles in maintaining cellular functions by selectively eliminating misfolded, damaged and certain short-lived regulatory proteins. Although Lon is a homo-oligomer, each subunit of Lon contains both an ATPase and a protease active site. This relatively simple architecture compared to other hetero-oligomeric ATP-dependent proteases such as the proteasome makes Lon a useful paradigm for studying the mechanism of ATP-dependent proteolysis. In this article, we survey some recent developments in the mechanistic characterization of Lon with an emphasis on the utilization of pre-steady-state enzyme kinetic ...


Evaluating The Contributions Of Desolvation And Base-Stacking During Translesion Dna Synthesis, Xuemei Zhang, Irene Lee, Anthony J. Berdis May 2004

Evaluating The Contributions Of Desolvation And Base-Stacking During Translesion Dna Synthesis, Xuemei Zhang, Irene Lee, Anthony J. Berdis

Chemistry Faculty Publications

DNA polymerases catalyze the insertion of a nucleoside triphosphate into the growing polymer chain using the template strand as a guide. Numerous factors such as hydrogen bonding interactions, base-stacking contributions, and desolvation play important roles in controlling the efficiency and fidelity of this process. We previously demonstrated that 5-nitro-indolyl-2′-deoxyriboside triphosphate, a non-natural nucleobase with enhanced base-stacking properties, was more efficiently inserted opposite a non-templating DNA lesion compared to natural templating nucleobases (E. Z. Reineks and A. J. Berdis, Biochemistry, 2004, 43, 393–404). The catalytic enhancement was proposed to reflect increased base-stacking interactions of the non-natural nucleobase with the ...


Evaluating The Effects Of Enhanced Processivity And Metal Ions On Translesion Dna Replication Catalyzed By The Bacteriophage T4 Dna Polymerase, Edmunds Z. Reineks, Anthony J. Berdis May 2003

Evaluating The Effects Of Enhanced Processivity And Metal Ions On Translesion Dna Replication Catalyzed By The Bacteriophage T4 Dna Polymerase, Edmunds Z. Reineks, Anthony J. Berdis

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The fidelity of DNA replication is achieved in a multiplicative process encompassing nucleobase selection and insertion, removal of misinserted nucleotides by exonuclease activity, and enzyme dissociation from primer/templates that are misaligned due to mispairing. In this study, we have evaluated the effect of altering these kinetic processes on the dynamics of translesion DNA replication using the bacteriophage T4 replication apparatus as a model system. The effect of enhancing the processivity of the T4 DNA polymerase, gp43, on translesion DNA replication was evaluated using a defined in vitro assay system. While the T4 replicase (gp43 in complex with gp45) can ...


Examination Of The Role Of The Clamp-Loader And Atp Hydrolysis In The Formation Of The Bacteriophage T4 Polymerase Holoenzyme, Michael A. Trakselis, Anthony J. Berdis, Stephen J. Benkovic Feb 2003

Examination Of The Role Of The Clamp-Loader And Atp Hydrolysis In The Formation Of The Bacteriophage T4 Polymerase Holoenzyme, Michael A. Trakselis, Anthony J. Berdis, Stephen J. Benkovic

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Transient kinetic analyses further support the role of the clamp-loader in bacteriophage T4 as a catalyst which loads the clamp onto DNA through the sequential hydrolysis of two molecules of ATP before and after addition of DNA. Additional rapid-quench and pulse-chase experiments have documented this stoichiometry. The events of ATP hydrolysis have been related to the opening/closing of the clamp protein through fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). In the absence of a hydrolysable form of ATP, the distance across the subunit interface of the clamp does not increase as measured by intramolecular FRET, suggesting gp45 cannot be loaded onto ...


Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate Stimulates Lysophosphatidic Acid Secretion From Ovarian And Cervical Cancer Cells But Not From Breast Or Leukemia Cells, Zhongzhou Shen, Jerome Belinson, Richard E. Morton, Yan Xu Dec 1998

Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate Stimulates Lysophosphatidic Acid Secretion From Ovarian And Cervical Cancer Cells But Not From Breast Or Leukemia Cells, Zhongzhou Shen, Jerome Belinson, Richard E. Morton, Yan Xu

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is present in ascites from patients with ovarian cancer. It stimulates calcium release and growth of ovarian cancer cells bothin vitroandin vivo.Recently, we found that LPA levels were significantly elevated in plasma from patients with ovarian cancer and other gynecological cancers. In contrast, LPA levels were not elevated in patients with breast cancer and leukemias. In view of this, we investigated whether gynecological cancer cells could produce LPA. LPA was extracted from the supernatant of cells culturedin vitroand purified by thin layer chromatography. After hydrolysis and transmethylation, the fatty acid derivatives were analyzed by gas chromatography ...