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Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Canvass: A Crowd-Sourced, Natural-Product Screening Library For Exploring Biological Space, Sara E. Kearney, Gergely ZahoráNszky-KőHalmi, Kyle R. Brimacombe, Mark J. Henderson, Caitlin Lynch, Tongan Zhao, Kanny K. Wan, Zina Itkin, Christopher Dillon, Min Shen, Dorian M. Cheff, Tobie D. Lee, Danielle Bougie, Ken Cheng, Nathan P. Coussens, Dorjbal Dorjsuren, Richard T. Eastman, Ruili Huang, Michael J. Iannotti, Surendra Karavadhi, Carleen Klumpp-Thomas, Jacob S. Roth, Srilatha Sakamuru, Wei Sun, Steven A. Titus, Adam Yasgar, Ya-Qin Zhang, Jinghua Zhao, Rodrigo B. Andrade, M. Kevin Brown, Robert B. Grossman Dec 2018

Canvass: A Crowd-Sourced, Natural-Product Screening Library For Exploring Biological Space, Sara E. Kearney, Gergely ZahoráNszky-KőHalmi, Kyle R. Brimacombe, Mark J. Henderson, Caitlin Lynch, Tongan Zhao, Kanny K. Wan, Zina Itkin, Christopher Dillon, Min Shen, Dorian M. Cheff, Tobie D. Lee, Danielle Bougie, Ken Cheng, Nathan P. Coussens, Dorjbal Dorjsuren, Richard T. Eastman, Ruili Huang, Michael J. Iannotti, Surendra Karavadhi, Carleen Klumpp-Thomas, Jacob S. Roth, Srilatha Sakamuru, Wei Sun, Steven A. Titus, Adam Yasgar, Ya-Qin Zhang, Jinghua Zhao, Rodrigo B. Andrade, M. Kevin Brown, Robert B. Grossman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Natural products and their derivatives continue to be wellsprings of nascent therapeutic potential. However, many laboratories have limited resources for biological evaluation, leaving their previously isolated or synthesized compounds largely or completely untested. To address this issue, the Canvass library of natural products was assembled, in collaboration with academic and industry researchers, for quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) across a diverse set of cell-based and biochemical assays. Characterization of the library in terms of physicochemical properties, structural diversity, and similarity to compounds in publicly available libraries indicates that the Canvass library contains many structural elements in common with approved drugs. The ...


Data On Spectrum-Based Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Measurement Of E. Coli Multidrug Transporter Acrb, Yuguang Cai, Thomas E. Wilkop, Yinan Wei Dec 2018

Data On Spectrum-Based Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Measurement Of E. Coli Multidrug Transporter Acrb, Yuguang Cai, Thomas E. Wilkop, Yinan Wei

Chemistry Faculty Publications

This paper presented the dataset of correction parameters used in the determination of the energy transfer efficiencies from the spectrum-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurement in a trimeric membrane protein AcrB. The cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) and yellow fluorescent protein (YPet) were used as the donor and acceptor, respectively. Two AcrB fusion proteins were constructed, AcrB-CFP and AcrB-YPet. The proteins were co-expressed in Escherichia coli cells, and energy transfer efficiency were determined in live cells. To obtain reliable energy transfer data, a complete set of correction parameters need to be first determined to accommodate for factors such as background ...


Cross Photoreaction Of Glyoxylic And Pyruvic Acids In Model Aqueous Aerosol, Sha-Sha Xia, Alexis J. Eugene, Marcelo I. Guzman Jul 2018

Cross Photoreaction Of Glyoxylic And Pyruvic Acids In Model Aqueous Aerosol, Sha-Sha Xia, Alexis J. Eugene, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Aerosols of variable composition, size, and shape are associated with public health concerns as well as with light-particle interactions that play a role in the energy balance of the atmosphere. Photochemical reactions of 2-oxocarboxylic acids in the aqueous phase are now known to contribute to the total secondary organic aerosol (SOA) budget. This work explores the cross reaction of glyoxylic acid (GA) and pyruvic acid (PA) in water, the two most abundant 2-oxocarboxylic acids in the atmosphere, under solar irradiation and dark thermal aging steps. During irradiation, PA and GA are excited and initiate proton-coupled electron transfer or hydrogen abstraction ...


Distinct Properties Underlie Flavin-Based Electron Bifurcation In A Novel Electron Transfer Flavoprotein Fixab From Rhodopseudomonas Palustris, H. Diessel Duan, Carolyn E. Lubner, Monika Tokmina-Lukaszewska, George H. Gauss, Brian Bothner, Paul W. King, John W. Peters, Anne-Frances Miller Feb 2018

Distinct Properties Underlie Flavin-Based Electron Bifurcation In A Novel Electron Transfer Flavoprotein Fixab From Rhodopseudomonas Palustris, H. Diessel Duan, Carolyn E. Lubner, Monika Tokmina-Lukaszewska, George H. Gauss, Brian Bothner, Paul W. King, John W. Peters, Anne-Frances Miller

Chemistry Faculty Publications

A newly recognized third fundamental mechanism of energy conservation in biology, electron bifurcation, uses free energy from exergonic redox reactions to drive endergonic redox reactions. Flavin-based electron bifurcation furnishes low-potential electrons to demanding chemical reactions, such as reduction of dinitrogen to ammonia. We employed the heterodimeric flavoenzyme FixAB from the diazotrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris to elucidate unique properties that underpin flavin-based electron bifurcation. FixAB is distinguished from canonical electron transfer flavoproteins (ETFs) by a second FAD that replaces the AMP of canonical ETF. We exploited near-UV–visible CD spectroscopy to resolve signals from the different flavin sites in FixAB and ...


Informing Efforts To Develop Nitroreductase For Amine Production, Anne-Frances Miller, Jonathan T. Park, Kyle L. Ferguson, Warintra Pitsawong, Andreas S. Bommarius Jan 2018

Informing Efforts To Develop Nitroreductase For Amine Production, Anne-Frances Miller, Jonathan T. Park, Kyle L. Ferguson, Warintra Pitsawong, Andreas S. Bommarius

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Nitroreductases (NRs) hold promise for converting nitroaromatics to aromatic amines. Nitroaromatic reduction rate increases with Hammett substituent constant for NRs from two different subgroups, confirming substrate identity as a key determinant of reactivity. Amine yields were low, but compounds yielding amines tend to have a large π system and electron withdrawing substituents. Therefore, we also assessed the prospects of varying the enzyme. Several different subgroups of NRs include members able to produce aromatic amines. Comparison of four NR subgroups shows that they provide contrasting substrate binding cavities with distinct constraints on substrate position relative to the flavin. The unique architecture ...


Organelle-Specific Single-Molecule Imaging Of Α4Β2 Nicotinic Receptors Reveals The Effect Of Nicotine On Receptor Assembly And Cell-Surface Trafficking, Ashley M. Fox-Lee, Faruk H. Moonschi, Christopher I. Richards Oct 2017

Organelle-Specific Single-Molecule Imaging Of Α4Β2 Nicotinic Receptors Reveals The Effect Of Nicotine On Receptor Assembly And Cell-Surface Trafficking, Ashley M. Fox-Lee, Faruk H. Moonschi, Christopher I. Richards

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) assemble in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and traffic to the cell surface as pentamers composed of α and β subunits. Many nAChR subtypes can assemble with varying subunit ratios, giving rise to multiple stoichiometries exhibiting different subcellular localization and functional properties. In addition to the endogenous neurotransmitter acetylcholine, nicotine also binds and activates nAChRs and influences their trafficking and expression on the cell surface. Currently, no available technique can specifically elucidate the stoichiometry of nAChRs in the ER versus those in the plasma membrane. Here, we report a method involving single-molecule fluorescence measurements to determine the ...


Real-Time Sensing Of Single-Ligand Delivery With Nanoaperture-Integrated Microfluidic Devices, W. Elliott Martin, Ning Ge, Bernadeta R. Srijanto, Emily Furnish, C. Patrick Collier, Christine A. Trinkle, Christopher I. Richards Jul 2017

Real-Time Sensing Of Single-Ligand Delivery With Nanoaperture-Integrated Microfluidic Devices, W. Elliott Martin, Ning Ge, Bernadeta R. Srijanto, Emily Furnish, C. Patrick Collier, Christine A. Trinkle, Christopher I. Richards

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The measurement of biological events on the surface of live cells at the single-molecule level is complicated by several factors including high protein densities that are incompatible with single-molecule imaging, cellular autofluorescence, and protein mobility on the cell surface. Here, we fabricated a device composed of an array of nanoscale apertures coupled with a microfluidic delivery system to quantify single-ligand interactions with proteins on the cell surface. We cultured live cells directly on the device and isolated individual epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) in the apertures while delivering fluorescently labeled epidermal growth factor. We observed single ligands binding to EGFRs ...


Mechanism-Informed Refinement Reveals Altered Substrate-Binding Mode For Catalytically Competent Nitroreductase, Warintra Pitsawong, Chad A. Haynes, Ronald L. Koder, David W. Rodgers, Anne-Frances Miller Jul 2017

Mechanism-Informed Refinement Reveals Altered Substrate-Binding Mode For Catalytically Competent Nitroreductase, Warintra Pitsawong, Chad A. Haynes, Ronald L. Koder, David W. Rodgers, Anne-Frances Miller

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Nitroreductase from Enterobacter cloacae (NR) reduces diverse nitroaromatics including herbicides, explosives and prodrugs, and holds promise for bioremediation, prodrug activation and enzyme-assisted synthesis. We solved crystal structures of NR complexes with bound substrate or analog for each of its two half-reactions. We complemented these with kinetic isotope effect (KIE) measurements elucidating H-transfer steps essential to each half-reaction. KIEs indicate hydride transfer from NADH to the flavin consistent with our structure of NR with the NADH analog nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide (NAAD). The KIE on reduction of p-nitrobenzoic acid (p-NBA) also indicates hydride transfer, and requires revision of prior ...


Oxidation Of Substituted Catechols At The Air-Water Interface: Production Of Carboxylic Acids, Quinones, And Polyphenols, Elizabeth A. Pillar, Marcelo I. Guzman Apr 2017

Oxidation Of Substituted Catechols At The Air-Water Interface: Production Of Carboxylic Acids, Quinones, And Polyphenols, Elizabeth A. Pillar, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Anthropogenic activities contribute benzene, toluene, and anisole to the environment, which in the atmosphere are converted into the respective phenols, cresols, and methoxyphenols by fast gas-phase reaction with hydroxyl radicals (HO(•)). Further processing of the latter species by HO(•) decreases their vapor pressure as a second hydroxyl group is incorporated to accelerate their oxidative aging at interfaces and in aqueous particles. This work shows how catechol, pyrogallol, 3-methylcatechol, 4-methylcatechol, and 3-methoxycatechol (all proxies for oxygenated aromatics derived from benzene, toluene, and anisole) react at the air-water interface with increasing O3(g) during τc ≈ 1 μs contact time and contrasts their ...


Reactivity Of Ketyl And Acetyl Radicals From Direct Solar Actinic Photolysis Of Aqueous Pyruvic Acid, Alexis J. Eugene, Marcelo I. Guzman Mar 2017

Reactivity Of Ketyl And Acetyl Radicals From Direct Solar Actinic Photolysis Of Aqueous Pyruvic Acid, Alexis J. Eugene, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The variable composition of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) contributes to the large uncertainty for predicting radiative forcing. A better understanding of the reaction mechanisms leading to aerosol formation such as for the photochemical reaction of aqueous pyruvic acid (PA) at λ ≥ 305 nm can contribute to constrain these uncertainties. Herein, the photochemistry of aqueous PA (5-300 mM) continuously sparged with air is re-examined in the laboratory under comparable irradiance at 38° N at noon on a summer day. Several analytical methods are employed to monitor the time series of the reaction, including (1) the derivatization of carbonyl (C═O) functional ...


Dual-Functional-Tag-Facilitated Protein Labeling And Immobilization, Xinyi Zhang, Wei Lu, Kevin Kwan, Dibakar Bhattacharyya, Yinan Wei Feb 2017

Dual-Functional-Tag-Facilitated Protein Labeling And Immobilization, Xinyi Zhang, Wei Lu, Kevin Kwan, Dibakar Bhattacharyya, Yinan Wei

Chemistry Faculty Publications

An important strategy in the construction of biomimetic membranes and devices is to use natural proteins as the functional components for incorporation in a polymeric or nanocomposite matrix. Toward this goal, an important step is to immobilize proteins with high efficiency and precision without disrupting the protein function. Here, we developed a dual-functional tag containing histidine and the non-natural amino acid azidohomoalanine (AHA). AHA is metabolically incorporated into the protein, taking advantage of the Met-tRNA and Met-tRNA synthetase. Histidine in the tag can facilitate metal-affinity purification, whereas AHA can react with an alkyne-functionalized probe or surface via well-established click chemistry ...


Comparative Proteomic Analyses Of The Parietal Lobe From Rhesus Monkeys Fed A High-Fat/Sugar Diet With And Without Resveratrol Supplementation, Relative To A Healthy Diet: Insights Into The Roles Of Unhealthy Diets And Resveratrol On Function, Aaron M. Swomley, Judy C. Triplett, Jeriel T. Keeney, Govind Warrier, Kevin J. Pearson, Julie A. Mattison, Rafael De Cabo, Jian Cai, Jon B. Klein, D. Allan Butterfield Jan 2017

Comparative Proteomic Analyses Of The Parietal Lobe From Rhesus Monkeys Fed A High-Fat/Sugar Diet With And Without Resveratrol Supplementation, Relative To A Healthy Diet: Insights Into The Roles Of Unhealthy Diets And Resveratrol On Function, Aaron M. Swomley, Judy C. Triplett, Jeriel T. Keeney, Govind Warrier, Kevin J. Pearson, Julie A. Mattison, Rafael De Cabo, Jian Cai, Jon B. Klein, D. Allan Butterfield

Chemistry Faculty Publications

A diet consisting of a high intake of saturated fat and refined sugars is characteristic of a Western-diet and has been shown to have a substantial negative effect on human health. Expression proteomics were used to investigate changes to the parietal lobe proteome of rhesus monkeys consuming either a high fat and sugar (HFS) diet, a HFS diet supplemented with resveratrol (HFS+RSV), or a healthy control diet for 2 years. Here we discuss the modifications in the levels of 12 specific proteins involved in various cellular systems including metabolism, neurotransmission, structural integrity, and general cellular signaling following a nutritional ...


Photocatalytic Reduction Of Fumarate To Succinate On Zns Mineral Surfaces, Ruixin Zhou, Marcelo I. Guzman Apr 2016

Photocatalytic Reduction Of Fumarate To Succinate On Zns Mineral Surfaces, Ruixin Zhou, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycle is an important central biosynthetic pathway that fixes CO2 into carboxylic acids. Among the five reductive steps in the rTCA cycle, the two-electron reduction of fumarate to succinate proceeds nonenzymatically on the surface of photoexcited sphalerite (ZnS) colloids suspended in water. This model reaction is chosen to systematically study the surface photoprocess occurring on ZnS in the presence of [Na2S] (1–10 mM) hole scavenger at 15 °C. Experiments at variable pH (5–10) indicate that monodissociated fumaric acid is the primary electron acceptor forming the monoprotic form of succinic acid ...


It Is All About (U)Biquitin: Role Of Altered Ubiquitin-Proteasome System And Uchl1 In Alzheimer Disease, Antonella Tramutola, Fabio Di Domenico, Eugenio Barone, Marzia Perluigi, D. Allan Butterfield Jan 2016

It Is All About (U)Biquitin: Role Of Altered Ubiquitin-Proteasome System And Uchl1 In Alzheimer Disease, Antonella Tramutola, Fabio Di Domenico, Eugenio Barone, Marzia Perluigi, D. Allan Butterfield

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Free radical-mediated damage to macromolecules and the resulting oxidative modification of different cellular components are a common feature of aging, and this process becomes much more pronounced in age-associated pathologies, including Alzheimer disease (AD). In particular, proteins are particularly sensitive to oxidative stress-induced damage and these irreversible modifications lead to the alteration of protein structure and function. In order to maintain cell homeostasis, these oxidized/damaged proteins have to be removed in order to prevent their toxic accumulation. It is generally accepted that the age-related accumulation of “aberrant” proteins results from both the increased occurrence of damage and the decreased ...


Heterogeneous Oxidation Of Catechol, Elizabeth A. Pillar, Ruixin Zhou, Marcelo I. Guzman Sep 2015

Heterogeneous Oxidation Of Catechol, Elizabeth A. Pillar, Ruixin Zhou, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Natural and anthropogenic emissions of aromatic hydrocarbons from biomass burning, agro-industrial settings, and fossil fuel combustion contribute precursors to secondary aerosol formation (SOA). How these compounds are processed under humid tropospheric conditions is the focus of current attention to understand their environmental fate. This work shows how catechol thin films, a model for oxygenated aromatic hydrocarbons present in biomass burning and combustion aerosols, undergo heterogeneous oxidation at the air–solid interface under variable relative humidity (RH = 0–90%). The maximum reactive uptake coefficient of O3(g) by catechol γO3 = (7.49 ± 0.35) × 10–6 occurs for ...