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Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Manganese Oxide/Hemin-Functionalized Graphene As A Platform For Peroxynitrite Sensing, Haitham F. Kalil, Shaimaa Maher, Tiyash Bose, Mekki Bayachou Aug 2018

Manganese Oxide/Hemin-Functionalized Graphene As A Platform For Peroxynitrite Sensing, Haitham F. Kalil, Shaimaa Maher, Tiyash Bose, Mekki Bayachou

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Peroxynitrite (ONOO−, PON) is a powerful oxidizing agent generated in vivo by the diffusion-limited reaction of nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide (O2˙) radicals. Under oxidative stress, cumulated peroxynitrite levels are associated with chronic inflammatory disorders and other pathophysiological conditions. The accurate detection of peroxynitrite in biological systems is important, not only to understand the genesis and development of diseases, but also to explore and design potential therapeutics. Herein, a manganese oxide/hemin-modified graphene interface is explored as a platform for peroxynitrite amperometric detection. Hemin-functionalized reduced graphene oxide was further modified with manganese oxide nanoparticles to provide a composite material ...


Cross Photoreaction Of Glyoxylic And Pyruvic Acids In Model Aqueous Aerosol, Sha-Sha Xia, Alexis J. Eugene, Marcelo I. Guzman Jul 2018

Cross Photoreaction Of Glyoxylic And Pyruvic Acids In Model Aqueous Aerosol, Sha-Sha Xia, Alexis J. Eugene, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Aerosols of variable composition, size, and shape are associated with public health concerns as well as with light-particle interactions that play a role in the energy balance of the atmosphere. Photochemical reactions of 2-oxocarboxylic acids in the aqueous phase are now known to contribute to the total secondary organic aerosol (SOA) budget. This work explores the cross reaction of glyoxylic acid (GA) and pyruvic acid (PA) in water, the two most abundant 2-oxocarboxylic acids in the atmosphere, under solar irradiation and dark thermal aging steps. During irradiation, PA and GA are excited and initiate proton-coupled electron transfer or hydrogen abstraction ...


N-Glycosylation In The Protease Domain Of Trypsin-Like Serine Proteases Mediates Calnexin-Assisted Protein Folding, Hao Wang, Shuo Li, Juejin Wang, Shenghan Chen, Xue-Long Sun, Qingyu Wu Jun 2018

N-Glycosylation In The Protease Domain Of Trypsin-Like Serine Proteases Mediates Calnexin-Assisted Protein Folding, Hao Wang, Shuo Li, Juejin Wang, Shenghan Chen, Xue-Long Sun, Qingyu Wu

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Trypsin-like serine proteases are essential in physiological processes. Studies have shown that N-glycans are important for serine protease expression and secretion, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we report a common mechanism of N-glycosylation in the protease domains of corin, enteropeptidase and prothrombin in calnexin-mediated glycoprotein folding and extracellular expression. This mechanism, which is independent of calreticulin and operates in a domain-autonomous manner, involves two steps: direct calnexin binding to target proteins and subsequent calnexin binding to monoglucosylated N-glycans. Elimination of N-glycosylation sites in the protease domains of corin, enteropeptidase and prothrombin inhibits corin and enteropeptidase cell surface ...


A Multisession, Undergraduate Molecular Biology Lab Experiment Using Green Fluorescent Protein Including Subcloning And Color Changing Mutagenesis, Nathan S. Winter Apr 2018

A Multisession, Undergraduate Molecular Biology Lab Experiment Using Green Fluorescent Protein Including Subcloning And Color Changing Mutagenesis, Nathan S. Winter

Chemistry Faculty Publications

This paper describes a series of experiments involving handling and manipulating the DNA coding for Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) including the subcloning of this gene, and mutating the DNA so that Cyan Fluorescent Protein (CFP) or Blue Fluorescent protein (BFP) are expressed. The primers needed for the PCR based subcloning of GFP are presented, as are those needed to mutate the GFP to either CFP or BFP.


Distinct Properties Underlie Flavin-Based Electron Bifurcation In A Novel Electron Transfer Flavoprotein Fixab From Rhodopseudomonas Palustris, H. Diessel Duan, Carolyn E. Lubner, Monika Tokmina-Lukaszewska, George H. Gauss, Brian Bothner, Paul W. King, John W. Peters, Anne-Frances Miller Feb 2018

Distinct Properties Underlie Flavin-Based Electron Bifurcation In A Novel Electron Transfer Flavoprotein Fixab From Rhodopseudomonas Palustris, H. Diessel Duan, Carolyn E. Lubner, Monika Tokmina-Lukaszewska, George H. Gauss, Brian Bothner, Paul W. King, John W. Peters, Anne-Frances Miller

Chemistry Faculty Publications

A newly recognized third fundamental mechanism of energy conservation in biology, electron bifurcation, uses free energy from exergonic redox reactions to drive endergonic redox reactions. Flavin-based electron bifurcation furnishes low-potential electrons to demanding chemical reactions, such as reduction of dinitrogen to ammonia. We employed the heterodimeric flavoenzyme FixAB from the diazotrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris to elucidate unique properties that underpin flavin-based electron bifurcation. FixAB is distinguished from canonical electron transfer flavoproteins (ETFs) by a second FAD that replaces the AMP of canonical ETF. We exploited near-UV–visible CD spectroscopy to resolve signals from the different flavin sites in FixAB and ...


Defining Electron Bifurcation In The Electron-Transferring Flavoprotein Family, Amaya M. Garcia Costas, Saroj Poudel, Anne-Frances Miller, Gerrit J. Schut, Rhesa N. Ledbetter, Kathryn R. Fixen, Lance C. Seefeldt, Michael W. W. Adams, Caroline S. Harwood, Eric S. Boyd, John W. Peters Nov 2017

Defining Electron Bifurcation In The Electron-Transferring Flavoprotein Family, Amaya M. Garcia Costas, Saroj Poudel, Anne-Frances Miller, Gerrit J. Schut, Rhesa N. Ledbetter, Kathryn R. Fixen, Lance C. Seefeldt, Michael W. W. Adams, Caroline S. Harwood, Eric S. Boyd, John W. Peters

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Electron bifurcation is the coupling of exergonic and endergonic redox reactions to simultaneously generate (or utilize) low- and high-potential electrons. It is the third recognized form of energy conservation in biology and was recently described for select electron-transferring flavoproteins (Etfs). Etfs are flavin-containing heterodimers best known for donating electrons derived from fatty acid and amino acid oxidation to an electron transfer respiratory chain via Etf-quinone oxidoreductase. Canonical examples contain a flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) that is involved in electron transfer, as well as a non-redox-active AMP. However, Etfs demonstrated to bifurcate electrons contain a second FAD in place of the ...


Inhibiting Translesion Dna Synthesis As An Approach To Combat Drug Resistance To Dna Damaging Agents, Jung-Suk Choi, Seol Kim, Edward Motea, Anthony J. Berdis Jun 2017

Inhibiting Translesion Dna Synthesis As An Approach To Combat Drug Resistance To Dna Damaging Agents, Jung-Suk Choi, Seol Kim, Edward Motea, Anthony J. Berdis

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Anti-cancer agents exert therapeutic effects by damaging DNA. Unfortunately, DNA polymerases can effectively replicate the formed DNA lesions to cause drug resistance and create more aggressive cancers. To understand this process at the cellular level, we developed an artificial nucleoside that visualizes the replication of damaged DNA to identify cells that acquire drug resistance through this mechanism. Visualization is achieved using "click" chemistry to covalently attach azide-containing fluorophores to the ethynyl group present on the nucleoside analog after its incorporation opposite damaged DNA. Flow cytometry and microscopy techniques demonstrate that the extent of nucleotide incorporation into genomic DNA is enhanced ...


Oxidation Of Substituted Catechols At The Air-Water Interface: Production Of Carboxylic Acids, Quinones, And Polyphenols, Elizabeth A. Pillar, Marcelo I. Guzman Apr 2017

Oxidation Of Substituted Catechols At The Air-Water Interface: Production Of Carboxylic Acids, Quinones, And Polyphenols, Elizabeth A. Pillar, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Anthropogenic activities contribute benzene, toluene, and anisole to the environment, which in the atmosphere are converted into the respective phenols, cresols, and methoxyphenols by fast gas-phase reaction with hydroxyl radicals (HO(•)). Further processing of the latter species by HO(•) decreases their vapor pressure as a second hydroxyl group is incorporated to accelerate their oxidative aging at interfaces and in aqueous particles. This work shows how catechol, pyrogallol, 3-methylcatechol, 4-methylcatechol, and 3-methoxycatechol (all proxies for oxygenated aromatics derived from benzene, toluene, and anisole) react at the air-water interface with increasing O3(g) during τc ≈ 1 μs contact time and contrasts their ...


Reactivity Of Ketyl And Acetyl Radicals From Direct Solar Actinic Photolysis Of Aqueous Pyruvic Acid, Alexis J. Eugene, Marcelo I. Guzman Mar 2017

Reactivity Of Ketyl And Acetyl Radicals From Direct Solar Actinic Photolysis Of Aqueous Pyruvic Acid, Alexis J. Eugene, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The variable composition of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) contributes to the large uncertainty for predicting radiative forcing. A better understanding of the reaction mechanisms leading to aerosol formation such as for the photochemical reaction of aqueous pyruvic acid (PA) at λ ≥ 305 nm can contribute to constrain these uncertainties. Herein, the photochemistry of aqueous PA (5-300 mM) continuously sparged with air is re-examined in the laboratory under comparable irradiance at 38° N at noon on a summer day. Several analytical methods are employed to monitor the time series of the reaction, including (1) the derivatization of carbonyl (C═O) functional ...


Comparative Proteomic Analyses Of The Parietal Lobe From Rhesus Monkeys Fed A High-Fat/Sugar Diet With And Without Resveratrol Supplementation, Relative To A Healthy Diet: Insights Into The Roles Of Unhealthy Diets And Resveratrol On Function, Aaron M. Swomley, Judy C. Triplett, Jeriel T. Keeney, Govind Warrier, Kevin J. Pearson, Julie A. Mattison, Rafael De Cabo, Jian Cai, Jon B. Klein, D. Allan Butterfield Jan 2017

Comparative Proteomic Analyses Of The Parietal Lobe From Rhesus Monkeys Fed A High-Fat/Sugar Diet With And Without Resveratrol Supplementation, Relative To A Healthy Diet: Insights Into The Roles Of Unhealthy Diets And Resveratrol On Function, Aaron M. Swomley, Judy C. Triplett, Jeriel T. Keeney, Govind Warrier, Kevin J. Pearson, Julie A. Mattison, Rafael De Cabo, Jian Cai, Jon B. Klein, D. Allan Butterfield

Chemistry Faculty Publications

A diet consisting of a high intake of saturated fat and refined sugars is characteristic of a Western-diet and has been shown to have a substantial negative effect on human health. Expression proteomics were used to investigate changes to the parietal lobe proteome of rhesus monkeys consuming either a high fat and sugar (HFS) diet, a HFS diet supplemented with resveratrol (HFS+RSV), or a healthy control diet for 2 years. Here we discuss the modifications in the levels of 12 specific proteins involved in various cellular systems including metabolism, neurotransmission, structural integrity, and general cellular signaling following a nutritional ...


A Mutation In Ltbp2 Causes Congenital Glaucoma In Domestic Cats (Felis Catus), Markus H. Kuehn, Koren A. Lipsett, Marilyn Menotti-Raymond, S. Scott Whitmore, Todd E. Scheetz, Victor A. David, Stephen J. O'Brien, Zhongyuan Zhao, Jackie K. Jens, Elizabeth M. Snella, N. Matthew Ellinwood, Gillian J. Mclellan May 2016

A Mutation In Ltbp2 Causes Congenital Glaucoma In Domestic Cats (Felis Catus), Markus H. Kuehn, Koren A. Lipsett, Marilyn Menotti-Raymond, S. Scott Whitmore, Todd E. Scheetz, Victor A. David, Stephen J. O'Brien, Zhongyuan Zhao, Jackie K. Jens, Elizabeth M. Snella, N. Matthew Ellinwood, Gillian J. Mclellan

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The glaucomas are a group of diseases characterized by optic nerve damage that together represent a leading cause of blindness in the human population and in domestic animals. Here we report a mutation in LTBP2 that causes primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) in domestic cats. We identified a spontaneous form of PCG in cats and established a breeding colony segregating for PCG consistent with fully penetrant, autosomal recessive inheritance of the trait. Elevated intraocular pressure, globe enlargement and elongated ciliary processes were consistently observed in all affected cats by 8 weeks of age. Varying degrees of optic nerve damage resulted by ...


Photocatalytic Reduction Of Fumarate To Succinate On Zns Mineral Surfaces, Ruixin Zhou, Marcelo I. Guzman Apr 2016

Photocatalytic Reduction Of Fumarate To Succinate On Zns Mineral Surfaces, Ruixin Zhou, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycle is an important central biosynthetic pathway that fixes CO2 into carboxylic acids. Among the five reductive steps in the rTCA cycle, the two-electron reduction of fumarate to succinate proceeds nonenzymatically on the surface of photoexcited sphalerite (ZnS) colloids suspended in water. This model reaction is chosen to systematically study the surface photoprocess occurring on ZnS in the presence of [Na2S] (1–10 mM) hole scavenger at 15 °C. Experiments at variable pH (5–10) indicate that monodissociated fumaric acid is the primary electron acceptor forming the monoprotic form of succinic acid ...


Metabolomics Reveals New Mechanisms For Pathogenesis In Barth Syndrome And Introduces Novel Roles For Cardiolipin In Cellular Function, Yana Sandlers, Kelly Mercier, Wimal Pathmasiri, Jim Carlson, Susan Mcritchie, Susan Sumner, Hilary J. Vernon Mar 2016

Metabolomics Reveals New Mechanisms For Pathogenesis In Barth Syndrome And Introduces Novel Roles For Cardiolipin In Cellular Function, Yana Sandlers, Kelly Mercier, Wimal Pathmasiri, Jim Carlson, Susan Mcritchie, Susan Sumner, Hilary J. Vernon

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Barth Syndrome is the only known Mendelian disorder of cardiolipin remodeling, with characteristic clinical features of cardiomyopathy, skeletal myopathy, and neutropenia. While the primary biochemical defects of reduced mature cardiolipin and increased monolysocardiolipin are well-described, much of the downstream biochemical dysregulation has not been uncovered, and biomarkers are limited. In order to further expand upon the knowledge of the biochemical abnormalities in Barth Syndrome, we analyzed metabolite profiles in plasma from a cohort of individuals with Barth Syndrome compared to age-matched controls via 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A clear distinction between metabolite profiles of ...


The Dual Regulatory Role Of Amino Acids Leu480 And Gln481 Of Prothrombin, Joesph R. Wiencek, Jamila Hirbawi, Vivien C. Yee, Michael Kalafatis Jan 2016

The Dual Regulatory Role Of Amino Acids Leu480 And Gln481 Of Prothrombin, Joesph R. Wiencek, Jamila Hirbawi, Vivien C. Yee, Michael Kalafatis

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Prothrombin (FII) is activated to α-thrombin (IIa) by prothrombinase. Prothrombinase is composed of a catalytic subunit, factor Xa (fXa), and a regulatory subunit, factor Va (fVa), assembled on a membrane surface in the presence of divalent metal ions. We constructed, expressed, and purified several mutated recombinant FII (rFII) molecules within the previously determined fVa-dependent binding site for fXa (amino acid region 473–487 of FII). rFII molecules bearing overlapping deletions within this significant region first established the minimal stretch of amino acids required for the fVa-dependent recognition exosite for fXa in prothrombinase within the amino acid sequence Ser478–Val ...


It Is All About (U)Biquitin: Role Of Altered Ubiquitin-Proteasome System And Uchl1 In Alzheimer Disease, Antonella Tramutola, Fabio Di Domenico, Eugenio Barone, Marzia Perluigi, D. Allan Butterfield Jan 2016

It Is All About (U)Biquitin: Role Of Altered Ubiquitin-Proteasome System And Uchl1 In Alzheimer Disease, Antonella Tramutola, Fabio Di Domenico, Eugenio Barone, Marzia Perluigi, D. Allan Butterfield

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Free radical-mediated damage to macromolecules and the resulting oxidative modification of different cellular components are a common feature of aging, and this process becomes much more pronounced in age-associated pathologies, including Alzheimer disease (AD). In particular, proteins are particularly sensitive to oxidative stress-induced damage and these irreversible modifications lead to the alteration of protein structure and function. In order to maintain cell homeostasis, these oxidized/damaged proteins have to be removed in order to prevent their toxic accumulation. It is generally accepted that the age-related accumulation of “aberrant” proteins results from both the increased occurrence of damage and the decreased ...


Heterogeneous Oxidation Of Catechol, Elizabeth A. Pillar, Ruixin Zhou, Marcelo I. Guzman Sep 2015

Heterogeneous Oxidation Of Catechol, Elizabeth A. Pillar, Ruixin Zhou, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Natural and anthropogenic emissions of aromatic hydrocarbons from biomass burning, agro-industrial settings, and fossil fuel combustion contribute precursors to secondary aerosol formation (SOA). How these compounds are processed under humid tropospheric conditions is the focus of current attention to understand their environmental fate. This work shows how catechol thin films, a model for oxygenated aromatic hydrocarbons present in biomass burning and combustion aerosols, undergo heterogeneous oxidation at the air–solid interface under variable relative humidity (RH = 0–90%). The maximum reactive uptake coefficient of O3(g) by catechol γO3 = (7.49 ± 0.35) × 10–6 occurs for ...


Reclaiming The Efficacy Of Β-Lactam–Β-Lactamase Inhibitor Combinations: Avibactam Restores The Susceptibility Of Cmy-2-Producing Escherichia Coli To Ceftazidime, Krisztina M. Papp-Wallace, Marisa L. Winkler, Julian A. Gatta, Magdalena A. Taracila, Sujatha Chilakala, Yan Xu, J. Kristie Johnson, Robert A. Bonomo May 2014

Reclaiming The Efficacy Of Β-Lactam–Β-Lactamase Inhibitor Combinations: Avibactam Restores The Susceptibility Of Cmy-2-Producing Escherichia Coli To Ceftazidime, Krisztina M. Papp-Wallace, Marisa L. Winkler, Julian A. Gatta, Magdalena A. Taracila, Sujatha Chilakala, Yan Xu, J. Kristie Johnson, Robert A. Bonomo

Chemistry Faculty Publications

CMY-2 is a plasmid-encoded Ambler class C cephalosporinase that is widely disseminated in Enterobacteriaceae and is responsible for expanded-spectrum cephalosporin resistance. As a result of resistance to both ceftazidime and β-lactamase inhibitors in strains carrying blaCMY, novel β-lactam–β-lactamase inhibitor combinations are sought to combat this significant threat to β-lactam therapy. Avibactam is a bridged diazabicyclo [3.2.1]octanone non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor in clinical development that reversibly inactivates serine β-lactamases. To define the spectrum of activity of ceftazidime-avibactam, we tested the susceptibilities of Escherichia coli clinical isolates that carry blaCMY-2 or blaCMY-69 and investigated the inactivation kinetics of CMY-2 ...


A Loose Domain Swapping Organization Confers A Remarkable Stability To The Dimeric Structure Of The Arginine Binding Protein From Thermotoga Maritima, Alessia Ruggiero, Jonathan D. Dattelbaum, Maria Staiano, Rita Berisio, Sabato D'Auria, Luigi Vitagliano Jan 2014

A Loose Domain Swapping Organization Confers A Remarkable Stability To The Dimeric Structure Of The Arginine Binding Protein From Thermotoga Maritima, Alessia Ruggiero, Jonathan D. Dattelbaum, Maria Staiano, Rita Berisio, Sabato D'Auria, Luigi Vitagliano

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The arginine binding protein from Thermatoga maritima (TmArgBP), a substrate binding protein (SBP) involved in the ABC system of solute transport, presents a number of remarkable properties. These include an extraordinary stability to temperature and chemical denaturants and the tendency to form multimeric structures, an uncommon feature among SBPs involved in solute transport. Here we report a biophysical and structural characterization of the TmArgBP dimer. Our data indicate that the dimer of the protein is endowed with a remarkable stability since its full dissociation requires high temperature as well as SDS and urea at high concentrations. In order to elucidate ...


Insights Into The Roles Of Desolvation And Π-Electron Interactions During Dna Polymerization, Edward A. Motea, Irene Lee, Anthony J. Berdis Mar 2013

Insights Into The Roles Of Desolvation And Π-Electron Interactions During Dna Polymerization, Edward A. Motea, Irene Lee, Anthony J. Berdis

Chemistry Faculty Publications

This report describes the use of several isosteric non-natural nucleotides as probes to evaluate the roles of nucleobase shape, size, solvation energies, and π-electron interactions as forces influencing key kinetic steps of the DNA polymerization cycle. Results are provided using representative high- and low-fidelity DNA polymerases. Results generated with the E. coli Klenow fragment reveal that this high-fidelity polymerase utilizes hydrophobic nucleotide analogues with higher catalytic efficiencies compared to hydrophilic analogues. These data support a major role for nucleobase desolvation during nucleotide selection and insertion. In contrast, the low-fidelity HIV-1 reverse transcriptase discriminates against hydrophobic analogues and only tolerates non-natural ...


Voltage-Controlled Enzyme-Catalyzed Glucose–Gluconolactone Conversion Using A Field-Effect Enzymatic Detector, Siu Tung Yau, Yan Xu, Yang Song, Ye Feng, Jiapeng Wang Jan 2013

Voltage-Controlled Enzyme-Catalyzed Glucose–Gluconolactone Conversion Using A Field-Effect Enzymatic Detector, Siu Tung Yau, Yan Xu, Yang Song, Ye Feng, Jiapeng Wang

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The field-effect enzymatic detection (FEED) technique was used to control the kinetics of the enzymatic conversion of glucose to gluconolactone. The glucose–gluconolactone conversion occurring at an enzyme-immobilized electrode, a well-studied process, was confirmed using mass spectrometry. Electrochemical studies showed that the glucose oxidation current depends on the gating voltage VG and the ion concentration of the sample solution. Additionally, the depletion of glucose in the sample also showed a dependence on VG. FEED was used to detect H2O2 on the zepto-molar level in order to show the ultrasensitive detection capability of the technique. These results, while providing evidence for ...


Structurally Diverse Hamigerans From The New Zealand Marine Sponge Hamigera Tarangaensis: Nmr-Directed Isolation, Structure Elucidation And Antifungal Activity, A. Jonathan Singh, Jonathan D. Dattelbaum, Jessica J. Field, Zlatka Smart, Ethan F. Woolly, Jacqueline M. Barber, Rosemary Heathcott, John H. Miller, Peter T. Northcote Jan 2013

Structurally Diverse Hamigerans From The New Zealand Marine Sponge Hamigera Tarangaensis: Nmr-Directed Isolation, Structure Elucidation And Antifungal Activity, A. Jonathan Singh, Jonathan D. Dattelbaum, Jessica J. Field, Zlatka Smart, Ethan F. Woolly, Jacqueline M. Barber, Rosemary Heathcott, John H. Miller, Peter T. Northcote

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The NMR-directed investigation of the New Zealand marine sponge Hamigera tarangaensis has afforded ten new compounds of the hamigeran family, and a new 13-epi-verrucosane congener. Notably, hamigeran F (6) possesses an unusual carbon–carbon bond between C-12 and C-13, creating an unprecedented skeleton within this class. In particular, the structural features of 6, hamigeran H (10) and hamigeran J (12) imply a diterpenoid origin, which has allowed the putative biogenesis of three hamigeran carbon skeletons to be proposed based on geranyl geranyl pyrophosphate. All new hamigerans exhibited micromolar activity towards the HL-60 promyelocytic leukaemic cell line, and hamigeran ...


Periplasmic Binding Proteins In Thermophiles: Characterization And Potential Application Of An Arginine-Binding Protein From Thermotoga Maritima: A Brief Thermo-Story, Alessio Ausili, Maria Staiano, Jonathan D. Dattelbaum, Antonio Varriale, Alessandro Capo, Sabato D'Auria Jan 2013

Periplasmic Binding Proteins In Thermophiles: Characterization And Potential Application Of An Arginine-Binding Protein From Thermotoga Maritima: A Brief Thermo-Story, Alessio Ausili, Maria Staiano, Jonathan D. Dattelbaum, Antonio Varriale, Alessandro Capo, Sabato D'Auria

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Arginine-binding protein from the extremophile Thermotoga maritima is a 27.7 kDa protein possessing the typical two-domain structure of the periplasmic binding proteins family. The protein is characterized by a very high specificity and affinity to bind to arginine, also at high temperatures. Due to its features, this protein could be taken into account as a potential candidate for the design of a biosensor for arginine. It is important to investigate the stability of proteins when they are used for biotechnological applications. In this article, we review the structural and functional features of an arginine-binding protein from the extremophile Thermotoga ...


Spectroscopic Analysis Of Polymerization And Exonuclease Proofreading By A High-Fidelity Dna Polymerase During Translesion Dna Synthesis, Babho Devadoss, Irene Lee, Anthony J. Berdis Jan 2013

Spectroscopic Analysis Of Polymerization And Exonuclease Proofreading By A High-Fidelity Dna Polymerase During Translesion Dna Synthesis, Babho Devadoss, Irene Lee, Anthony J. Berdis

Chemistry Faculty Publications

High fidelity DNA polymerases maintain genomic fidelity through a series of kinetic steps that include nucleotide binding, conformational changes, phosphoryl transfer, polymerase translocation, and nucleotide excision. Developing a comprehensive understanding of how these steps are coordinated during correct and pro-mutagenic DNA synthesis has been hindered due to lack of spectroscopic nucleotides that function as efficient polymerase substrates. This report describes the application of a non-natural nucleotide designated 5-naphthyl-indole-2′-deoxyribose triphosphate which behaves as a fluorogenic substrate to monitor nucleotide incorporation and excision during the replication of normal DNA versus two distinct DNA lesions (cyclobutane thymine dimer and an abasic site ...


Exploring The Role Of A Conserved Class A Residue In The Ω-Loop Of Kpc-2 Β-Lactamase: A Mechanism For Ceftazidime Hydrolysis Sep 2012

Exploring The Role Of A Conserved Class A Residue In The Ω-Loop Of Kpc-2 Β-Lactamase: A Mechanism For Ceftazidime Hydrolysis

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Gram-negative bacteria harboring KPC-2, a class A β-lactamase, are resistant to all β-lactam antibiotics and pose a major public health threat. Arg-164 is a conserved residue in all class A β-lactamases and is located in the solvent-exposed Ω-loop of KPC-2. To probe the role of this amino acid in KPC-2, we performed site-saturation mutagenesis. When compared with wild type, 11 of 19 variants at position Arg-164 in KPC-2 conferred increased resistance to the oxyimino-cephalosporin, ceftazidime (minimum inhibitory concentration; 32→128 mg/liter) when expressed in Escherichia coli. Using the R164S variant of KPC-2 as a representative β-lactamase for more detailed ...


Understanding The Molecular Determinants Of Substrate And Inhibitor Specificities In The Carbapenemase Kpc-2: Exploring The Roles Of Arg220 And Glu276 Aug 2012

Understanding The Molecular Determinants Of Substrate And Inhibitor Specificities In The Carbapenemase Kpc-2: Exploring The Roles Of Arg220 And Glu276

Chemistry Faculty Publications

β-Lactamases are important antibiotic resistance determinants expressed by bacteria. By studying the mechanistic properties of β-lactamases, we can identify opportunities to circumvent resistance through the design of novel inhibitors. Comparative amino acid sequence analysis of class A β-lactamases reveals that many enzymes possess a localized positively charged residue (e.g., R220, R244, or R276) that is critical for interactions with β-lactams and β-lactamase inhibitors. To better understand the contribution of these residues to the catalytic process, we explored the roles of R220 and E276 in KPC-2, a class A β-lactamase that inactivates carbapenems and β-lactamase inhibitors. Our study reveals that ...


Removal Of Uracil By Uracil Dna Glycosylase Limits Pemetrexed Cytotoxicity: Overriding The Limit With Methoxyamine To Inhibit Base Excision Repair, A. D. Bulgar, L. D. Weeks, Y. Miao, S. Yang, Yan Xu, C. Guo, S. Markowitz, N. Oleinick, S. L. Gerson, Lili Liu Jan 2012

Removal Of Uracil By Uracil Dna Glycosylase Limits Pemetrexed Cytotoxicity: Overriding The Limit With Methoxyamine To Inhibit Base Excision Repair, A. D. Bulgar, L. D. Weeks, Y. Miao, S. Yang, Yan Xu, C. Guo, S. Markowitz, N. Oleinick, S. L. Gerson, Lili Liu

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) specifically removes uracil bases from DNA, and its repair activity determines the sensitivity of the cell to anticancer agents that are capable of introducing uracil into DNA. In the present study, the participation of UDG in the response to pemetrexed-induced incorporation of uracil into DNA was studied using isogenic human tumor cell lines with or without UDG (UDG+/+/UDG−/−). UDG−/− cells were very sensitive to pemetrexed. Cell killing by pemetrexed was associated with genomic uracil accumulation, stalled DNA replication, and catastrophic DNA strand breaks. By contrast, UDG+/+ cells were >10 times more resistant to pemetrexed due ...


Development Of A ‘Clickable’ Non-Natural Nucleotide To Visualize The Replication Of Non-Instructional Dna Lesions, Edward A. Motea, Irene Lee, Anthony J. Berdis Jan 2012

Development Of A ‘Clickable’ Non-Natural Nucleotide To Visualize The Replication Of Non-Instructional Dna Lesions, Edward A. Motea, Irene Lee, Anthony J. Berdis

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The misreplication of damaged DNA is an important biological process that produces numerous adverse effects on human health. This report describes the synthesis and characterization of a non-natural nucleotide, designated 3-ethynyl-5-nitroindolyl-2′-deoxyriboside triphosphate (3-Eth-5-NITP), as a novel chemical reagent that can probe and quantify the misreplication of damaged DNA. We demonstrate that this non-natural nucleotide is efficiently inserted opposite an abasic site, a commonly formed and potentially mutagenic non-instructional DNA lesion. The strategic placement of the ethynyl moiety allows the incorporated nucleoside triphosphate to be selectively tagged with an azide-containing fluorophore using ‘click’ chemistry. This reaction provides a facile way ...


Exploring The Roles Of Nucleobase Desolvation And Shape Complementarity During The Misreplication Of O6-Methylguanine, Delia Chavarria, Andrea Ramos Serrano, Ichiro Hirao, Anthony J. Berdis Sep 2011

Exploring The Roles Of Nucleobase Desolvation And Shape Complementarity During The Misreplication Of O6-Methylguanine, Delia Chavarria, Andrea Ramos Serrano, Ichiro Hirao, Anthony J. Berdis

Chemistry Faculty Publications

O6-methylguanine is a miscoding DNA lesion arising from the alkylation of guanine. This report uses the bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase as a model to probe the roles hydrogen-bonding interactions, shape/size, and nucleobase desolvation during the replication of this miscoding lesion. This was accomplished by using transient kinetic techniques to monitor the kinetic parameters for incorporating and extending natural and non-natural nucleotides. In general, the efficiency of nucleotide incorporation does not depend on the hydrogen-bonding potential of the incoming nucleotide. Instead, nucleobase hydrophobicity and shape complementarity appear to be the preeminent factors controlling nucleotide incorporation. In addition, shape complementarity plays ...


The Exonuclease Activity Of Hpmc2 Is Required For Transcriptional Regulation Of The Qr Gene And Repair Of Estrogen-Induced Abasic Sites, N. Krishnamurthy, C. R. Ngam, Anthony J. Berdis, M. M. Montano May 2011

The Exonuclease Activity Of Hpmc2 Is Required For Transcriptional Regulation Of The Qr Gene And Repair Of Estrogen-Induced Abasic Sites, N. Krishnamurthy, C. R. Ngam, Anthony J. Berdis, M. M. Montano

Chemistry Faculty Publications

We have previously reported that the expression of antioxidative stress enzymes is upregulated by trans-hydroxytamoxifen (TOT) in breast epithelial cell lines providing protection against estrogen-induced DNA damage. This regulation involves Estrogen Receptor β (ERβ) recruitment to the Electrophile Response Element (EpRE) and a novel protein, human homolog of Xenopus gene which Prevents Mitotic Catastrophe (hPMC2). We have also demonstrated that ERβ and hPMC2 are required for TOT-dependent recruitment of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) and Topoisomerase IIβ (Topo IIβ) to the EpRE. Sequence analysis reveals that the C-terminus of hPMC2 encodes a putative exonuclease domain. Using in vitro kinetic assays ...


Epistatic Roles For Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Muts And Dinb (Dna Pol Iv) In Coping With Reactive Oxygen Species-Induced Dna Damage, Laurie H. Sanders, Babho Devadoss, Geraldine V. Raja, Jaime O'Connor, Shengchang Su, Daniel J. Wozniak, Daniel J. Hassett, Anthony J. Berdis, Mark D. Sutton Apr 2011

Epistatic Roles For Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Muts And Dinb (Dna Pol Iv) In Coping With Reactive Oxygen Species-Induced Dna Damage, Laurie H. Sanders, Babho Devadoss, Geraldine V. Raja, Jaime O'Connor, Shengchang Su, Daniel J. Wozniak, Daniel J. Hassett, Anthony J. Berdis, Mark D. Sutton

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is especially adept at colonizing the airways of individuals afflicted with the autosomal recessive disease cystic fibrosis (CF). CF patients suffer from chronic airway inflammation, which contributes to lung deterioration. Once established in the airways, P. aeruginosa continuously adapts to the changing environment, in part through acquisition of beneficial mutations via a process termed pathoadaptation. MutS and DinB are proposed to play opposing roles in P. aeruginosa pathoadaptation: MutS acts in replication-coupled mismatch repair, which acts to limit spontaneous mutations; in contrast, DinB (DNA polymerase IV) catalyzes error-prone bypass of DNA lesions, contributing to mutations. As part of ...