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Mass spectrometry

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Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Image-Charge Detection €“ Novel Instrumentation And Applications, Brandon Lee Barney Oct 2015

Image-Charge Detection €“ Novel Instrumentation And Applications, Brandon Lee Barney

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Image-charge detection is an analytical technique in which a highly-charged particle is detected by the magnitude of the image current that it generates in a detecting electrode. This current is represented as a voltage between the charged particle and the sensing electrode. It is a single particle detection method, ideal for the analysis of large, variable mass particles such as biological cells. Some of the physical properties of Bacillus subtilis spores were explored using different applications of image-charge detection. B. subtilis is a gram-negative spore-forming bacteria that has been shown to exhibit extremophile behavior. The particular extremophile behavior that was ...


Bioinformatic Solutions To Complex Problems In Mass Spectrometry Based Analysis Of Biomolecules, Ryan M. Taylor Jul 2014

Bioinformatic Solutions To Complex Problems In Mass Spectrometry Based Analysis Of Biomolecules, Ryan M. Taylor

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Biological research has benefitted greatly from the advent of omic methods. For many biomolecules, mass spectrometry (MS) methods are most widely employed due to the sensitivity which allows low quantities of sample and the speed which allows analysis of complex samples. Improvements in instrument and sample preparation techniques create opportunities for large scale experimentation. The complexity and volume of data produced by modern MS-omic instrumentation challenges biological interpretation, while the complexity of the instrumentation, sample noise, and complexity of data analysis present difficulties in maintaining and ensuring data quality, validity, and relevance. We present a corpus of tools which improves ...


Bacterial Spores Remain Viable After Electrospray Charging And Desolvation, Sara Nielson Pratt Jun 2013

Bacterial Spores Remain Viable After Electrospray Charging And Desolvation, Sara Nielson Pratt

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The electrospray survivability of B. subtilis spores and E. coli was tested in atmospheric mobility experiments. E. coli did not survive electrospray charging and desolvation, but B. subtilis did. Experimental conditions ensured that any surviving bacteria were charged, desolvated, and de-agglomerated. B. subtilis was also found to survive both positive and negative electrospray and subsequent introduction into vacuum conditions. Attempts were made to measure the charge distribution of viable B. subtilis spores using electrostatic deflection. From those experiments, it was found that either the spores do not become highly charged under the electrospray conditions used or only spores in a ...


Novel Ion Trap Made Using Lithographically Patterned Plates, Ying Peng Jul 2011

Novel Ion Trap Made Using Lithographically Patterned Plates, Ying Peng

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A new approach of making ion trap mass analyzers was developed in which trapping fields are created in the space between two ceramic plates. Based on microfabrication technology, a series of independently-adjustable electrode rings is lithographically patterned on the facing surfaces of each ceramic plate. The trapping field can be modified or fine-tuned simply by changing the RF amplitude applied to each electrode ring. By adjusting the potential function applied to the plates, arbitrary trapping fields can be created using the same set of ceramic plates. Unlike conventional ion traps, the electrodes of planar ion traps have a non-equipotential surface ...


Halo Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry: Design, Instrumentation, And Performance, Miao Wang Nov 2010

Halo Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry: Design, Instrumentation, And Performance, Miao Wang

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New ion trap mass spectrometry (ITMS) instrumentation, the toroidal IT and halo IT, were developed to meet the significant growth in on-site analysis applications. The miniature toroidal IT mass analyzer was operated with radio frequency (RF) trapping voltages of 3 kVp-p or less. Despite its reduced dimensions, it has roughly the same ion trapping capacity as conventional 3D quadrupole ITs. Unit-mass resolved spectra for n-butylbenzene, xenon, and naphthalene were obtained. The desired linear mass scale was obtained using conventional mass-selective instability scan combined with resonance ejection. The halo IT was also based on toroidal trapping geometry and microfabrication technology, consisting ...


Gas Phase Chiral Recognition, Characterization Of Porous Polymer Monolith Nanospray Ionization, And The Negative Mode Crafti Method Using Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry, Nannan Fang Sep 2009

Gas Phase Chiral Recognition, Characterization Of Porous Polymer Monolith Nanospray Ionization, And The Negative Mode Crafti Method Using Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry, Nannan Fang

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Our group has been studying chiral recognition in gas phase using mass spectrometry for more than 10 years. We are interested in gas phase studies of fundamental interactions because the gas phase avoids complications and masking effects that may arise upon solvation. Therefore, the results of gas phase experiments can be directly compared with those of high-level computational studies. In chapter 2, I studied the roles of hydrogen bonding and pi stacking in gas phase chiral recognition between aromatic crown molecules and aromatic amines. High affinity between host and guest doesn't necessarily result in better recognition. If the affinity ...


A Top-Down Proteomic Approach For The Discovery Of Novel Serum Biomarkers Of Pregnancy-Related Disease, Karen Merrell Jul 2009

A Top-Down Proteomic Approach For The Discovery Of Novel Serum Biomarkers Of Pregnancy-Related Disease, Karen Merrell

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The serum fraction of blood is an ideal material in which to search for novel biomarkers for disease. It is easily obtained through relatively non-invasive means, routinely collected, and a rich treasure-trove of information about the health of an individual. Cells react to signal molecules, take up nutrients, and release waste products, fragments that are the result of proteolysis, and other molecules out into the bloodstream. If these components are unique to the cells in question, that part of the complex mixture that is the blood stream can potentially characterize the health of the tissue or organ those cells are ...


Development Of Methods For The Study Of Phosphoproteins, Zhaoyuan Chen Dec 2006

Development Of Methods For The Study Of Phosphoproteins, Zhaoyuan Chen

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Characterization of phosphoproteins-including detection, identification of phosphoproteins and identification of phosphorylation sites-is mostly done with radiolabeling and proteomic techniques. Three main topics related to phosphoprotein characterization are included in this dissertation. First, large-scale characterization of the CHO (Chinese hamster ovary) cell phosphoproteome was done using two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) separation, visualization of phosphoproteins by radiolabeling or a phosphoprotein specific dye, followed by MALDI-TOF identification. Because radiolabeling of phosphoproteins is very sensitive and straightforward to quantify, such analysis can give a clear picture of the relative phosphosphorylation of proteins present in a sample. But there are also limitations to ...


Biochemical Investigations Of Macular Degeneration: The Significance Of Protein Oxidation Including Novel Methods For Its Study, Sarah Warburton Nov 2006

Biochemical Investigations Of Macular Degeneration: The Significance Of Protein Oxidation Including Novel Methods For Its Study, Sarah Warburton

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The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a monolayer of cells located directly behind the photoreceptor cells in the retina. These cells are involved in a variety of functions that support the visual process in the eye, namely 1) they form a blood-retina barrier which separates the neural retina from the choroid's blood supply, 2) the apical processes of RPE cells diurnally phagocytose the outer segments of photoreceptor cells, and 3) they participate in the renewal of the photopigment 11-cis retinal. Age-related macular degneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in people over the age of 50 years in ...


Enhanced Electrospray Ionization For Mass Spectrometry And Ion Mobility Spectrometry, Li Zhou Jul 2006

Enhanced Electrospray Ionization For Mass Spectrometry And Ion Mobility Spectrometry, Li Zhou

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Electrospray ionization (ESI) has become one of the most commonly used ionization techniques for mass spectrometry (MS) and ion mobility spectrometry (IMS), and efforts continue to improve its performance. ESI-MS is most recognized for its wide application to biomacromolecules where high sensitivity is of paramount importance. However, the major limitation in sensitivity with ESI-MS is due to its low ion transmission efficiency from the ESI source into the sampling orifice and through any stages utilized for transfer of ions from atmosphere to vacuum in the MS. A series of atmospheric pressure ion focusing interfaces were designed and implemented to enhance ...