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Liquid chromatography

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Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

High-Performance Polymer Monoliths For Capillary Liquid Chromatography, Pankaj Aggarwal Jul 2014

High-Performance Polymer Monoliths For Capillary Liquid Chromatography, Pankaj Aggarwal

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This dissertation focuses on improving the chromatographic efficiency of polymeric organic monoliths by characterizing and optimizing the bed morphology. In-situ characterization techniques such as capillary flow porometry (CFP), 3-dimensional scanning electron microscopy (3D SEM) and conductivity measurements were developed and implemented to quantitatively characterize the morphology of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) monoliths. The CFP measurements for monoliths prepared by the same procedure in capillaries with different diameters (i.e., 75, 150, and 250 μm) clearly showed a change in average through-pore size with capillary diameter, thus, certifying the need for in-situ measurement techniques. Serial sectioning and imaging of PEGDA ...


Formation, Functionalization, Characterization, And Applications Of A Mixed-Mode, Carbon/Diamond-Based, Core-Shell Phase For High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Landon A. Wiest Sep 2013

Formation, Functionalization, Characterization, And Applications Of A Mixed-Mode, Carbon/Diamond-Based, Core-Shell Phase For High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Landon A. Wiest

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My work has focused on a variety of different types of diamond-based, core-shell particles. These particles are formed with inert cores and poly(allylamine)/nanodiamond shells. Their intended purpose is to form an LC stationary phase that is stable from pH 1 – 14 and at elevated temperatures. At the beginning of my studies, the particles that had been made in the Linford laboratory were pH stable, but irregular and had poor mechanical stability. Since that time, I have worked to improve the particles by using more spherical zirconia and carbon cores, and I have improved their mechanical stability via chemical ...


Microfabrication, Characterization, And Application Of Carbon Nanotube Templated Thin Layer Chromatography Plates, And Functionalization Of Porous Graphitic Carbon, David S. Jensen Nov 2012

Microfabrication, Characterization, And Application Of Carbon Nanotube Templated Thin Layer Chromatography Plates, And Functionalization Of Porous Graphitic Carbon, David S. Jensen

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This dissertation contains the following sections. Chapter 1 contains a detailed description of the theory of thin layer chromatography (TLC). Chapter 2 describes the benefits and practical considerations of elevated temperatures in liquid chromatography (LC). The porous graphitic carbon (PGC) I modified as part of my work is often used in elevated temperature LC. Chapter 3 shows a thermodynamic analysis of chromatographic retention at elevated temperature, and Chapter 4 contains a closer look at the van 't Hoff equation in LC and how it can be used in retention modeling. In Chapter 5, I describe a new procedure for microfabricating ...


Development Of Monolithic Stationary Phases For Cation-Exchange Capillary Liquid Chromatography Of Peptides And Proteins, Xin Chen Feb 2011

Development Of Monolithic Stationary Phases For Cation-Exchange Capillary Liquid Chromatography Of Peptides And Proteins, Xin Chen

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This dissertation focuses on the preparation of polymeric monolithic capillaries for ion exchange chromatography of peptides and proteins, since polymeric monoliths have shown promise for providing improved protein separations. Characteristics of monolithic columns include low back pressure, simplicity of fabrication and biocompatibility. Preparation of strong and weak cation-exchange monolithic stationary phases in 75 μm I.D. capillaries by direct in situ copolymerization was achieved using various functional monomers including sulfopropyl methacrylate, phosphoric acid 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, bis[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl] phosphate and 2-carboxyethyl acrylate with polyethylene glycol diacrylate and other PEG materials. The resulting monoliths provided excellent ion exchange capillary LC ...


Microchip Liquid Chromatography And Capillary Electrophoresis Separations In Multilayer Microdevices, Hernan Vicente Fuentes Nov 2007

Microchip Liquid Chromatography And Capillary Electrophoresis Separations In Multilayer Microdevices, Hernan Vicente Fuentes

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In this dissertation, several microfabricated devices are introduced to develop new applications in the area of chemical analysis. Electrochemical micropumps, chip-based liquid chromatography systems and multilayer capillary electrophoresis microdevices with crossover channels were fabricated using various substrates such as poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), glass, and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). I have demonstrated pressure-driven pumping of liquids in microfabricated channels using electrochemical actuation. PDMS-based micropumps were integrated easily with channel-containing PMMA substrates. Flow rates on the order of ~10 µL/min were achieved using low voltages (10 V). The potential of electrolysis-based pumping in microchannels was further evaluated for pressure driven microchip ...


Investigation Of Novel Microseparation Techniques, Yansheng Liu Apr 2007

Investigation Of Novel Microseparation Techniques, Yansheng Liu

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Ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) makes it possible to use very small particles (< 2 µm) as packing materials to provide high column efficiencies. Results from a careful comparison of small porous and nonporous particles show that when the particle size is small enough (< 2 µm), both porous and nonporous particles give excellent performance, and the differences in column efficiencies between porous and nonporous particles become insignificant. Columns packed with bare diamond particles could separate small molecules, especially polar molecules, however, severe tailing occurred for less polar compounds. The polybutadiene coated diamond particles gave greater retention and better separation of small molecules compared to bare particles, although no improvement in column efficiency was observed. Changes in surface bonding of thermally hydrogenated diamond particles was achieved by chemical modification using various organic peroxides with or without reagents containing long carbon chain functional groups. It appears that the alkyl groups were attached onto the diamond surface with limited coverage. LC experiments did not demonstrate good separation; however, changes in LC behavior were observed. A repetitive solvent programming approach was successfully applied to the analysis of a continuous sample stream in microbore LC. Each analysis cycle consisted of three steps: pseudo-injection, elution and rinse. In the pseudo-injection step, elution with a non- or poor-eluting solvent produced a concentrated sample plug due to on-column focusing. Factors influencing peak symmetry, resolution and analysis cycle length were investigated. Quantitative analysis of a continuous sample stream is possible under certain operating conditions. Electric field gradient focusing (EFGF) devices with distributed resistor substrates could focus proteins in the separation channel, however, the focused bands were not stable, and the repeatability was poor due to the formation of bubbles and pH gradient in the separation channel. Both fiber-based and porous glass capillary-based planar EFGF devices with changing cross-sectional area (CCSA) channels were constructed and evaluated with the aid of a home-made scanning laser-induced fluorescence detection system. The fiber-based CCSA EFGF devices gave poorer performance compared with glass capillary based devices. Porous glass capillary-based EFGF devices could focus single proteins and separate mixtures of two to three proteins.


Development Of Polymer Monoliths For The Analysis Of Peptides And Proteins, Binghe Gu Dec 2006

Development Of Polymer Monoliths For The Analysis Of Peptides And Proteins, Binghe Gu

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Several novel polymer monoliths for the analysis of peptides and proteins were synthesized using polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) as crosslinker. Photo-initiated copolymerization of polyethylene glycol methyl ether acrylate and PEGDA yielded an inert monolith that could be used for size exclusion liquid chromatography of peptides and proteins. This macroscopically uniform monolith did not shrink or swell in either water or tetrahydrofuran. More importantly, it was found to resist adsorption of both acidic and basic proteins in aqueous buffer without any organic solvent additives. A strong cation-exchange polymer monolith was synthesized by copolymerization of 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS) and PEGDA. A ternary ...


Capillary Liquid Chromatography Using Micro Size Particles, Yanqiao Xiang Jul 2004

Capillary Liquid Chromatography Using Micro Size Particles, Yanqiao Xiang

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High speed and/or high efficiency separations can be realized using small particles (~ 1 µm) in liquid chromatography (LC). However, due to the large pressure drop caused by small particles, conventional LC pumping systems cannot satisfy the pressure requirements needed to drive the mobile phase through the column. Use of ultrahigh pressure, elevated temperature, or both can overcome these pressure limitations and allow the use of very small particles for high speed and/or high efficiency separations.

In this dissertation, the use of ultrahigh pressures with and without elevated temperatures in capillary LC is described. Very fast separations of various ...