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Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Placental ‘€˜Omics’€™ Study To Understand The Pathogenesis Of Preeclampsia, Komal Kedia May 2016

Placental ‘€˜Omics’€™ Study To Understand The Pathogenesis Of Preeclampsia, Komal Kedia

All Theses and Dissertations

Preeclampsia (PE) is a potentially fatal complication of pregnancy characterized by an increase in blood pressure (>140/90 mmHg) and proteinuria (>300 mg/24 hrs), often accompanied by edema. Symptoms of PE start after 20 weeks of gestation. If PE remains untreated, it can lead to eclampsia, grand-mal seizures responsible for most fatalities. PE is believed to affect 2-10% of pregnancies worldwide, and claims the lives of over 75,000 mothers and 500,000 newborns yearly. No therapeutic agents have been developed to prevent or cure PE. Part of the reason for this is the absence of a complete understanding ...


Development And Application Of New Solid-State Models For Low-Energy Vibrations, Lattice Defects, Entropies Of Mixing, And Magnetic Properties, Jacob M. Schliesser Mar 2016

Development And Application Of New Solid-State Models For Low-Energy Vibrations, Lattice Defects, Entropies Of Mixing, And Magnetic Properties, Jacob M. Schliesser

All Theses and Dissertations

Low-temperature heat capacity data contain information on the physical properties of materials, and new models continue to be developed to aid in the analysis and interpretation of heat capacity data into physically meaningful properties. This work presents the development of two such models and their application to real material systems. Equations describing low-energy vibrational modes with a gap in the density of states (DOS) have been derived and tested on several material systems with known gaps in the DOS, and the origins of such gaps in the DOS are presented. Lattice vacancies have been shown to produce a two-level system ...


14-3-3Ζ Regulation Of Metastasis Through Mediation Of Liprin-Α And Liprin-Β, Rachel Hynes Mar 2016

14-3-3Ζ Regulation Of Metastasis Through Mediation Of Liprin-Α And Liprin-Β, Rachel Hynes

All Theses and Dissertations

Cancer is a set of varied and diverse diseases that share common characteristics, such as active proliferation, increased replicative potential, and tissue invasion or metastasis. One protein, 14-3-3ζ, is shown to be upregulated in a number of different cancers and also correlates with poor patient prognosis, recurrence, and mortality. This protein comes from a family of adapter proteins known for their scaffolding ability, pro- and anti-oncogenic capabilities, and affinity for phosphorylated substrates. It has been shown previously to participate in cancer progression, subversion of apoptosis, and to increase chemoresistance. Herein we will discuss the ability of 14-3-3ζ to promote distant-site ...


Image-Charge Detection €“ Novel Instrumentation And Applications, Brandon Lee Barney Oct 2015

Image-Charge Detection €“ Novel Instrumentation And Applications, Brandon Lee Barney

All Theses and Dissertations

Image-charge detection is an analytical technique in which a highly-charged particle is detected by the magnitude of the image current that it generates in a detecting electrode. This current is represented as a voltage between the charged particle and the sensing electrode. It is a single particle detection method, ideal for the analysis of large, variable mass particles such as biological cells. Some of the physical properties of Bacillus subtilis spores were explored using different applications of image-charge detection. B. subtilis is a gram-negative spore-forming bacteria that has been shown to exhibit extremophile behavior. The particular extremophile behavior that was ...


Histone Deacetylase 6 (Hdac6) Is Critical For Tumor Cell Survival And Promotes The Pro-Survival Activity Of 14-3-3Ζ Viadeacetylation Of Lysines Within The14-3-3Ζ Binding Pocket, Jeffrey Benjamin Mortenson Jul 2015

Histone Deacetylase 6 (Hdac6) Is Critical For Tumor Cell Survival And Promotes The Pro-Survival Activity Of 14-3-3Ζ Viadeacetylation Of Lysines Within The14-3-3Ζ Binding Pocket, Jeffrey Benjamin Mortenson

All Theses and Dissertations

Our understanding of non-histone acetylation as a means of cellular regulation is in its infancy. Using a mass spectrometry approach we identified acetylated lysine residues and monitored acetylation changes across the proteome as a consequence of metabolic stress (hypoxia). We observed changes in acetylation status of non-histone lysines in tumor cells. Through the use of small molecule inhibitors of histone deacetylase enzymes (HDACs) and siRNA screening identified HDAC6 as a pro-survival regulator of lysine acetylation during hypoxia. The phospho-binding protein 14-3-3ζ acts as a signaling hub controlling a network of interacting partners and oncogenic pathways. We show here that lysines ...


Analytical Approaches In Investigating The Kinetics Of Water-Molecule Complexes In Tropospheric Reactions, William J. Keeton Jul 2015

Analytical Approaches In Investigating The Kinetics Of Water-Molecule Complexes In Tropospheric Reactions, William J. Keeton

All Theses and Dissertations

Ozone is a heavily monitored pollutant. Ozone is not directly emitted into the atmosphere, but rather the product of chemical reactions. Ground level ozone occurs when nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) react with each other in the presence of sunlight. The primary precursors of ozone are anthropogenically emitted, and as a result, tropospheric ozone has cost millions of dollars in damages and has hurt the health of countless people. This dissertation is a collection of work that aims to provide insight into atmospheric reactions that result in tropospheric ozone and the instrumentation to study such reactions. While ...


A Study Of Allylic Aminations As Catalyzed By Heterobimetallic Pd-Ti Complexes, Diana Lauren Ellis Jun 2015

A Study Of Allylic Aminations As Catalyzed By Heterobimetallic Pd-Ti Complexes, Diana Lauren Ellis

All Theses and Dissertations

Heterobimetallic complexes present a unique approach to catalyzing challenging reactions. By having two metals in close proximity to each other, the metals are able to interact and alter their electronics in a way that simple organic ligands (carbon, nitrogen, sulfur etc.) cannot. Our studies of heterobimetallic complexes focus on a Pd–Ti complex. The complex features a dative interaction between the palladium and the titanium held together by a phosphonamide scaffold. This interaction increases the electrophilicity of the palladium and makes it a very suitable catalyst for allylic amination reactions. We have conducted extensive studies of this catalyst in allylic ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Carbonized Poly (Divinylbenzene) Microspheres For Carbon/Nanodiamond/Polymer-Based Core-Shell Materials And Applications Of This Mixed-Mode Phase To High-Performance Liquid Chromatography, Chuan-Hsi Hung May 2015

Synthesis And Characterization Of Carbonized Poly (Divinylbenzene) Microspheres For Carbon/Nanodiamond/Polymer-Based Core-Shell Materials And Applications Of This Mixed-Mode Phase To High-Performance Liquid Chromatography, Chuan-Hsi Hung

All Theses and Dissertations

This work focuses on improving the quality of carbon-based core-shell materials for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) via the characterization of the core materials, and also the development of chromatographic methods (separations) for them. In the early part of this work, I applied organic synthesis to make uniform, spherical poly(divinylbenzene) (PDVB) microspheres, and then carbonized them to prepare carbon core materials for core-shell particle synthesis. Here, I studied in detail the surface and material properties of these particles with multiple instruments, which allowed me to describe the physical and chemical changes that took place during each treatment. The uniform ...


Immunoassays Of Potential Cancer Biomarkers In Microfluidic Devices, Jayson Virola Pagaduan Mar 2015

Immunoassays Of Potential Cancer Biomarkers In Microfluidic Devices, Jayson Virola Pagaduan

All Theses and Dissertations

Laboratory test results are important in making decisions regarding a patient's diagnosis and response to treatment. These tests often measure the biomarkers found in biological fluids such blood, urine, and saliva. Immunoassay is one type of laboratory test used to measure the level of biomarkers using specific antibodies. Microfluidics offer several advantages such as speed, small sample volume requirement, portability, integration, and automation. These advantages are motivating to develop microfluidic platforms of conventional laboratory tests. I have fabricated polymer microfluidic devices and developed immunoassays on-chip for potential cancer markers. Silicon template devices were fabricated using standard photolithographic techniques. The ...


Fluorescence Imaging Of Analyte Profiles In An Inductively Coupled Plasma With Laser Ablation As A Sample Introduction Source, Lance Moses Jan 2015

Fluorescence Imaging Of Analyte Profiles In An Inductively Coupled Plasma With Laser Ablation As A Sample Introduction Source, Lance Moses

All Theses and Dissertations

Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has risen to among the top tier techniques for the direct analysis of solid samples. However, significant problems remain that must be solved to achieve the full analytical potential of LA-ICP-MS. Inefficient conversion of aerosol to ions within the ICP or transmission through the MS interface may decrease precision, sensitivity, and/or accuracy. Although fundamental mechanisms that govern ion production and transmission have been studied extensively in solution-nebulization (SN) ICP-MS instruments, significant gaps in our understanding remain. Furthermore, it is unclear to what extent differences between the aerosols generated during SN and ...


Microchip Thermal Gradient Gas Chromatography, Anzi Wang Dec 2014

Microchip Thermal Gradient Gas Chromatography, Anzi Wang

All Theses and Dissertations

Although the airbath oven is a reliable heating method for gas chromatography (GC), resistive heating is needed for higher analytical throughput and on-site chemical analysis because of size, heating rate and power requirements. In the last thirty years, a variety of resistive heating methods were developed and implemented for both benchtop and portable GC systems. Although fast heating rates and low power consumption have been achieved, losses in column efficiency and resolution, complex construction processes and difficulties experienced in recovering damaged columns have also become problematic for routine use of resistively heated columns. To solve these problems, a new resistively ...


Fabrication, Characterization, Optimization And Application Development Of Novel Thin-Layer Chromatography Plates, Supriya Singh Kanyal Dec 2014

Fabrication, Characterization, Optimization And Application Development Of Novel Thin-Layer Chromatography Plates, Supriya Singh Kanyal

All Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation describes advances in the microfabrication of thin layer chromatography (TLC) plates. These plates are prepared by the patterning of carbon nanotube (CNT) forests on substrates, followed by their infiltration with an inorganic material. This document is divided into ten sections or chapters. Chapter 1 reviews the basics of conventional TLC technology. This technology has not changed substantially in decades. This chapter also mentions some of the downsides of the conventional approach, which include unwanted interactions of the binder in the plates with the analytes, relatively slow development times, and only moderately high efficiencies. Chapter 2 focuses primarily on ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Complex Molecular Assemblies On Surfaces, Nitesh Madaan Dec 2014

Synthesis And Characterization Of Complex Molecular Assemblies On Surfaces, Nitesh Madaan

All Theses and Dissertations

The research presented in this dissertation is focused on the construction of complex molecular structures on planar gold and silicon dioxide surfaces using a variety of surface modification techniques, along with thorough surface characterization at each modification step. The dissertation is structured into six separate chapters. In Chapter 1, an introduction to the importance and implications of molecular level surface modification, commonly employed surface modification methods, and available surface characterization techniques is presented. Chapter 2 shows applications of novel methodologies for the functionalization of gold surfaces using alkane dithiol self-assembled monolayers and thiol-ene click chemistry. The resulting functionalized gold substrates ...


Chaperone-Mediated Folding And Assembly Of Β-Propeller Proteins Into Cellular Signaling Complexes, Rebecca L. Plimpton Dec 2014

Chaperone-Mediated Folding And Assembly Of Β-Propeller Proteins Into Cellular Signaling Complexes, Rebecca L. Plimpton

All Theses and Dissertations

G protein signaling depends on the ability of the individual subunits of the G protein heterotrimer to assemble into a functional complex. Formation of the G protein βγ (Gβγ) dimer is particularly challenging because it is an obligate dimer in which the individual subunits are unstable on their own. Recent studies have revealed an intricate chaperone system that brings the Gβ and Gγ subunits together. This system includes the cytosolic chaperonin containing TCP-1 (CCT) and a co-chaperone phosducin-like protein 1 (PhLP1). Two key intermediates in the Gβγ assembly process, the Gβ-CCT and the PhLP1-Gβ-CCT complexes, were isolated and their structures ...


Ion Structure And Energetics In The Gas Phase Characterized Using Fourier Transfom Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry, Chad A. Jones Sep 2014

Ion Structure And Energetics In The Gas Phase Characterized Using Fourier Transfom Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry, Chad A. Jones

All Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation, I use Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) to study the structure and energetics of gas phase ions. Infrared multiphoton dissociation spectroscopy (IRMPD) is a technique for measuring the IR spectrum of gas phase ions in a Penning trap. I use this technique to investigate the conformation of cucurbituril complexes, terminal diamines, and protonated amino acids. Cross sectional areas by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (CRAFTI) is a technique developed by the Dearden lab to measure the cross section of gas phase ions. In this work, I further develop a fundamental understanding of ...


Simple, Label-Free And Non-Instrumented Analyte Quantitation By Flow Distance Measurement In Microfluidic Devices, Debolina Chatterjee Aug 2014

Simple, Label-Free And Non-Instrumented Analyte Quantitation By Flow Distance Measurement In Microfluidic Devices, Debolina Chatterjee

All Theses and Dissertations

Rapid determination of the concentrations of molecules related to diseases can provide timely information for treatment options. However, most biomarker quantitation methods require costly and complex equipment. On the other hand, point-of-care systems have less complex instrumentation needs than laboratory-based equipment, but often provide less information; for example, biomarker presence or absence instead of concentration. A complete analysis setup addressing key limitations of both laboratory-based and portable systems is highly desirable. I developed microfluidic devices with visual inspection readout of a target’s concentration from microliter volumes of solution flowed into a microchannel. Microchannels are formed within polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and ...


Synthesis Of 4'-Ester Resveratrol Analogues, Chromium Trioxide Oxidation Of Terpenes, And Synthesis Of Mimics Of (-)-Englerin A, Mark Jeffrey Acerson Aug 2014

Synthesis Of 4'-Ester Resveratrol Analogues, Chromium Trioxide Oxidation Of Terpenes, And Synthesis Of Mimics Of (-)-Englerin A, Mark Jeffrey Acerson

All Theses and Dissertations

4’ -ester analogues of resveratrol were synthesized using reaction conditions developed to produce mono-ester products in the presence of two other unprotected phenols. Basic conditions were employed to deprotonate the most acidic 4’ phenol followed by addition of anhydrides or acid chlorides to give the ester product. The reaction favored 4’-ester formation in polar aprotic solvents with DMSO being the optimal solvent.

(—)-Englerin A is a guaiane-type sesquiterpene containing two ester side chains. Mimics of (—)-englerin A were proposed that retained the ester side chains while replacing the non-polar core with less complicated structures. These proposed mimic cores would ...


High-Performance Polymer Monoliths For Capillary Liquid Chromatography, Pankaj Aggarwal Jul 2014

High-Performance Polymer Monoliths For Capillary Liquid Chromatography, Pankaj Aggarwal

All Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation focuses on improving the chromatographic efficiency of polymeric organic monoliths by characterizing and optimizing the bed morphology. In-situ characterization techniques such as capillary flow porometry (CFP), 3-dimensional scanning electron microscopy (3D SEM) and conductivity measurements were developed and implemented to quantitatively characterize the morphology of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) monoliths. The CFP measurements for monoliths prepared by the same procedure in capillaries with different diameters (i.e., 75, 150, and 250 μm) clearly showed a change in average through-pore size with capillary diameter, thus, certifying the need for in-situ measurement techniques. Serial sectioning and imaging of PEGDA ...


Bioinformatic Solutions To Complex Problems In Mass Spectrometry Based Analysis Of Biomolecules, Ryan M. Taylor Jul 2014

Bioinformatic Solutions To Complex Problems In Mass Spectrometry Based Analysis Of Biomolecules, Ryan M. Taylor

All Theses and Dissertations

Biological research has benefitted greatly from the advent of omic methods. For many biomolecules, mass spectrometry (MS) methods are most widely employed due to the sensitivity which allows low quantities of sample and the speed which allows analysis of complex samples. Improvements in instrument and sample preparation techniques create opportunities for large scale experimentation. The complexity and volume of data produced by modern MS-omic instrumentation challenges biological interpretation, while the complexity of the instrumentation, sample noise, and complexity of data analysis present difficulties in maintaining and ensuring data quality, validity, and relevance. We present a corpus of tools which improves ...


Laser-Induced Fluorescence Imaging Of Calcium And Barium Ion Beams In The Second Vacuum Stage Of A Commercial Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer, Alisa Jane Edmund Jun 2014

Laser-Induced Fluorescence Imaging Of Calcium And Barium Ion Beams In The Second Vacuum Stage Of A Commercial Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer, Alisa Jane Edmund

All Theses and Dissertations

Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometers (ICP-MS) have become the workhorses of many analytical labs over the past few decades. Despite the instruments' high sensitivities and low detection limits there is still a demand for improvements in several aspects of their performance. One area of improvement is in the understanding of "space charge effects" Space charge effects are classified as problems associated with the ion beam. Problems are created when the mutual repulsions of the ions make consistent focusing of the ion beam difficult. This is particularly problematic with samples containing a low concentration analyte contained within a high salt solution matrix ...


Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging: Instrumentation, Optimization And Capabilities, Manan Dhunna Mar 2014

Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging: Instrumentation, Optimization And Capabilities, Manan Dhunna

All Theses and Dissertations

Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass spectrometry Imaging (DESI-MSI) is an area of great interest and a promising tool in the field of chemical imaging. It is a powerful, label-free technique, which can determine, map and visualize different molecular compounds on a sample surface. The amount of information acquired in a single DESI-MSI experiment is enormous compared to other techniques, as it can simultaneously detect different compounds with their spatial distribution on the surface. The experiment can be used to produce two-dimensional and three-dimensional images. Chapter 2 focuses on the design and optimization of the setup for performing DESI-MS imaging on various ...


Facile Synthesis And Characterization Of A Thermally Stable Silica-Doped Alumina With Tunable Surface Area, Porosity, And Acidity, Maryam Khosravi Mardkhe Mar 2014

Facile Synthesis And Characterization Of A Thermally Stable Silica-Doped Alumina With Tunable Surface Area, Porosity, And Acidity, Maryam Khosravi Mardkhe

All Theses and Dissertations

Mesoporous γ-Al2O3 is one of the most widely used catalyst supports for commercial catalytic applications. The performance of a catalyst strongly depends on the combination of textural, chemical and physical properties of the support. Pore size is essential since each catalytic system requires a unique pore size for optimal catalyst loading, diffusion and selectivity. In addition, high surface area and large pore volume usually result in higher catalyst loading, which increases the number of catalytic reaction sites and decreases reaction time. Therefore, determination of surface area and porosity of porous supports is critical for the successful design and optimization of ...


On Chip Preconcentration And Labeling Of Protein Biomarkers Using Monolithic Columns, Device Fabrication, Optimization, And Automation, Rui Yang Feb 2014

On Chip Preconcentration And Labeling Of Protein Biomarkers Using Monolithic Columns, Device Fabrication, Optimization, And Automation, Rui Yang

All Theses and Dissertations

Detection of disease specific biomarkers is of great importance in diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Modern bioanalytical techniques, such as liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LC-MS), have the ability to identify biomarkers, but their cost and scalability are two main drawbacks. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is another potential tool, but it works best for proteins, rather than peptide biomarkers. Recently, microfluidics has emerged as a promising technique due to its small fluid volume consumption, rapidness, low fabrication cost, portability and versatility. Therefore, it shows prominent potential in the analysis of disease specific biomarkers. In this thesis, microfluidic systems that integrate ...


Polymeric Monolithic Stationary Phases For Capillary Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography Of Small Molecules, Kun Liu Jan 2014

Polymeric Monolithic Stationary Phases For Capillary Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography Of Small Molecules, Kun Liu

All Theses and Dissertations

Highly cross-linked monoliths prepared from single cross-linking monomers were found to increase surface area and stability. Therefore, seven cross-linking monomers, i.e., 1,3-butanediol dimethacrylate (1,3-BDDMA), 1,4-butanediol dimethacrylate (1,4-BDDMA), neopentyl glycol dimethacrylate (NPGDMA), 1,5-pentanediol dimethacrylate (1,5-PDDMA), 1,6-hexanediol dimethacrylate (1,6-HDDMA), 1,10-decanediol dimethacrylate (1,10-DDDMA), and 1,12-dodecanediol dimethacrylate (1,12-DoDDMA), were used to synthesize highly cross-linked monolithic columns in 75-µm i.d. capillaries by one-step UV-initiated polymerization using dodecanol and methanol as porogens for reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) of small molecules. Selection of porogen type and concentration was investigated in detail. Isocratic elution ...


Collisional Dynamic Elements Of The Pyrazine - N2o System:Middle And Low J States, La Moyne Tyler Mix Jan 2014

Collisional Dynamic Elements Of The Pyrazine - N2o System:Middle And Low J States, La Moyne Tyler Mix

All Theses and Dissertations

Unimolecular reactions based on the Lindemann - Hinchelwood mechanism are important to understanding combustion and atmospheric processes. The main feature of this mechanism is the energy transfer probability distribution function, P(E',E). We have chosen to study P(E',E) through gas phase collisional dynamics probed with IR transient absorption spectroscopy. Post-collision absorption line widths for the pyrazine-N2O system are used to calculate lab frame translational temperatures. The translational temperatures reveal that collisions with large rotational energy transfer also transfer large amounts of translational energy. For J states >47 the relationship is linear indicating a constant impact parameter. Line widths ...


Synthesis, Characterization, And Application Of High Surface Area, Mesoporous, Stabilized Anatase Tio2 Catalyst Supports, Rebecca Elizabeth Olsen Dec 2013

Synthesis, Characterization, And Application Of High Surface Area, Mesoporous, Stabilized Anatase Tio2 Catalyst Supports, Rebecca Elizabeth Olsen

All Theses and Dissertations

Nanomaterials have attracted substantial attention in the area of catalysis due to the unique properties they exhibit such as high surface areas, intricate pore networks and unique morphologies. TiO2 has attracted attention as a catalyst since the discovery of its high photocatalytic activity by Fuishima and Honda in 1972. Given its high thermal stability, low cost, low environmental impact, and versatility, TiO2 is a widely used commercial catalyst and catalyst support. TiO2 is used in many applications such as photocatalysis is also an excellent support material for noble metals in a number of oxidative synthesis and pollution-control reactions. Though TiO2 ...


Nonlinear Spectroscopic Investigation Of Adsorption To C-18 Model Stationary Phase, Anthony D. Peterson Dec 2013

Nonlinear Spectroscopic Investigation Of Adsorption To C-18 Model Stationary Phase, Anthony D. Peterson

All Theses and Dissertations

Reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) is a commonly used separation technique in chemistry. Nevertheless, the mechanistic interactions at the molecular level among the eluent, analyte, and the stationary phase are not fully understood. Because of this limited understanding, optimization of the separation must be done experimentally. Learning more about molecular interactions should aid in improving separations. We are currently using second-harmonic generation (SHG) spectroscopy to investigate how analytes adsorb to the surface. SHG is a spectroscopic technique that produces signal only at places of non-isotropic symmetry; this typically occurs at surfaces. SHG can be used to produce surface isotherms of test ...


Formation And Analysis Of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles And Zinc Oxide Hexagonal Prisms And Optical Analysis Of Cadmium Selenide Nanoparticles, Jared M. Hancock Dec 2013

Formation And Analysis Of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles And Zinc Oxide Hexagonal Prisms And Optical Analysis Of Cadmium Selenide Nanoparticles, Jared M. Hancock

All Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation, methods to synthesize ZnO are reported. First, zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized with small amounts of transition metal ions to create materials called dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS). We employed a low temperature sol-gel method that produces ZnO nanoparticles of reproducible size and incorporates cobalt, nickel, and manganese ions into the nanoparticles. Conditions were controlled such that a range of amounts of Co, Ni, and Mn were incorporated. The incorporation was tracked by color changes in the white ZnO powder to blue for Co, green for Ni and yellow for Mn. XRD measurements showed the nanoparticles were on ...


Investigation Into The Effects Of Pegylation On The Thermodynamic Stability Of The Ww Domain, Sam S. Matthews Dec 2013

Investigation Into The Effects Of Pegylation On The Thermodynamic Stability Of The Ww Domain, Sam S. Matthews

All Theses and Dissertations

The covalent attachment of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to a protein surface (known as PEGylation), has been demonstrated to increase the serum half-life of therapeutic proteins by reducing kidney clearance and immunogenicity and by protecting against proteolysis. Theses beneficial effects could be further enhanced if PEGylation consistently increased protein conformational stability (i.e. the difference in free energy between the folded and unfolded states). However, the effects of PEGylation on protein conformational stability are unpredictable; PEGylation has been reported to increase, decrease, or have no effect on the conformational stability of medicinal proteins.This thesis details the results of two ...


Ferritin-Based Photo-Oxidation Of Biomass For Nanoparticle Synthesis, Bioremediation, And Hydrogen Evolution, Oscar Petrucci Dec 2013

Ferritin-Based Photo-Oxidation Of Biomass For Nanoparticle Synthesis, Bioremediation, And Hydrogen Evolution, Oscar Petrucci

All Theses and Dissertations

The cell is the basic unit of all living organisms. It is an amazing machine capable of self-replicating, growing, and synthesizing and shuttling thousands of compounds. To perform all of these activities the cell needs energy. The original source of energy for all living beings is the Sun. The energy of the sun is collected by the autotrophs (mostly plants) through photosynthesis and stored in the chemical bonds of carbohydrates and lipids through carboxylic acid intermediates; animals use these compounds to obtain the energy for their cells. Most of the energy extracted by the cell comes from the citric acid ...