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Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Identification Of Novel Δnp63Α-Regulated Mirnas Using An Optimized Small Rna-Seq Analysis Pipeline, Suraj Sakaram, Michael P. Craig, Natasha T. Hill, Amjad Aljiagthmi, Christian Garrido, Oleg Paliy, Michael Bottomley, Michael L. Raymer, Madhavi Kadakia Jul 2018

Identification Of Novel Δnp63Α-Regulated Mirnas Using An Optimized Small Rna-Seq Analysis Pipeline, Suraj Sakaram, Michael P. Craig, Natasha T. Hill, Amjad Aljiagthmi, Christian Garrido, Oleg Paliy, Michael Bottomley, Michael L. Raymer, Madhavi Kadakia

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Publications

Advances in high-throughput sequencing have enabled profiling of microRNAs (miRNAs), however, a consensus pipeline for sequencing of small RNAs has not been established. We built and optimized an analysis pipeline using Partek Flow, circumventing the need for analyzing data via scripting languages. Our analysis assessed the effect of alignment reference, normalization method, and statistical model choice on biological data. The pipeline was evaluated using sequencing data from HaCaT cells transfected with either a non-silencing control or siRNA against ΔNp63α, a p53 family member protein which is highly expressed in non-melanoma skin cancer and shown to regulate a number of miRNAs ...


Microrna Involvement In The Onset And Progression Of Barrett’S Esophagus: A Systematic Review, Reilly J. Clark, Michael P. Craig, Sangeeta Agrawal, Madhavi Kadakia Jan 2018

Microrna Involvement In The Onset And Progression Of Barrett’S Esophagus: A Systematic Review, Reilly J. Clark, Michael P. Craig, Sangeeta Agrawal, Madhavi Kadakia

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Publications

Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is a highly aggressive malignancy that develops from Barrett's esophagus (BE), an intestinal metaplasia of the distal esophagus. microRNAs (miRNAs), short non-coding regulatory RNAs, are frequently dysregulated in BE and are thought to play key roles in the onset of BE and its progression to EAC. miRNAs thus have potential diagnostic and prognostic value and are increasingly being used as cancer biomarkers. This review summarizes the current literature related to miRNAs that are dysregulated in BE within the context of Hedgehog, Notch, MAPK, NF kappa-B, Wnt and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) signaling which are thought to drive ...


Availability Of Fermentable Nutrients Affect Gut Microbiota Composition, Trupthi Mehta Jan 2018

Availability Of Fermentable Nutrients Affect Gut Microbiota Composition, Trupthi Mehta

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Recent studies have increasingly established the role of gut microbiota in human health and disease. Diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, colon cancer, cardiovascular disease and many neurological disorders have been linked to specific gut microbiota composition and disturbances. There have also been attempts in recent years to modulate gut microbial composition with the use of prebiotics and probiotics to promote healthy gut and prevent diseases. This thesis investigates whether the availability of fermentable nutrients high in fiber and antioxidants such as found in green coffee, roasted coffee, and salami infused with various prebiotics altered the composition and abundance of ...


A Novel Method To Analyze Dna Breaks And Repair In Human Cells, Caitlin Elizabeth Goodman Jan 2018

A Novel Method To Analyze Dna Breaks And Repair In Human Cells, Caitlin Elizabeth Goodman

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Microsatellites repeat sequences are prone to forming non-canonical DNA structures and mutations. These areas of the genome can undergo expansions and contractions and are responsible for a variety of inherited neurological and neuromuscular disorders. Hairpin structures formed by trinucleotide repeats can lead to replication fork stalling, and fork collapse causing DNA double strand breaks. Various mechanisms are involved in processing microsatellites including mismatch repair, base excision repair, and crossover junction endonuclease cleavage. These processes, which are supposed to protect the genome, could also be the culprits which are causing mutations. In order to test and study this hypothesis, the use ...


Δnp63Α And Microrna: Leveraging The Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, Andrew J. Stacy, Michael P. Craig, Suraj Sakaram, Madhavi Kadakia Jan 2017

Δnp63Α And Microrna: Leveraging The Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, Andrew J. Stacy, Michael P. Craig, Suraj Sakaram, Madhavi Kadakia

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Publications

The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a cellular reprogramming mechanism that is an underlying cause of cancer metastasis. Recent investigations have uncovered an intricate network of regulation involving the TGFβ Wnt, and Notch signaling pathways and small regulatory RNA species called microRNAs (miRNAs). The activity of a transcription factor vital to the maintenance of epithelial stemness, ?Np63a, has been shown to modulate the activity of these EMT pathways to either repress or promote EMT. Furthermore, ?Np63a is a known regulator of miRNA, including those directly involved in EMT. This review discusses the evidence of ?Np63a as a master regulator of EMT ...


Exploring The Role Of Lipin1 In Mitophagy Process Using Lipin1 Deficient-Egfp Tagged Lc3 Transgenic Mice, Abdullah Ali Alshudukhi Jan 2017

Exploring The Role Of Lipin1 In Mitophagy Process Using Lipin1 Deficient-Egfp Tagged Lc3 Transgenic Mice, Abdullah Ali Alshudukhi

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Lipin1 (phosphatidic acid phosphatase) is a key molecule in the cells with two functions: first, it converts phosphatidic acid into diacylglycerol in the cytosol which in turn makes triglycerides. Second, in nucleus lipin1 acts as a transcriptional factor which regulates the expression of genes involved in the fatty acid oxidation and lipid metabolism. Clinically, Lpin1 gene mutations have been detected in patients with severe rhabdomyolysis accompanied with aggregated and dysfunctional mitochondria in their type II muscle fiber. Previously, we have observed that mice with lipin1 deficiency had aggregated mitochondria and abnormal autophagosomes formations by electron microscopy. The mechanism underlying the ...


Urinary Metabolomics To Detect Polycystic Kidney Disease At Early Stage, Amnah Mahmoud Obidan Jan 2017

Urinary Metabolomics To Detect Polycystic Kidney Disease At Early Stage, Amnah Mahmoud Obidan

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Urinary metabolomics abilities in detection of biological effects (i.e., toxicity, disease) is compounded by high background variability. Previously, we showed mild kidney dysfunction was detectable under the stress imposed by furosemide (diuretic). Here we tested whether furosemide (FUR) can enhance the sensitivity to detect autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) at an early stage. ADPKD is one of the most common inherited renal disorders and is characterized by the growth of numerous cysts in the kidneys. Urinary metabolomics analyses, using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, were conducted in control (WT) and diseased mice (RC) at 7 and 24 weeks ...


Alignment Of Mitotic Chromosomes In Human Cells Involves Sr-Like Splicing Factors Btf And Trap150, Sapna Varia, Divya Cheedu, Michael P. Markey, Keshia Torres-Shafer, Vishnu P. Battini, Athanasios Bubulya, Paula A. Bubulya Jan 2017

Alignment Of Mitotic Chromosomes In Human Cells Involves Sr-Like Splicing Factors Btf And Trap150, Sapna Varia, Divya Cheedu, Michael P. Markey, Keshia Torres-Shafer, Vishnu P. Battini, Athanasios Bubulya, Paula A. Bubulya

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Publications

Serine-arginine-rich (SR) or SR-like splicing factors interact with exon junction complex proteins during pre-mRNA processing to promote mRNA packaging into mature messenger ribonucleoproteins (mRNPs) and to dictate mRNA stability, nuclear export, and translation. The SR protein family is complex, and while many classical SR proteins have well-defined mRNA processing functions, those of other SR-like proteins is unclear. Here, we show that depletion of the homologous non-classical serine-arginine-rich (SR) splicing factors Bcl2-associated transcription factor (Btf or BCLAF) and thyroid hormone receptor-associated protein of 150 kDa (TRAP150) causes mitotic defects. We hypothesized that the depletion of these SR-like factors affects mitosis indirectly ...


Role Of Erk3 In Regulating Rhogdi1-Paks Signaling Axis, Hitham Abdulrahman Aldharee Jan 2017

Role Of Erk3 In Regulating Rhogdi1-Paks Signaling Axis, Hitham Abdulrahman Aldharee

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Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 3 (ERK3) is an atypical protein kinase of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family. In comparison to well-investigated ERK1/2 (classical) MAPKs, much less has been discovered about ERK3 signaling and its cellular functions. Recent studies have shown that ERK3 is overexpressed in various types of cancers such as lung cancer and breast cancer and that ERK3 promotes cancer cell migration and invasion. How ERK3 regulates cancer cell motility and invasiveness, however, is still largely unknown. RhoGTPases, including Rho, Cdc42 and Rac1, play critical roles in regulating cell motility and invasiveness through activating downstream effectors such as ...


Dnp63a Suppresses Cell Invasion By Targeting Rac1 Through Mir-320a, Amjad Ahmed Aljagthmi Jan 2017

Dnp63a Suppresses Cell Invasion By Targeting Rac1 Through Mir-320a, Amjad Ahmed Aljagthmi

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DNp63a, a member of the p53 family of transcription factors, is overexpressed in a number of cancers and known to play a role in proliferation, differentiation, migration and invasion. DNp63a has been shown to regulate several microRNAs that play a role in both development and cancer, but to date there has not been a global analysis of p63- regulated miRNA. Using next-generation sequencing of small RNA from wild type and sip63 transfected HaCaT cells, our laboratory recently identified a number of DNp63a- regulated miRNAs by RNA-Seq studies which may serve as biomarkers of cancer progression. We identified a novel miRNA ...


Erk3 As A Braf-Regulated Tumor Suppressor Is A New Potential Cancer Target In Melanoma, Minyi Chen Jan 2017

Erk3 As A Braf-Regulated Tumor Suppressor Is A New Potential Cancer Target In Melanoma, Minyi Chen

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Melanoma is the highest mortality rate skin cancer and the sixth most common cancer in the U.S..[1, 2] Arising from melanocytes, melanoma is known for frequent mutation of BRAF to its constitutive activation state BRAFV600E, thus over-activating its downstream MAPK targets ERK1/2 and contributing to melanoma progression.[3, 4, 5] ERK3, a less studied MAPK family protein which contributes to promoting lung, breast, cervical, head and neck (HNC) cancer metastasis, has also shown a correlation with upregulation of BRAF.[6, 7, 8, 9] However, the BRAF-ERK3 regulatory mechanism and the function of ERK3 in melanoma are still ...


Pld-Specific Small-Molecule Inhibitors Decrease Tumor-Associated Macrophages And Neutrophils Infiltration In Breast Tumors And Lung And Liver Metastases, Karen M. Henkels, Naveen Reddy Muppani, Julian Gomez-Cambronero Nov 2016

Pld-Specific Small-Molecule Inhibitors Decrease Tumor-Associated Macrophages And Neutrophils Infiltration In Breast Tumors And Lung And Liver Metastases, Karen M. Henkels, Naveen Reddy Muppani, Julian Gomez-Cambronero

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Publications

Phospholipase D-2 (PLD2) has a key role in breast cancer formation and metastasis formation with PLD small inhibitors reducing primary tumor growth. This study aimed to evaluate the importance of targeting PLD on the tumor microenvironment. We provide evidence about the beneficial effect of PLD inhibitors [FIPI (dual PLD1/PLD2) or VU0155072-2 (PLD2 inhibitor)] on avoiding infiltration of tumor-helping macrophages and neutrophils. Tumor growth and metastasis within the primary tumors had low (<20% over controls) PLD enzyme activity. Unexpectedly, we found that the inhibitors also affected PLD2 gene expression and protein albeit at a lesser extent. The later could indicate that targeting both the actual PLD enzyme and its activity could be beneficial for potential cancer treatments in vivo. F4/80 and Ly6G staining of macrophages and neutrophils, respectively, and Arg1 staining data were consistent with M2 and N2 polarization. NOS2 staining increased in xenotransplants ...


Poster: Embryonic Stem Cell Research, Emillie Partridge Apr 2016

Poster: Embryonic Stem Cell Research, Emillie Partridge

Best Integrated Writing

This poster presentation by Partridge provides information about stem cell research and the controversy surrounding it.


Copy Number Variation In Archival Melanoma Biopsies Versus Benign Melanocytic Lesions, Ahmed Mahas, Keerti Potluri, Michael N. Kent, Sameep Naik, Michael P. Markey Jan 2016

Copy Number Variation In Archival Melanoma Biopsies Versus Benign Melanocytic Lesions, Ahmed Mahas, Keerti Potluri, Michael N. Kent, Sameep Naik, Michael P. Markey

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Skin melanocytes can give rise to benign and malignant neoplasms. Discrimination of an early melanoma from an unusual/atypical benign nevus can represent a significant challenge. However, previous studies have shown that in contrast to benign nevi, melanoma demonstrates pervasive chromosomal aberrations. OBJECTIVE: This substantial difference between melanoma and benign nevi can be exploited to discriminate between melanoma and benign nevi. METHODS: Array-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) is an approach that can be used on DNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues to assess the entire genome for the presence of changes in DNA copy number. In this study, high ...


Instability At Trinucleotide Repeat Dnas, Rujuta Yashodhan Gadgil Jan 2016

Instability At Trinucleotide Repeat Dnas, Rujuta Yashodhan Gadgil

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Trinucleotide repeats (TNRs) are sequences prone to formation of non-B DNA structures and mutations; undergo expansions in vivo to cause various inherited neurodegenerative diseases. Hairpin structures formed during DNA replication or repair can cause replication fork stalling and if left unrepaired could cause single or double strand DNA breaks. To test and study this hypothesis we have devised a novel two color marker gene assay to detect DNA breaks at TNRs. By inducing replication stress our results show that TNRs are prone to DNA strand breaks and it is dependent on the repeat tract length. Double strand breaks at structured ...


Biomimetic Production Techniques For Mechanical And Chemical Characterization Of Sucker Ring Teeth Isoform-12 From The Dosidicus Gigas Squid, Marcus T. Grant Jan 2016

Biomimetic Production Techniques For Mechanical And Chemical Characterization Of Sucker Ring Teeth Isoform-12 From The Dosidicus Gigas Squid, Marcus T. Grant

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The unique protein-based structure of Sucker Ring Teeth (SRT) of cephalopods have spurned research into the molecular design, physical characteristics, functionality and mechanical properties to explore biomimetic engineering and biochemical potential for eventual industrial production. Previous research has elucidated the potential for scientific and industrial exploitation. However, much of the previous research focused on the most abundant protein isoform of the sucker ring teeth, suckerin-19 (also known as suckerin-39) from the Jumbo or Humboldt Squid (Dosidicus Gigas). There is little known about the characteristics of the other 37 protein isoforms of Sucker Ring Teeth. Although the other isoforms have similar ...


Functional Characterization Of Cancer-Related Mutations Of Erk3, Hadel Mohammed Alsaran Jan 2016

Functional Characterization Of Cancer-Related Mutations Of Erk3, Hadel Mohammed Alsaran

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Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 3 (ERK3) is an atypical member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family. Recent studies have shown that ERK3 is highly upregulated in multiple cancers, such as lung cancer and colon cancer. Importantly, ERK3 promotes cancer cell migration and invasion by phosphorylating steroid receptor activator 3 (SRC-3), hence upregulating pro-invasive matrix metalloproteinase genes. While the link between ERK3 and cancers has been recognized, little is known about ERK3 mutations in cancer progression. In this study, we have investigated ERK3 mutations on arginine 64 (arginine 64 mutated to cysteine or histidine, R64C or R64H) and leucine 290 (leucine ...


Effects Of Synthetic Ligands On Heterodimer Pairs Regarding Full-Length Human Pparα, Rxrα And Lxrα, Emily Delman Jan 2016

Effects Of Synthetic Ligands On Heterodimer Pairs Regarding Full-Length Human Pparα, Rxrα And Lxrα, Emily Delman

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Nuclear receptor study is critically relevant in therapeutic medicine since the intricate details of disease states pertaining to atherosclerosis and diabetes are poorly understood. Three nuclear receptors of interest regulate target genes pertaining to cholesterol and fatty acid regulation, linking these receptors to therapeutic medicine. The first is the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARa), which resides in liver and muscle, coordinating lipoprotein and fatty acid homeostasis [1]. Cholesterol homeostasis is dictated by the liver X receptor alpha (LXRa), targeting genes pertaining to the kidney, intestine, liver and adipose tissues [2]. A common partner receptor to PPARa and LXRa is known ...


Novel Insight Into The Role Of Lxrα In Metabolic Regulation Via Dna Binding As A Heterodimer With Pparα And As A Homodimer, Andrea M. Klingler Jan 2016

Novel Insight Into The Role Of Lxrα In Metabolic Regulation Via Dna Binding As A Heterodimer With Pparα And As A Homodimer, Andrea M. Klingler

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Liver X receptor a (LXRa) plays a critical role in the maintenance of energy homeostasis within a cell through tight transcriptional regulation of genes involved in metabolism of lipids, glucose, and cholesterol. Although LXRa has been established to function as a heterodimer with the retinoid X receptor a (RXRa), recent studies have determined that LXRa also interacts directly with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor a (PPARa). However, little is known regarding the functionality of this heterodimer, if any exists at all. This study determined that a heterodimer of PPARa and LXRa is capable of binding to candidate response elements in vitro with ...


Adenovirus Entry From The Apical Surface Of Polarized Epithelia Is Facilitated By The Host Innate Immune Response, Poornima L.N. Kotha, Priyanka Sharma, Abimbola O. Kolawole, Ran Yan, Mahmoud S. Alghamri, Trisha L. Brockman, Julian Gomez-Cambronero, Julian Cambronero Mar 2015

Adenovirus Entry From The Apical Surface Of Polarized Epithelia Is Facilitated By The Host Innate Immune Response, Poornima L.N. Kotha, Priyanka Sharma, Abimbola O. Kolawole, Ran Yan, Mahmoud S. Alghamri, Trisha L. Brockman, Julian Gomez-Cambronero, Julian Cambronero

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Prevention of viral-induced respiratory disease begins with an understanding of the factors that increase or decrease susceptibility to viral infection. The primary receptor for most adenoviruses is the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR), a cell-cell adhesion protein normally localized at the basolateral surface of polarized epithelia and involved in neutrophil transepithelial migration. Recently, an alternate isoform of CAR, CAREx8, has been identified at the apical surface of polarized airway epithelia and is implicated in viral infection from the apical surface. We hypothesized that the endogenous role of CAREx8 may be to facilitate host innate immunity. We show that IL-8 ...


Myocardium And Bmp Signaling Are Required For Endocardial Differentiation, Sharina Palencia-Desai, Megan S. Rost, Jennifer A. Schumancher, Quynh V. Ton, Michael P. Craig, Kristina Baltrunaite, Andrew L. Koenig, Jinhu Wang, Kenneth D. Poss, Neil C. Chi, Didier Y.R. Stainier Jan 2015

Myocardium And Bmp Signaling Are Required For Endocardial Differentiation, Sharina Palencia-Desai, Megan S. Rost, Jennifer A. Schumancher, Quynh V. Ton, Michael P. Craig, Kristina Baltrunaite, Andrew L. Koenig, Jinhu Wang, Kenneth D. Poss, Neil C. Chi, Didier Y.R. Stainier

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Publications

Endocardial and myocardial progenitors originate in distinct regions of the anterior lateral plate mesoderm and migrate to the midline where they coalesce to form the cardiac tube. Endocardial progenitors acquire a molecular identity distinct from other vascular endothelial cells and initiate expression of specific genes such as nfatc1. Yet the molecular pathways and tissue interactions involved in establishing endocardial identity are poorly understood. The endocardium develops in tight association with cardiomyocytes. To test for a potential role of the myocardium in endocardial morphogenesis, we used two different zebrafish models deficient in cardiomyocytes: the hand2 mutant and a myocardial-specific genetic ablation ...


Identifying The Amino Acids Important For Hiv Rev-Tubulin Interactions, Bruce E. Dukes Ii Jan 2015

Identifying The Amino Acids Important For Hiv Rev-Tubulin Interactions, Bruce E. Dukes Ii

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The Rev protein is Human Immunodeficiency virus's "switch" from events occurring early in infection to later events. Early in infection, the 13 KDa Rev protein begins to accumulate in the host cell nucleus. Once enough Rev is produced, Rev stimulates a switch in viral gene expression by multimerizing onto nuclear viral RNAs and stimulating their export into the cytoplasm. Multimerization occurs on an RNA structure called the Rev Response Element (RRE). Several Rev monomers bind the RRE and once that threshold is met the Rev-RRE complex is exported out of the nucleus. Once out of the nucleus the Rev-RRE ...


Purification Of Recombinant Δ Np63 Α And Characterization Of Peptide Binding, Amal Abdulah Albati Jan 2015

Purification Of Recombinant Δ Np63 Α And Characterization Of Peptide Binding, Amal Abdulah Albati

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δ NP63α, the primary p63 isoform of the p53 transcription factor family, is a proto-oncogene implicated in non-melanoma skin cancers. Expressed in the basal layer of the epidermis, δ NP63α promotes cell survival and proliferation. Inhibition of this protein could potentially be beneficial in non-melanoma skin cancer patients. The first goal of this project was the purification of recombinant δ NP63α in Escherichia Coli. Recombinant δ NP63α was expressed as GST-δ NP63α followed by GST cleavage using GST trap affinity column chromatography yielding pure δ NP63α The second objective of this project was to test the binding capabilities of peptides ...


Distinguishing Melanocytic Nevi From Melanoma By Dna Copy Number Changes: Array-Comparative Genomic Hybridization As A Research Tool, Ahmed Ibrahim Mahas Jan 2015

Distinguishing Melanocytic Nevi From Melanoma By Dna Copy Number Changes: Array-Comparative Genomic Hybridization As A Research Tool, Ahmed Ibrahim Mahas

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Skin melanocytes can give rise to different benign and malignant neoplasms. Discrimination of an early melanoma from an unusual/atypical benign nevus can represent a significant challenge. However, previous studies have shown that in contrast to benign nevi, melanoma demonstrates pervasive chromosomal aberrations. This substantial difference between melanoma and benign nevi formed the idea of exploiting this difference to discriminate between melanoma and benign nevi. Array-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) is an approach that can be used on DNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues to assess the entire genome for the presence of changes in DNA copy number. In this ...


Profiling Fatty Acid Composition Of Brown Adipose Tissue, White Adipose Tissue And Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue Of Healthy And Diet-Induced Obese Mice, Urszula Osinska Warncke Jan 2015

Profiling Fatty Acid Composition Of Brown Adipose Tissue, White Adipose Tissue And Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue Of Healthy And Diet-Induced Obese Mice, Urszula Osinska Warncke

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Bone marrow adipose tissue (MAT) contains a fat depot of unknown function. Characterization of this tissue in healthy and pathophysiological conditions may be an important step in order to understand MAT contribution to development of osteoporosis and perhaps to develop means to improve bone health by manipulation with a phenotype of MAT. Here we demonstrate that MAT, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and white adipose tissue (WAT) derived from healthy mice differ in fatty acid and phospholipid composition. The profile of MAT changed to resemble a less-metabolically active tissue upon metabolic impairment as seen in diet-induced obesity. Additionally, PPARγ activation alters ...


Effects Of Sleep Deprivation On Performance In A Water Radial Arm Maze (Wram) Task, Saline Hughes Jan 2015

Effects Of Sleep Deprivation On Performance In A Water Radial Arm Maze (Wram) Task, Saline Hughes

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Sleep deprivation causes many adverse effects on work performance. Many experiments in both human and rodent models reveal detriments that sleep deprivation has on learning and memory, including performance in a water radial arm maze (WRAM) task. This study utilizes the modified multiple platform method (MMPM) of sleep deprivation; rats were sleep deprived in order to study memory errors they may make during the WRAM task. The findings indicate that 6 hours of sleep deprivation for 2 five-day week periods did not affect performance in the WRAM task except on the initial day compared to the large platform group. The ...


Improving Dna Quality Using Ffpe Tissues For Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization To Find Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (Snps) In Melanoma, Keerti Potluri Jan 2015

Improving Dna Quality Using Ffpe Tissues For Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization To Find Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (Snps) In Melanoma, Keerti Potluri

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Important classes of benign and malignant neoplasms are composed of melanocytic cells which produce a pigment called melanin. Benign nevi, which are non-malignant melanocytic lesions, can sometimes give rise to malignant melanoma. Melanoma can be a lethal melanocytic neoplasm, a deadly and aggressive form of skin cancer. Finding prognostic or diagnostic markers can be very useful to reduce the deaths caused by melanoma. Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH), a cytogenetic technique, analyzes the whole genome or chromosome for detecting genetic aberrations/variations such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a cancer. formalin fixed paraffin embedded FFPE tissues are usually taken ...


The Effect Of Scalp Tissue On Current Shunting During Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (Tdcs), Mark Patrick Jackson Jan 2015

The Effect Of Scalp Tissue On Current Shunting During Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (Tdcs), Mark Patrick Jackson

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Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) has been used to treat various mental and neurological illnesses. Rodent models have been used to examine physiological changes in the brain after tDCS, as well as to develop safety standards. However, most animal tDCS studies implant an electrode on the brain, potentially altering the path of current during stimulation. Additionally, no studies have been completed specifically examining maximum safe anodal tDCS limits, and a pilot study conducted to determine an electrode montage to examine biological changes of learning and memory from anodal tDCS indicated brain lesion was occurring before a commonly cited lesion threshold ...


Differences In Fecal Metabolite Profiles From Geographically Distinct Populations Of Adolescents, Jessica Moncivaiz Jan 2015

Differences In Fecal Metabolite Profiles From Geographically Distinct Populations Of Adolescents, Jessica Moncivaiz

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Microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract have a variety of functions within the human body. They participate in protection of the host from pathogens, aid in immune system development and regulation, and carry out a variety of metabolic functions. This study focuses on the ability of gut microbiota to create metabolites through the degradation of food products. Using 1H NMR on fecal water extracts, I compared the metabolite profiles of two geographically distinct cohorts: healthy adolescents from Egypt (n=28) and healthy adolescents from the United States (n=14). Multivariate statistical analyses of binned NMR data confirmed that samples separated into ...


Analysis Of Chromatin Accessiblity Of The Human C-Myc Replication Origin, Tu Thien Danh Jan 2015

Analysis Of Chromatin Accessiblity Of The Human C-Myc Replication Origin, Tu Thien Danh

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The best characterized eukaryote replication model is of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Replication origins of S.cerevisiae are 100 to 200 bp in size and contain an essential 11-bp autonomous replicating sequence (ARS) consensus sequence (ACS). The origin recognition complex (ORC) binds to the ACS in order to recruit additional replication factors (Cdt1, Cdc6, MCM, Cdc45) and together they form the pre-replication complex (pre-RC).

Unlike budding yeast, the mammalian cells contain dispersed replication origins in which multiple elements distributed over large distances act as replication start sites. Mammalian DNA replication origins, such as the c-myc origin, contain a DNA ...