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Articles 1 - 30 of 161

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Stochastic Modeling Of Neuronal Transport In Various Cellular Geometries, Abhishek Choudhary Mr., Peter Kramer May 2019

Stochastic Modeling Of Neuronal Transport In Various Cellular Geometries, Abhishek Choudhary Mr., Peter Kramer

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


The Role Of Irf1 In The Brain And In Adaptive Responses Of Astrocytes, Andrew Hoskins Jan 2019

The Role Of Irf1 In The Brain And In Adaptive Responses Of Astrocytes, Andrew Hoskins

Theses and Dissertations

In neurodegenerative diseases, the CNS becomes inflamed through activation of pathways, including the NF-B pathway. Some of the therapies for those diseases target neuroinflammatory pathways. Here, we explore the mechanisms for the upregulation of a subset of genes following a restimulation of the NF-B pathway. We discover that this upregulation occurs independent of IRF1 expression and type 1 interferon signaling. A knockdown of IRF1 using siRNA and an inhibition of JAK proteins using inhibitor AG490 both had no effect on priming. A secreted factor was found to upregulate the expression of both this subset of genes and genes encoding pro-inflammatory ...


Mathematical Modeling Of Nutrient Signaling And Growth In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Amogh P. Jalihal, Pavel Kraikivski, T.M. Murali, John J. Tyson Jun 2018

Mathematical Modeling Of Nutrient Signaling And Growth In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Amogh P. Jalihal, Pavel Kraikivski, T.M. Murali, John J. Tyson

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Inference And Control In Regulatory Genomics, Siddharth Sharma May 2018

Inference And Control In Regulatory Genomics, Siddharth Sharma

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Signaling Through Homomeric And Heteromeric Cannabinoid Cb1 Receptors, Guoqing Xiang Jan 2018

Signaling Through Homomeric And Heteromeric Cannabinoid Cb1 Receptors, Guoqing Xiang

Theses and Dissertations

Cannabis (Marijuana) has multiple effects on the human body, such as analgesia, euphoria and memory impairment. Delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (D9-THC), the active ingredient in cannabis, binds to cannabinoid receptors, seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that mediate a variety of physiological functions. GPCRs were believed to function only in homomeric forms, however, recent findings show that different GPCRs can also form heteromeric complexes that may expand their signaling properties. In this study, we focused on Cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) heteromers with the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) and the Dopamine type 2 receptor (D2R), respectively. We utilized a variety of techniques, such as the ...


Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Dependent Effects Of Nicotine On Hek293t And Hbo Cells, James D. Larsen Jan 2018

Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Dependent Effects Of Nicotine On Hek293t And Hbo Cells, James D. Larsen

Theses and Dissertations

T2R receptors are the classical bitter taste receptors which detect and transduce bitter taste in a subset of taste receptor cells (TRCs). The TRPM5-dependent T2Rs are G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and are linked to G protein, gustducin to initiate an intracellular signaling cascade for the transduction of bitter tastants. Nicotine is bitter. However, at present the transduction mechanisms for the detection of nicotine in are poorly understood. Previous studies from our laboratory using TRPM5 knockout (KO) mice demonstrated that the T2R pathway is insufficient in explaining the taste perception of nicotine. TRPM5 KO mice elicited chorda tympani (CT) taste nerve ...


Decoding The Signaling Of The D2r-2ar Heteromer: Relevance To Schizophrenia, Miao Huang Jan 2018

Decoding The Signaling Of The D2r-2ar Heteromer: Relevance To Schizophrenia, Miao Huang

Theses and Dissertations

Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder affecting ~1% of world population. Two G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs): Gi-coupled dopamine D2 receptor (D2R), and Gq-coupled serotonin 2A receptor (2AR), are targeted by the typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs to treat schizophrenia. These two receptors have been shown to co-localize in brain regions relevant to schizophrenia, including the ventral tegmental area (VTA), striatum, and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Studies in our lab characterized the integrated signaling of the D2R-2AR heteromer and found that both the Gi activity of D2R and the Gq activity of 2AR were potentiated ...


Impact Of Phosphoinositides On Regulation Of K-Atp By Atp And Hydrogen Sulfide, Tyler Hendon Jan 2018

Impact Of Phosphoinositides On Regulation Of K-Atp By Atp And Hydrogen Sulfide, Tyler Hendon

Theses and Dissertations

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) reduces ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury by stimulating adenosine triphosphate (ATP) sensitive potassium channels (KATP) [1-5]. Demonstrating H2S stimulation is unique to KATP, as other inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) channels demonstrate inhibition or are unaffected [6]. We recently showed that H2S inhibits Kir2 and Kir3 by decreasing channel sensitivity to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2 or PIP2) [6]. Here, we test the hypothesis that H2S regulation of Kir6.2, a pore-forming subunit of the KATP channel, is also dependent on PIP2. Using whole-cell patch-clamp we show that H2S increases the activity of Kir6.2 channels expressed ...


Processing Of 3′-Blocked Dna Double-Strand Breaks By Tyrosyl-Dna Phosphodiesterase 1, Artemis And Polynucleotide Kinase/ Phosphatase, Ajinkya S. Kawale Jan 2018

Processing Of 3′-Blocked Dna Double-Strand Breaks By Tyrosyl-Dna Phosphodiesterase 1, Artemis And Polynucleotide Kinase/ Phosphatase, Ajinkya S. Kawale

Theses and Dissertations

DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) containing unligatable termini are potent cytotoxic lesions leading to growth arrest or cell death. The Artemis nuclease and tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase (TDP1) are each capable of resolving protruding 3′-phosphoglycolate (PG) termini of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Consequently, a knockout of Artemis and a knockout/knockdown of TDP1 rendered cells sensitive to the radiomimetic agent neocarzinostatin (NCS), which induces 3′-PG-terminated DSBs. Unexpectedly, however, a knockdown or knockout of TDP1 in Artemis-null cells did not confer any greater sensitivity than either deficiency alone, indicating a strict epistasis between TDP1 and Artemis. Moreover, a deficiency in Artemis, but ...


Chronic Clozapine Treatment Impairs Functional Activation Of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 2 Via An Hdac2-Depedent Mechanism, Travis M. Cuddy Jan 2018

Chronic Clozapine Treatment Impairs Functional Activation Of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 2 Via An Hdac2-Depedent Mechanism, Travis M. Cuddy

Theses and Dissertations

Schizophrenia is a chronic mental disorder affecting millions worldwide. It has no known cure. Current pharmaceutical treatments have shown efficacy in only one of the three symptom clusters of schizophrenia, providing little or no benefit in the other two. Furthermore, the current standard-of-care drugs, known as atypical antipsychotics, carry risks of severe side effects affecting multiple body systems. Most patients opt to discontinue drug therapy within two years of initiation due to lack of efficacy and/or preponderance of adverse effects. Previous findings have shown that chronic usage of atypical antipsychotics causes a 5-HT2A-dependent upregulation of histone deacetylase ...


Capacitive Memory Alters Alternans And Spontaneous Activity In A Minimal Cardiomyocyte Model, Tien Comlekoglu, Seth H. Weinberg May 2017

Capacitive Memory Alters Alternans And Spontaneous Activity In A Minimal Cardiomyocyte Model, Tien Comlekoglu, Seth H. Weinberg

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Code For "Noise-Enhanced Coding In Phasic Neuron Spike Trains", Cheng Ly, Brent D. Doiron Jan 2017

Code For "Noise-Enhanced Coding In Phasic Neuron Spike Trains", Cheng Ly, Brent D. Doiron

Statistical Sciences and Operations Research Data

This zip file contains Matlab scripts and ode (XPP) files to calculate the statistics of the models in "Noise-Enhanced Coding in Phasic Neuron Spike Trains". This article is published in PLoS ONE.


Oncogenic Nelfe Enhances Myc-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinogenesis, Hien Dang, Atsushi Takai, Marshonna Forgues, Yosawat Pomyen, Haiwei Mou, Wen Xue, Debashish Ray, Kevn Ha, Quiad Morris, Timothy Hughes, Xin Wei Wang Jan 2017

Oncogenic Nelfe Enhances Myc-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinogenesis, Hien Dang, Atsushi Takai, Marshonna Forgues, Yosawat Pomyen, Haiwei Mou, Wen Xue, Debashish Ray, Kevn Ha, Quiad Morris, Timothy Hughes, Xin Wei Wang

Hepatobiliary Cancers: Pathobiology and Translational Advances

No abstract provided.


Glypican-3 Targeting Immunotoxins For The Treatment Of Liver Cancer, Bryan D. Fleming, Daniel Urban, Lu Chen, Matthew Hall, Ira Pastan, Mitchell Ho Jan 2017

Glypican-3 Targeting Immunotoxins For The Treatment Of Liver Cancer, Bryan D. Fleming, Daniel Urban, Lu Chen, Matthew Hall, Ira Pastan, Mitchell Ho

Hepatobiliary Cancers: Pathobiology and Translational Advances

No abstract provided.


Hepatocyte-Specific Deletion Of Tristetraprolin Family Of Rna Binding Proteins Result In The Development Of Hepatocellular Carcinomas, Sonika Patial Jan 2017

Hepatocyte-Specific Deletion Of Tristetraprolin Family Of Rna Binding Proteins Result In The Development Of Hepatocellular Carcinomas, Sonika Patial

Hepatobiliary Cancers: Pathobiology and Translational Advances

No abstract provided.


Survival Model Of Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma; Sex As A Biological Variable, Mary A. Phillippi, Justin L. Mott, Cody J. Wehrkamp, Ying Xie, David Oupicky, Ashley M. Mohr, Bailey A. Stringham Jan 2017

Survival Model Of Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma; Sex As A Biological Variable, Mary A. Phillippi, Justin L. Mott, Cody J. Wehrkamp, Ying Xie, David Oupicky, Ashley M. Mohr, Bailey A. Stringham

Hepatobiliary Cancers: Pathobiology and Translational Advances

No abstract provided.


Sh3 And Multiple Ankyrin Repeat Domain 3 (Shank3) Affects The Expression Of Hyperpolarization-Activated Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated (Hcn) Channels In Mouse Models Of Autism, Nikhil N. Shah Jan 2017

Sh3 And Multiple Ankyrin Repeat Domain 3 (Shank3) Affects The Expression Of Hyperpolarization-Activated Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated (Hcn) Channels In Mouse Models Of Autism, Nikhil N. Shah

Theses and Dissertations

SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains 3 (SHANK3) is a multidomain scaffold protein that is highly augmented in the postsynaptic density (PSD) of excitatory glutamatergic synapses within the central and peripheral nervous systems. SHANK3 links neurotransmitter receptors, ion channels, and other critical membrane proteins to intracellular cytoskeleton and signal transduction pathways. Mutations in SHANK3 are linked with a number neuropsychiatric disorders including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Intellectual disability, impaired memory and learning, and epilepsy are some of the deficits commonly associated with ASDs that result from mutations in SHANK3. Interestingly, these symptoms show some clinical overlap with presentations of human ...


Identification Of Expression And Function Of The Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor In Gastrointestinal Smooth Muscle, Alexander T. May Jan 2017

Identification Of Expression And Function Of The Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor In Gastrointestinal Smooth Muscle, Alexander T. May

Theses and Dissertations

In response to ingestion of nutrients, enteroendocrine L cells secrete the incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), to enhance glucose-dependent insulin release. Therapies related to GLP-1 are approved for type 2 diabetes. The GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is expressed in cells of the gastrointestinal tract and elsewhere. In pancreatic beta cells, GLP-1R are coupled to the Gs/cAMP/PKA pathway. The expression and function of GLP-1R in gastrointestinal smooth muscle are not known. Aim. To test the hypothesis that GLP-1 regulates smooth muscle function by acting on GLP-1R expressed on smooth muscle. Methods. Smooth muscle cells (SMC) were isolated and cultured. Expression ...


Characterization Of A Putative Hemolysin Expressed By Sneathia Amnii, A Preterm Birth-Associated Pathogen, Lizette Carrasco, Kimberly Jefferson Jan 2017

Characterization Of A Putative Hemolysin Expressed By Sneathia Amnii, A Preterm Birth-Associated Pathogen, Lizette Carrasco, Kimberly Jefferson

Undergraduate Research Posters

The gram-negative bacteria Sneathia amnii is a poorly-characterized commensal of the female urogenital tract frequently associated with adverse clinical outcomes such as bacterial vaginosis (BV), amnionitis, and preterm labor. To investigate its potential role in virulence, we sought to identify and characterize virulence determinants produced by S. amnii in an effort to better understand the pathogenesis of infectious preterm birth. Through sequencing of the Sn35 genome (type strain of S. amnii), we identified two genes with amino acid sequence similarity and structural similarity to the filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) protein of Bordetella pertussis and its Type Vb transporter. Because S. amnii ...


Evolution Of Protein Complexes In Bacterial Species, Shwetha Hara Sridhar, Wedad Albalawi, Peter Uetz Jan 2017

Evolution Of Protein Complexes In Bacterial Species, Shwetha Hara Sridhar, Wedad Albalawi, Peter Uetz

Undergraduate Research Posters

Protein complexes are composed of two or more associated polypeptide chains that may have different functions. Protein complexes play a critical role for all processes in life and are considered as highly conserved in evolution. In previous studies, protein complexes from E. coli or Mycoplasma pneumoniae have been characterized experimentally, revealing that a typical bacterial cell has on the order of 500 protein complexes. Using gene homology (orthology), these experimentally-observed complexes can be used to predict protein complexes across many species of bacteria. Surprisingly, the majority of protein complexes is not conserved, demonstrating an unexpected evolutionary flexibility.

The current research ...


The Extension Of Rbc Longevity And Functionality In The Prevention Of Graft Versus Host Disease, Shanmuka Gadiraju, Megh Kumar Jan 2017

The Extension Of Rbc Longevity And Functionality In The Prevention Of Graft Versus Host Disease, Shanmuka Gadiraju, Megh Kumar

Undergraduate Research Posters

Given today’s current scientific method of preservation, red blood cells (RBCs) donated or drawn from live humans have a storage life of approximately 42 days, after which the blood will be discarded due to of degradation of the RBCs. The mechanism that drives said degradation is known as oxidative stress, in which the cells’ inability to balance out the creation and excretion of free radicals causes a conformational change in the shape and efficacy of RBCs. In order to counteract the oxidative actions upon the cells, it has been thought that the addition of reducing agents, specifically ascorbic acid ...


Separation Of Blood Mixtures Using Fluorescently Labeled Antibodies, Christopher Ehrhardt, Dani Jabado, Emily Brocato Jan 2017

Separation Of Blood Mixtures Using Fluorescently Labeled Antibodies, Christopher Ehrhardt, Dani Jabado, Emily Brocato

Undergraduate Research Posters

Identifying and analyzing biological mixture samples at a crime scene are of paramount concern for forensic scientists, especially if that type of evidence contains only one cell type. The presence of multiple contributors in a biological evidence sample reduces the probative value of DNA evidence and can sometimes lead to its eventual loss of value. As such, this study was performed in an attempt to examine and evaluate flow cytometry analysis as a means to separate blood mixture samples labeled with fluorescent antibodies. Fluorescein Isothiocyanate (FITC) antibodies were specifically targeted and bound to HLA (Human Leukocyte Antigens) markers present on ...


Separation Of Blood Mixtures Using Fluorescently Labeled Antibodies, Dani Jabado Jan 2017

Separation Of Blood Mixtures Using Fluorescently Labeled Antibodies, Dani Jabado

Undergraduate Research Posters

Identifying and analyzing biological mixture samples at a crime scene are of paramount concern for forensic scientists, especially if that type of evidence contains only one cell type. The presence of multiple contributors in a biological evidence sample reduces the probative value of DNA evidence and can sometimes lead to its eventual loss of value. As such, this study was performed in an attempt to examine and evaluate flow cytometry analysis as a means to separate blood mixture samples labeled with fluorescent antibodies. Fluorescein Isothiocyanate (FITC) antibodies were specifically targeted and bound to HLA (Human Leukocyte Antigens) markers present on ...


The Effect Of Chronic Nutrient Addition From Wastewater On Forest Ecosystems At The Rice Rivers Center, Michael Beck Jan 2017

The Effect Of Chronic Nutrient Addition From Wastewater On Forest Ecosystems At The Rice Rivers Center, Michael Beck

Theses and Dissertations

Wastewater application to land can be a useful tool for mitigating impacts of nutrient enrichment on aquatic systems. A land application treatment system at VCU’s Rice Rivers Center in Charles City County, VA provided an opportunity to study the impact of wastewater addition on the biogeochemistry of forests representative of the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. Nutrient concentrations in throughfall and leachate were measured at Treatment and Control sites to assess differences in nutrient deposition and retention. Wastewater amended plots from the Walter L. Rice education building received 20-fold (N) and 6-fold (P) higher inputs relative to Control plots and plots ...


Force Generation And Contraction Of Random Actomyosin Bundles., Dietmar B. Oelz May 2016

Force Generation And Contraction Of Random Actomyosin Bundles., Dietmar B. Oelz

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Cannabinoid Receptor Interacting Protein Suppresses Agonist-Driven Cb1 Receptor Internalization And Regulates Receptor Replenishment In An Agonist-Biased Manner, Lawrence C. Blumes, Sandra Leone-Kabler, Deborah J. Luessen, Glenn S. Marrs, Erica Lyons, Caroline E. Bass, Rong Chen, Dana E. Selley, Allyn C. Howlett Jan 2016

Cannabinoid Receptor Interacting Protein Suppresses Agonist-Driven Cb1 Receptor Internalization And Regulates Receptor Replenishment In An Agonist-Biased Manner, Lawrence C. Blumes, Sandra Leone-Kabler, Deborah J. Luessen, Glenn S. Marrs, Erica Lyons, Caroline E. Bass, Rong Chen, Dana E. Selley, Allyn C. Howlett

Neurology Publications

Cannabinoid receptor interacting protein 1a (CRIP1a) is a CB1 receptor (CB1R) distal C-terminus-associated protein that modulates CB1R signaling via G proteins, and CB1R down-regulation but not desensitization (Blume et al. [2015] Cell Signal., 27, 716-726; Smith et al. [2015] Mol. Pharmacol., 87, 747-765). In this study, we determined the involvement of CRIP1a in CB1R plasma membrane trafficking. To follow the effects of agonists and antagonists on cell surface CB(1)Rs, we utilized the genetically homogeneous cloned neuronal cell line N18TG2, which endogenously expresses both CB1R and CRIP1a, and exhibits a well-characterized endocannabinoid signaling system. We developed stable CRIP1a-over-expressing and ...


From Seed To Sky: Impacts Of Explosive Compounds On Vegetation Across Spatial And Developmental Scales, Stephen M. Via Jan 2016

From Seed To Sky: Impacts Of Explosive Compounds On Vegetation Across Spatial And Developmental Scales, Stephen M. Via

Theses and Dissertations

Explosive compounds are broadly distributed across the globe as a result of nearly two centuries of munitions use in warfare and military activities. Two explosive compounds have seen disproportionate use; RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) and TNT (2-methyl- 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene), being the most commonly found explosives in the environment. The effects of explosives on biota have been studied in great detail; however, there is a general lack of understanding with regard to broader ecological impacts of these contaminants. My dissertation objective was to follow the impacts of explosive compounds on vegetation across scales. Impacts on vegetation at the ...


High Affinity Block Of Icl,Swell By Thiol-Reactive Small Molecules, Sung H. Park Jan 2016

High Affinity Block Of Icl,Swell By Thiol-Reactive Small Molecules, Sung H. Park

Theses and Dissertations

Ebselen (Ebs) is considered as a glutathione peroxidase (GPx) mimetic and primarily thought to function by scavenging intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Previous to our work, Deng et al. (2010a) demonstrated complete block of ICl,swell with 15 microM Ebs following endothelin-1 (ET-1) induced activation of the current in cardiomyocytes. This block was presumed to take effect mainly via the quenching of ROS. Nonetheless, our work with DI TNC1 astrocytes strongly emphasizes that Ebs might function by an alternative mechanism based on its kinetic profile in blocking ICl,swell. Our experiments showed that 45 nM Ebs can fully ...


Celecoxib Enhances Sorafenib/Sildenafil Lethality In Cancer Cells And Reverts Platinum Chemotherapy Resistance, Timothy A. Webb Jan 2016

Celecoxib Enhances Sorafenib/Sildenafil Lethality In Cancer Cells And Reverts Platinum Chemotherapy Resistance, Timothy A. Webb

Theses and Dissertations

The present studies sought to determine whether the lethality of the drug combination [sorafenib + sildenafil] could be enhanced by the anti-inflammatory agent celecoxib, using ovarian cancer and other tumor cell lines as models. Also, in a dose dependent fashion celecoxib enhanced [sorafenib + sildenafil] lethality in multiple ovarian cancer cell lines. In a dose dependent fashion celecoxib enhanced the ability of [sorafenib + sildenafil] to reduce expression of multiple chaperone proteins in parallel with lower levels of the drug efflux pumps ABCB1 and ABCG2. Over-expression of GRP78 and HSP27 maintained pump expression in the presence of drugs. Cell killing by the 3 ...


Atm Phosphorylates Subunit A Of Pp2a Resulting In Its Nuclear Export And Spatiotemporal Regulation Of The Dna Damage Response, Amrita D. Sule Jan 2016

Atm Phosphorylates Subunit A Of Pp2a Resulting In Its Nuclear Export And Spatiotemporal Regulation Of The Dna Damage Response, Amrita D. Sule

Theses and Dissertations

Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a serine-threonine protein kinase and major regulator of the DNA damage response (DDR). One critical ATM target is protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) known to regulate diverse cellular processes such as mitosis and cell growth as well as dephosphorylation of many proteins during the recovery from the DDR while returning the cell to normalcy. Interestingly, ATM and PP2A are known to form an auto-regulatory yin-yang kinase-phosphatase relationship. Herein, we show that the phosphorylation of the PP2A-Aα structural subunit at S401 by ATM results in nuclear export, which regulates the DDR at multiple levels and affects genomic ...