Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

University of the Pacific

Discipline
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 104

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Evaluating Methods Of Obtaining Male Pheromone From Hymenochirus Sp. Using Analytical Chemistry, Vincent Wing-Kun Leung Jan 2019

Evaluating Methods Of Obtaining Male Pheromone From Hymenochirus Sp. Using Analytical Chemistry, Vincent Wing-Kun Leung

University of the Pacific Theses and Dissertations

Male Hymenochirus sp. frogs are known to release pheromone that attracts females of the same species. Four methods for collecting secretions containing pheromone in Hymenochirus sp. were tested: norepinephrine injection, gonadotropin-releasing hormone injection, homogenization of gland tissue, and electrostimulation of the skin over the breeding gland area. The samples collected were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry. The HPLC chromatograph for the male norepinephrine sample contained a peak at 6.4 min that was not in the female norepinephrine sample HPLC chromatograph. The male norepinephrine sample mass spectrum had a peak of m/z 292.0 not ...


Development Of A Biomarker Panel For Identifying Stressed Marine Mammals, Laura Pujade Jan 2019

Development Of A Biomarker Panel For Identifying Stressed Marine Mammals, Laura Pujade

University of the Pacific Theses and Dissertations

Increasing anthropogenic disturbance in marine ecosystems such as fishing, oil-drilling, and noise pollution can have detrimental effects on the reproduction and survival of apex predators such as marine mammals. Stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, resulting in increased circulating glucocorticoid (GCs) hormones, which alter expression of target genes encoding metabolic enzymes and other mediators of stress. Prolonged HPA axis stimulation may increase catabolism of nutrient stores and suppress immune and reproductive functions, impacting the fitness of marine mammals. GCs measurements are used to identify wild animals experiencing stress. However, these measurements may not be sensitive enough to distinguish between an ...


P62-Dependent Phase Separation Of Patient-Derived Keap1 Mutations And Nrf2, E. W. Cloer, P. F. Siesser, E. M. Cousins, D Goldfarb, D. D. Mowrey, Joseph S. Harrison, S. J. Weir, N. V. Dokholyan, M. B. Major Aug 2018

P62-Dependent Phase Separation Of Patient-Derived Keap1 Mutations And Nrf2, E. W. Cloer, P. F. Siesser, E. M. Cousins, D Goldfarb, D. D. Mowrey, Joseph S. Harrison, S. J. Weir, N. V. Dokholyan, M. B. Major

College of the Pacific Faculty Articles

Cancer-derived loss-of-function mutations in the KEAP1 tumor suppressor gene stabilize the NRF2 transcription factor, resulting in a pro-survival gene expression program that alters cellular metabolism and neutralizes oxidative stress. In a recent genotype-phenotype study, we classified 40% of KEAP1 mutations as ANCHOR mutants. By immunoprecipitation, these mutants bind more NRF2 than wild-type KEAP1 and ubiquitylate NRF2, but are incapable of promoting NRF2 degradation. BioID-based protein interaction studies confirmed increased abundance of NRF2 within the KEAP1 ANCHOR mutant complexes with no other statistically significant changes to the complexes. Discrete molecular dynamic simulation modeling and limited proteolysis suggest that the ANCHOR mutations ...


Comparative Biochemical Analysis Of Uhrf Proteins Reveals Molecular Mechanisms That Uncouple Uhrf2 From Dna Methylation Maintenance, Robert M. Vaughan, Bradley M. Dickson, Evan M. Cornett, Joseph S. Harrison, Brian Kuhlman, Scott B. Rothbart May 2018

Comparative Biochemical Analysis Of Uhrf Proteins Reveals Molecular Mechanisms That Uncouple Uhrf2 From Dna Methylation Maintenance, Robert M. Vaughan, Bradley M. Dickson, Evan M. Cornett, Joseph S. Harrison, Brian Kuhlman, Scott B. Rothbart

College of the Pacific Faculty Articles

UHRF1 is a histone- and DNA-binding E3 ubiquitin ligase that functions with DNMT1 to maintain mammalian DNA methylation. UHRF1 facilitates DNMT1 recruitment to replicating chromatin through a coordinated mechanism involving histone and DNA recognition and histone ubiquitination. UHRF2 shares structural homology with UHRF1, but surprisingly lacks functional redundancy to facilitate DNA methylation maintenance. Molecular mechanisms uncoupling UHRF2 from DNA methylation maintenance are poorly defined. Through comprehensive and comparative biochemical analysis of recombinant human UHRF1 and UHRF2 reader and writer activities, we reveal conserved modes of histone PTM recognition but divergent DNA binding properties. While UHRF1 and UHRF2 diverge in their ...


Production Of Synthetic Spider Silk, Ryan Matthew Hekman Jan 2018

Production Of Synthetic Spider Silk, Ryan Matthew Hekman

University of the Pacific Theses and Dissertations

Spider silk is a material that both has impressive mechanical properties and is also environmentally friendly. Though there are limitless potential engineering applications for such materials, industrial production of spider silk has proven to be challenging. Farming silk from spiders, as is done with silkworms, is not a viable option for large-scale production of spider silk due to the venomous and predatory nature of spiders. Here, an attempt is made to express synthetic spider silk minifibroins heterologously in Escherichia coli, to purify the recombinant spidroins from cell lysate, and to spin them into artificial fibers through a biomimetic process. Silk ...


Dna Lesions Produced From The Reaction Of Diols And 5-Formylcytosine And Their Effects On Dna Replication, Brock Allen Jan 2018

Dna Lesions Produced From The Reaction Of Diols And 5-Formylcytosine And Their Effects On Dna Replication, Brock Allen

University of the Pacific Theses and Dissertations

Nucleic acids are complex macromolecules that are susceptible to both endogenous and exogenous damage. This study explored damage resulting from interactions with environmental nucleophilic toxins, such as a variety of diols and amines found in industry. These nucleophiles can react with electrophilic groups, such as 5-formylcytosine. 5-formylcytosine is an oxidation product of the epigenetic base 5-methylcytosine. It is typically removed by thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) but is known to accumulate in the genome, making the formyl group susceptible to attack. In this study we used GC/MS and ESI-MS to show that DNA lesions from the nucleophilic addition reaction of ...


Investigations On Cancer Cell Biological Effects Of Cdk8 Inhibitor Q-12, Zhixin Lu Jan 2018

Investigations On Cancer Cell Biological Effects Of Cdk8 Inhibitor Q-12, Zhixin Lu

University of the Pacific Theses and Dissertations

Over the past two decades, protein kinases have been intensively investigated as targets to treat neoplastic diseases. Many protein kinase inhibitors not only have therapeutic potential but are becoming invaluable reagents for the study of cell signaling.

We aspired to use our Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 8 inhibitor, Q-12, as a probe for biomarker discovery for CDK8 inhibitor sensitive tumor types. Q-12 shows potent inhibition of cell viability and induction of apoptosis process in some triple-negative breast cancer and colorectal cancer cell lines in vitro. Western blot results indicate that the reduction of STAT1 phosphorylation could be a robust indicator of CDK8 ...


Determining The Role Played By Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (Ahr) In The Colon Carcinoma Tumor Model, Poonam Yakkundi Jan 2018

Determining The Role Played By Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (Ahr) In The Colon Carcinoma Tumor Model, Poonam Yakkundi

University of the Pacific Theses and Dissertations

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), commonly known as an environmental sensor involved in the metabolism and elimination of xenobiotic substances, is also an important modulator in the development and functioning of the immune system. AHR expression is varied in the T cell subsets with the highest expression in T-helper 17 and T regulatory cells. Work from many researchers has suggested that AHR can act as a tumor promoter or a tumor suppressor depending on the tumor type. Our goal is to understand the role played by AHR in MC38 syngeneic colon carcinoma tumor model. In the absence of AHR, MC38 tumor ...


Peptide-Drug Conjugate For Her2-Targeted Drug Delivery, Yan Wang Jan 2018

Peptide-Drug Conjugate For Her2-Targeted Drug Delivery, Yan Wang

University of the Pacific Theses and Dissertations

Recent strategies for anticancer drug design have been focused on utilizing antibody as a drug or targeted moiety for targeted drug delivery. Antibody−drug conjugates (ADCs) have become a promising new class of targeted therapeutic agents for treatment of cancer. ADCs are designed to preferentially direct a cytotoxic drug to a cell-surface antigen recognized by an antibody. However, there are some challenges in developing ADCs, such as limited solid tumor penetration, high manufacturing costs and antibody-drug stoichiometry. Smaller molecules such as peptides have been shown to specifically bind to cancer related targets. These peptides can be used to form peptide-drug ...


Endocrine And Metabolic Effects Of Consuming Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: Preclinical And Clinical Studies", Peter Havel May 2017

Endocrine And Metabolic Effects Of Consuming Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: Preclinical And Clinical Studies", Peter Havel

Science Seminar Series

Peter J. Havel of the School of Veterinary Medicine at UC Davis will speak on his research on Endocrine and Metabolic Effects of Consuming Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: Preclinical and clinical studies at this Science Seminar Series lecture.


Mri Applications In Tissue Engineering, Shadi Othman May 2017

Mri Applications In Tissue Engineering, Shadi Othman

Science Seminar Series

Shadi Othman of the School of Engineering and Computer Science Bioengineering Program, will speak on his research on MRI applications in tissue engineering.


Creation Of An Immunodeficient Hla-Transgenic Mouse (Humamice) And Functional Validation Of Human Immunity After Transfer Of Hla-Matched Human Cells, Yang Zeng, Bingrun Liu, Marie-Therese Rubio, Xinyue Wang, David M. Ojcius, Ruoping Tang, Antoine Durrbach, Zhitao Ru, Yusen Zhou, Yu-Chun Lone Apr 2017

Creation Of An Immunodeficient Hla-Transgenic Mouse (Humamice) And Functional Validation Of Human Immunity After Transfer Of Hla-Matched Human Cells, Yang Zeng, Bingrun Liu, Marie-Therese Rubio, Xinyue Wang, David M. Ojcius, Ruoping Tang, Antoine Durrbach, Zhitao Ru, Yusen Zhou, Yu-Chun Lone

Dugoni School of Dentistry Faculty Articles

Research on human immunology has been hindered by the lack of optimal small animal models, given that the protective immune responses of human and non-human species show significant differences. However, due to ethical constraints[1] and the high cost of clinical trials, it is urgent to improve the current animal models that can mimic faithfully human physiology, particularly the human immune system (HIS). HIS mice had been generated recently by engrafting human hematopoietic stem cells (hHSCs) or human peripheral mononuclear cells (hPBMCs) into highly immuno-deficient mice such as NSG, NOG or NRG mice. However, a major experimental drawback for studies ...


Molecular Regulation Of Stem Cell Behavior During Tissue Repair And Cancer Formation, Nestor J. Oviedo Mar 2017

Molecular Regulation Of Stem Cell Behavior During Tissue Repair And Cancer Formation, Nestor J. Oviedo

Science Seminar Series

Oviedo will be presenting his work on identifying the mechanisms of adult stem cell fate determination based on their topographical location in the adult body. Understanding stem cell fate determination is crucial because tissue repair and neoplastic growth are greater in anterior than in posterior regions of adult animals. Despite its critical implications for stem cell biology, carcinogenesis and regenerative medicine, this physiological phenomenon has remained overlooked. Recent findings from his group provide intriguing evidence implying DNA repair mechanisms and cellular signaling through post-translational modifications regulate stem cell fate decision depending on their topographical location in the adult body. We ...


Isolation, Culture And Characterization Of Hirsutella Sinensis Mycelium From Caterpillar Fungus Fruiting Body, Yun-Fei Komi, Jian-Ching Liau, Chien-Sheng Lee, Chen-Yaw Chiu, Jan Martel, Chuan-Sheng Lin, Shan-Fu Tseng, David M. Ojcius, Chia-Chen Lu, Hsin-Chih Lai, John Ding-E. Young Jan 2017

Isolation, Culture And Characterization Of Hirsutella Sinensis Mycelium From Caterpillar Fungus Fruiting Body, Yun-Fei Komi, Jian-Ching Liau, Chien-Sheng Lee, Chen-Yaw Chiu, Jan Martel, Chuan-Sheng Lin, Shan-Fu Tseng, David M. Ojcius, Chia-Chen Lu, Hsin-Chih Lai, John Ding-E. Young

Dugoni School of Dentistry Faculty Articles

The caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis (previously called Cordyceps sinensis) has been used for centuries in Asia as a tonic to improve health and longevity. Recent studies show that O. sinensis produces a wide range of biological effects on cells, laboratory animals and humans, including anti-fatigue, anti-infection, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-tumor activities. In view of the rarity of O. sinensis fruiting bodies in nature, cultivation of its anamorph mycelium represents a useful alternative for large-scale production. However, O. sinensis fruiting bodies harvested in nature harbor several fungal contaminants, a phenomenon that led to the isolation and characterization of a large number ...


Micrornas Modulate Pathogenesis Resulting From Chlamydial Infection In Mice, Laxmi Yeruva, S. Pouncey, Michael R. Eledge, Sudeepa Bhattacharya, Chunqiao Luo, Erin W. Weatherford, David M. Ojcius, Roger G. Rank Jan 2017

Micrornas Modulate Pathogenesis Resulting From Chlamydial Infection In Mice, Laxmi Yeruva, S. Pouncey, Michael R. Eledge, Sudeepa Bhattacharya, Chunqiao Luo, Erin W. Weatherford, David M. Ojcius, Roger G. Rank

Dugoni School of Dentistry Faculty Articles

Not all women infected with chlamydiae develop upper genital tract disease, but the reason(s) for this remains undefined. Host genetics and hormonal changes associated with the menstrual cycle are possible explanations for variable infection outcomes. It is also possible that disease severity depends on the virulence of the chlamydial inoculum. It is likely that the inoculum contains multiple genetic variants, differing in virulence. If the virulent variants dominate, then the individual is more likely to develop severe disease. Based on our previous studies, we hypothesized that the relative degree of virulence of a chlamydial population dictates the microRNA (miRNA ...


Nucleoside-Diphosphate-Kinase Of P. Gingivalis Is Secreted From Epithelial Cells In The Absence Of A Leader Sequence Through A Pannexin-1 Interactome, Kalina Atanasova, Jungnam Lee, Joann Roberts, Kyulim Lee, David M. Ojcius, Özlem Yilmaz Nov 2016

Nucleoside-Diphosphate-Kinase Of P. Gingivalis Is Secreted From Epithelial Cells In The Absence Of A Leader Sequence Through A Pannexin-1 Interactome, Kalina Atanasova, Jungnam Lee, Joann Roberts, Kyulim Lee, David M. Ojcius, Özlem Yilmaz

Dugoni School of Dentistry Faculty Articles

Nucleoside-diphosphate-kinases (NDKs) are leaderless, multifunctional enzymes. The mode(s) of NDK secretion is currently undefined, while extracellular translocation of bacterial NDKs is critical for avoidance of host pathogen clearance by opportunistic pathogens such as Porphyromonas gingivalis. P. gingivalis-NDK during infection inhibits extracellular-ATP (eATP)/P2X7-receptor mediated cell death in gingival epithelial cells (GECs) via eATP hydrolysis. Furthermore, depletion of pannexin-1-hemichannel (PNX1) coupled with P2X7-receptor blocks the infection-induced eATP release in GECs, and P. gingivalis-NDK impacts this pathway. Ultrastructural and confocal microscopy of P. gingivalis-co-cultured GECs or green-fluorescent-protein (GFP)-P. gingivalis-NDK transfected GECs revealed a perinuclear/cytoplasmic localization of NDK. eATP stimulation ...


An Iron Detection System Determines Bacterial Swarming Initiation And Biofilm Formation, Chuan-Sheng Lin, Yu-Huan Tsai, Chih-Jung Chang, Shun-Fu Tseng, Tseng-Ru Wu, Chia-Chen Lu, Ting-Shu Wu, Jang-Jih Lu, Jim-Tong Horng, Jan Martel, David M. Ojcius, Hsin-Chih Lai, John Ding-E. Young Nov 2016

An Iron Detection System Determines Bacterial Swarming Initiation And Biofilm Formation, Chuan-Sheng Lin, Yu-Huan Tsai, Chih-Jung Chang, Shun-Fu Tseng, Tseng-Ru Wu, Chia-Chen Lu, Ting-Shu Wu, Jang-Jih Lu, Jim-Tong Horng, Jan Martel, David M. Ojcius, Hsin-Chih Lai, John Ding-E. Young

Dugoni School of Dentistry Faculty Articles

Iron availability affects swarming and biofilm formation in various bacterial species. However, how bacteria sense iron and coordinate swarming and biofilm formation remains unclear. Using Serratia marcescens as a model organism, we identify here a stage-specific iron-regulatory machinery comprising a two-component system (TCS) and the TCS-regulated iron chelator 2-isocyano-6,7-dihydroxycoumarin (ICDH-Coumarin) that directly senses and modulates environmental ferric iron (Fe3+) availability to determine swarming initiation and biofilm formation. We demonstrate that the two-component system RssA-RssB (RssAB) directly senses environmental ferric iron (Fe3+) and transcriptionally modulates biosynthesis of flagella and the iron chelator ICDH-Coumarin whose production requires the pvc cluster ...


Design Of Novel Ion Channel Modulators, Vladimir Yarov-Yarovoy Nov 2016

Design Of Novel Ion Channel Modulators, Vladimir Yarov-Yarovoy

Science Seminar Series

Function and modulation of neuronal sodium channels are critical for the neuromodulation of electrical excitability and synaptic transmission in neurons - the basis for many aspects of signal transduction, learning, memory and physiological regulation. Mutations in neuronal voltage-gated sodium channel genes are responsible for various human neurological disorders. Furthermore, human neuronal voltage-gated sodium channels are primary targets of therapeutic drugs used as local anesthetics and for treatment of neurological and cardiac disorders. Yarov-Yarovoy's lab is working on rational design of novel therapeutically useful blockers of voltage-gated sodium channels for treatment of pain and epilepsy. Serious, chronic pain affects at least ...


Pyk2 Activates The Nlrp3 Inflammasome By Directly Phosphorylating Asc And Contributes To Inflammasome-Dependent Peritonitis, I-Che Chung, Chun-Nan Ouyang, Sheng-Ning Yuan, Hsin-Pai P. Li, Jeng-Ting Chen, Hui-Ru Shieh, Yu-Jen Chen, David M. Ojcius, Ching-Liang Chu, Jau-Song Yu, Yu-Sun Chang, Lih-Chyang Chen Oct 2016

Pyk2 Activates The Nlrp3 Inflammasome By Directly Phosphorylating Asc And Contributes To Inflammasome-Dependent Peritonitis, I-Che Chung, Chun-Nan Ouyang, Sheng-Ning Yuan, Hsin-Pai P. Li, Jeng-Ting Chen, Hui-Ru Shieh, Yu-Jen Chen, David M. Ojcius, Ching-Liang Chu, Jau-Song Yu, Yu-Sun Chang, Lih-Chyang Chen

Dugoni School of Dentistry Faculty Articles

The inflammasome adaptor protein, ASC, contributes to both innate immune responses and inflammatory diseases via self-oligomerization, which leads to the activation of the protease, caspase-1. Here, we report that the cytosolic tyrosine kinases, FAK and Pyk2, are differentially involved in NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasome activation. The inhibition of FAK and Pyk2 with RNA interference or chemical inhibitors dramatically abolished ASC oligomerization, caspase-1 activation, and IL-1β secretion in response to NLRP3 or AIM2 stimulation. Pyk2 is phosphorylated by the kinase Syk and relocalizes to the ASC specks upon NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Pyk2, but not FAK, could directly phosphorylate ASC at Tyr146 ...


Ionic Basis Of Ventricular Action Potentials, Ariel L. Escobar Oct 2016

Ionic Basis Of Ventricular Action Potentials, Ariel L. Escobar

Science Seminar Series

Dr. Escobar will talk about his cutting-edge approach to understanding molecular mechanisms underlying electrical activity in the heart.


Hemi-Methylated Dna Regulates Dna Methylation Inheritance Through Allosteric Activation Of H3 Ubiquitylation By Uhrf1, Joseph S. Harrison, Evan M. Cornett, Dennis Goldfarb, Paul A. Darosa, Zimeng M. Li, Feng Yan, Bradley M. Dickson, Angela H. Guo, Daniel V. Cantu, Lilia Kaustov, Peter J. Brown, Cheryl H. Arrowsmith, Dorothy A. Erie, Michael B. Major, Rachel E. Klevit, Krzysztof Krajewski, Brian Kuhlman, Brian D. Strahl, Scott B. Rothbart Sep 2016

Hemi-Methylated Dna Regulates Dna Methylation Inheritance Through Allosteric Activation Of H3 Ubiquitylation By Uhrf1, Joseph S. Harrison, Evan M. Cornett, Dennis Goldfarb, Paul A. Darosa, Zimeng M. Li, Feng Yan, Bradley M. Dickson, Angela H. Guo, Daniel V. Cantu, Lilia Kaustov, Peter J. Brown, Cheryl H. Arrowsmith, Dorothy A. Erie, Michael B. Major, Rachel E. Klevit, Krzysztof Krajewski, Brian Kuhlman, Brian D. Strahl, Scott B. Rothbart

College of the Pacific Faculty Articles

The epigenetic inheritance of DNA methylation requires UHRF1, a histone- and DNA-binding RING E3 ubiquitin ligase that recruits DNMT1 to sites of newly replicated DNA through ubiquitylation of histone H3. UHRF1 binds DNA with selectivity towards hemi-methylated CpGs (HeDNA); however, the contribution of HeDNA sensing to UHRF1 function remains elusive. Here, we reveal that the interaction of UHRF1 with HeDNA is required for DNA methylation but is dispensable for chromatin interaction, which is governed by reciprocal positive cooperativity between the UHRF1 histone- and DNA-binding domains. HeDNA recognition activates UHRF1 ubiquitylation towards multiple lysines on the H3 tail adjacent to the ...


Hepatitis C Virus Frameshift/Alternate Reading Frame Protein Suppresses Interferon Responses Mediated By Pattern Recognition Receptor Retinoic-Acid-Inducible Gene-I, Seung Bum Park, Scott Seronello, Wasima Mayer, David M. Ojcius Jul 2016

Hepatitis C Virus Frameshift/Alternate Reading Frame Protein Suppresses Interferon Responses Mediated By Pattern Recognition Receptor Retinoic-Acid-Inducible Gene-I, Seung Bum Park, Scott Seronello, Wasima Mayer, David M. Ojcius

Dugoni School of Dentistry Faculty Articles

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) actively evades host interferon (IFN) responses but the mechanisms of how it does so are not completely understood. In this study, we present evidence for an HCV factor that contributes to the suppression of retinoic-acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-mediated IFN induction. Expression of frameshift/alternate reading frame protein (F/ARFP) from HCV -2/+1 frame in Huh7 hepatoma cells suppressed type I IFN responses stimulated by HCV RNA pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) and poly(IC). The suppression occurred independently of other HCV factors; and activation of interferon stimulated genes, TNFα, IFN-λ1, and IFN-λ2/3 was likewise suppressed ...


Mechanism Of Lysine 48 Selectivity During Polyubiquitin Chain Formation By The Ube2r1/2 Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme, Spencer Hill, Joseph S. Harrison, Steven M. Lewis, Brian Kuhlman, Gary Kleiger Jun 2016

Mechanism Of Lysine 48 Selectivity During Polyubiquitin Chain Formation By The Ube2r1/2 Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme, Spencer Hill, Joseph S. Harrison, Steven M. Lewis, Brian Kuhlman, Gary Kleiger

College of the Pacific Faculty Articles

Lysine selectivity is of critical importance during polyubiquitin chain formation because the identity of the lysine controls the biological outcome. Ubiquitins are covalently linked in polyubiquitin chains through one of seven lysine residues on its surface and the C terminus of adjacent protomers. Lys 48-linked polyubiquitin chains signal for protein degradation; however, the structural basis for Lys 48 selectivity remains largely unknown. The ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Ube2R1/2 has exquisite specificity for Lys 48, and computational docking of Ube2R1/2 and ubiquitin predicts that Lys 48 is guided to the active site through a key electrostatic interaction between Arg 54 on ...


Retigabine Holds Kv7 Channels Open And Stabilizes The Resting Potential, Aaron Corbin-Leftwich, Sayeed M. Mossadeq, Junghoon Ha, Iwona Ruchala, Audrey Han Ngoc Le, Carlos A. Villalba-Galea Mar 2016

Retigabine Holds Kv7 Channels Open And Stabilizes The Resting Potential, Aaron Corbin-Leftwich, Sayeed M. Mossadeq, Junghoon Ha, Iwona Ruchala, Audrey Han Ngoc Le, Carlos A. Villalba-Galea

School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences Faculty Articles

The anticonvulsant Retigabine is a KV7 channel agonist used to treat hyperexcitability disorders in humans. Retigabine shifts the voltage dependence for activation of the heteromeric KV7.2/KV7.3 channel to more negative potentials, thus facilitating activation. Although the molecular mechanism underlying Retigabine's action remains unknown, previous studies have identified the pore region of KV7 channels as the drug's target. This suggested that the Retigabine-induced shift in voltage dependence likely derives from the stabilization of the pore domain in an open (conducting) conformation. Testing this idea, we show that the heteromeric KV7.2/KV7.3 channel has at ...


Nanoparticle Conversion To Biofilms: In Vitro Demonstration Using Serum-Derived Mineralo-Organic Nanoparticles, Tsui-Yin Wong, Hsin-Hsin Peng, Cheng-Yeu Wu, Jan Martel, David M. Ojcius, Fu-Yung Hsu, John Ding-E. Young Dec 2015

Nanoparticle Conversion To Biofilms: In Vitro Demonstration Using Serum-Derived Mineralo-Organic Nanoparticles, Tsui-Yin Wong, Hsin-Hsin Peng, Cheng-Yeu Wu, Jan Martel, David M. Ojcius, Fu-Yung Hsu, John Ding-E. Young

Dugoni School of Dentistry Faculty Articles

Aims: Mineralo-organic nanoparticles (NPs) detected in biological fluids have been described as precursors of physiological and pathological calcifications in the body. Our main objective was to examine the early stages of mineral NP formation in body fluids. Materials & methods: A nanomaterial approach based on atomic force microscopy, dynamic light scattering, electron microscopy and spectroscopy was used. Results: The mineral particles, which contain the serum proteins albumin and fetuin-A, initially precipitate in the form of round amorphous NPs that gradually grow in size, aggregate and coalesce to form crystalline mineral films similar to the structures observed in calcified human arteries. Conclusion ...


Data In Support Of Ubsrd: The Ubiquitin Structural Relational Database, Joseph S. Harrison, Tim M. Jacobs, Kevin Houlihan, Koenraad Van Doorslaer, Brian Kuhlman Dec 2015

Data In Support Of Ubsrd: The Ubiquitin Structural Relational Database, Joseph S. Harrison, Tim M. Jacobs, Kevin Houlihan, Koenraad Van Doorslaer, Brian Kuhlman

College of the Pacific Faculty Articles

This article provides information to support the database article titled "UbSRD: The Ubiquitin Structural Relational Database" (Harrison et al., 2015) [1] . The ubiquitin-like homology fold (UBL) represents a large family that encompasses both post-translational modifications, like ubiquitin (UBQ) and SUMO, and functional domains on many biologically important proteins like Parkin, UHRF1 (ubiquitin-like with PDB and RING finger domains-1), and Usp7 (ubiquitin-specific protease-7) (Zhang et al., 2015; Rothbart et al., 2013; Burroughs et al., 2012; Wauer et al., 2015) [2], [3], [4], [5]. The UBL domain can participate in several unique protein-protein interactions (PPI) since protein adducts can be attached to ...


Eosinophils From Murine Lamina Propria Induce Differentiation Of Naïve T Cells Into Regulatory T Cells Via Tgf-Β1 And Retinoic Acid, Hong-Hu Chen, Ai-Hua Sun, David M. Ojcius, Wei-Lin Hu, Yu-Mei Ge, Xu'ai Lin, Lan-Juan Li, Jian-Ping Pan, Jie Yan Nov 2015

Eosinophils From Murine Lamina Propria Induce Differentiation Of Naïve T Cells Into Regulatory T Cells Via Tgf-Β1 And Retinoic Acid, Hong-Hu Chen, Ai-Hua Sun, David M. Ojcius, Wei-Lin Hu, Yu-Mei Ge, Xu'ai Lin, Lan-Juan Li, Jian-Ping Pan, Jie Yan

Dugoni School of Dentistry Faculty Articles

Treg cells play a crucial role in immune tolerance, but mechanisms that induce Treg cells are poorly understood. We here have described eosinophils in lamina propria (LP) that displayed high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, a rate-limiting step during all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) synthesis, and expressed TGF-β1 mRNA and high levels of ATRA. Co-incubation assay confirmed that LP eosinophils induced the differentiation of naïve T cells into Treg cells. Differentiation promoted by LP eosinophils were inhibited by blocked either TGF-β1 or ATRA. Peripheral blood (PB) eosinophils did not produce ATRA and could not induce Treg differentiation. These data identifies LP eosinophils ...


Hirsutella Sinensis Mycelium Attenuates Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Inflammation And Fibrosis In Vivo, Tsung-Teng Huang, Hsin-Chih Lai, Yun-Fei Ko, David M. Ojcius, Ying-Wei Lan, Jan Martel, John Ding-E. Young, Kowit-Yu Chong Oct 2015

Hirsutella Sinensis Mycelium Attenuates Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Inflammation And Fibrosis In Vivo, Tsung-Teng Huang, Hsin-Chih Lai, Yun-Fei Ko, David M. Ojcius, Ying-Wei Lan, Jan Martel, John Ding-E. Young, Kowit-Yu Chong

Dugoni School of Dentistry Faculty Articles

Hirsutella sinensis mycelium (HSM), the anamorph of Cordyceps sinensis, is a traditional Chinese medicine that has been shown to possess various pharmacological properties. We previously reported that this fungus suppresses interleukin-1β and IL-18 secretion by inhibiting both canonical and non-canonical inflammasomes in human macrophages. However, whether HSM may be used to prevent lung fibrosis and the mechanism underlying this activity remain unclear. Our results show that pretreatment with HSM inhibits TGF-β1–induced expression of fibronectin and α-SMA in lung fibroblasts. HSM also restores superoxide dismutase expression in TGF-β1–treated lung fibroblasts and inhibits reactive oxygen species production in lung epithelial ...


Detection And Characterization Of Mineralo-Organic Nanoparticles In Human Kidneys, Tsui-Yin Wong, Cheng-Yeu Wu, Jan Martel, Cheng-Wei Lin, Fu-Yung Hsu, David M. Ojcius, Paul Y. Lin, John Ding-E. Young Oct 2015

Detection And Characterization Of Mineralo-Organic Nanoparticles In Human Kidneys, Tsui-Yin Wong, Cheng-Yeu Wu, Jan Martel, Cheng-Wei Lin, Fu-Yung Hsu, David M. Ojcius, Paul Y. Lin, John Ding-E. Young

Dugoni School of Dentistry Faculty Articles

Ectopic calcification is associated with various human diseases, including atherosclerosis, cancer, chronic kidney disease, and diabetes mellitus. Although mineral nanoparticles have been detected in calcified blood vessels, the nature and role of these particles in the human body remain unclear. Here we show for the first time that human kidney tissues obtained from end-stage chronic kidney disease or renal cancer patients contain round, multilamellar mineral particles of 50 to 1,500 nm, whereas no particles are observed in healthy controls. The mineral particles are found mainly in the extracellular matrix surrounding the convoluted tubules, collecting ducts and loops of Henle ...


An Allosteric Interaction Links Usp7 To Deubiquitination And Chromatin Targeting Of Uhrf1, Zhi-Min Zhang, Scott B. Rothbart, David F. Allison, Qian Cai, Joseph S. Harrison, Lin Li, Yinsheng Wang, Brian D. Strahl, Gang Greg Wang, Jikui Song Sep 2015

An Allosteric Interaction Links Usp7 To Deubiquitination And Chromatin Targeting Of Uhrf1, Zhi-Min Zhang, Scott B. Rothbart, David F. Allison, Qian Cai, Joseph S. Harrison, Lin Li, Yinsheng Wang, Brian D. Strahl, Gang Greg Wang, Jikui Song

College of the Pacific Faculty Articles

The protein stability and chromatin functions of UHRF1 (ubiquitin-like, containing PHD and RING finger domains, 1) are regulated in a cell-cycle-dependent manner. We report a structural characterization of the complex between UHRF1 and the deubiquitinase USP7. The first two UBL domains of USP7 bind to the polybasic region (PBR) of UHRF1, and this interaction is required for the USP7-mediated deubiquitination of UHRF1. Importantly, we find that the USP7-binding site of the UHRF1 PBR overlaps with the region engaging in an intramolecular interaction with the N-terminal tandem Tudor domain (TTD). We show that the USP7-UHRF1 interaction perturbs the TTD-PBR interaction of ...