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University of Tennessee, Knoxville

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Articles 1 - 30 of 229

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Effect Of Turmeric On The Promoter Activity Of The Cyp6a8 Gene Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Alexa Stroh May 2019

Effect Of Turmeric On The Promoter Activity Of The Cyp6a8 Gene Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Alexa Stroh

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Cell Separation Delay And Membrane Trafficking Defects In Cdc42 Gap Mutants, Haylee Grace Young Apr 2019

Cell Separation Delay And Membrane Trafficking Defects In Cdc42 Gap Mutants, Haylee Grace Young

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Cytokinesis is the final step in cell division, where a cell separates into two daughter cells. Cytokinesis involves many steps that must be organized in a spatiotemporal manner. In many eukaryotes, it involves the assembly and constriction of an actomyosin ring. The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe serves as a good model system to study cytokinesis because they divide via actomyosin-dependent-cytokinesis.

The Rho-family of small GTPases are molecules involved in the regulation of cell growth and division. The GTPase Cdc42 helps promote timely onset of ring constriction and septum formation in fission yeast. Studies with many other organisms show that Cdc42 ...


Circadian Rhythmicity And Neurodevelopment Of Disco And Grim Mutations In Drosophila Melanogaster, John Patrick Story Apr 2019

Circadian Rhythmicity And Neurodevelopment Of Disco And Grim Mutations In Drosophila Melanogaster, John Patrick Story

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

The death gene grim and its pathway for apoptosis has been studied extensively in Drosophila Melanogaster. The effects of grim mutations on circadian neurodevelopment and locomotor assays have yet to be investigated. Mutations in the gene disconnected (disco) has been shown to disrupt the normal development of the circadian circuitry, specifically the small ventro-lateral neurons (s-LNv’s). Which has shown to severely decrease rhythmicity during free-running periods. Alternatively, we have observed an increase in rhythmicity during free-running periods in grim mutations. Our goal is to investigate the neurodevelopment of the circadian circuitry and their associated locomotor activities in these Drosophila ...


Computational Study Of Ligand-Dependent Oligomerization Of Ribonucleotide Reductase, Bill Pham May 2018

Computational Study Of Ligand-Dependent Oligomerization Of Ribonucleotide Reductase, Bill Pham

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Certain protein oligomerization can be strongly influenced by its ligand-binding status. We constructed a computational method to investigate how ligand-binding and oligomerization can be coupled. We tackle this issue using an approximate approach of studying the properties of individual monomers and how they associate. By connecting the dynamics at monomeric level and the information of oligomer interface, we quantify the synchronization of two types of contact dynamics: (1) between the ligand and its binding pocket, and (2) the contact dynamics at interface. In this work, we applied our methodology on protein ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), which is an essential enzyme for ...


Arabidopsis Thaliana Nip2;1 , A Lactic Acid Transporter, Is Essential For Plant Survival During Hypoxic Stress, Samantha Jean Mcintire May 2018

Arabidopsis Thaliana Nip2;1 , A Lactic Acid Transporter, Is Essential For Plant Survival During Hypoxic Stress, Samantha Jean Mcintire

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

NIPs are nodulin-intrinsic proteins that are specific to plants and involved in transport of water and other uncharged solutes. Arabidopsis thaliana consists of nine NIPgenes.

In the current study, attention has been focused on NIP2;1(NIPsubgroup I), one of the representative Arabidopsis NIPs, in accordance with its cellular and subcellular localization, tissue, transport activity, and biological roles in Arabidopsis.

It has been shown in experiments that AtNIP2;1is especially responsive to hypoxia-induced stress. Hypoxia is a condition in which most of the oxygen has been removed from an environment. In hypoxic environments, plants construct ...


Size Exclusion Chromatography Based Liposomal Protein Extraction (Selpe), Carolyn Barnes May 2018

Size Exclusion Chromatography Based Liposomal Protein Extraction (Selpe), Carolyn Barnes

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Design And Development Of A Quartz Crystal Microbalance Immunosensor For Exosomes, Wesley Cox May 2018

Design And Development Of A Quartz Crystal Microbalance Immunosensor For Exosomes, Wesley Cox

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Investigation For Novel Anti-Apoptotic Factors In The Neurons Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Haylie Rachel Lam May 2018

Investigation For Novel Anti-Apoptotic Factors In The Neurons Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Haylie Rachel Lam

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Constitutive Expression Of Thioglucoside Glucohydrolase 1 (Tgg1) Decreases Intercellular Trafficking In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Alessandro Francesco Sarno Apr 2018

Constitutive Expression Of Thioglucoside Glucohydrolase 1 (Tgg1) Decreases Intercellular Trafficking In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Alessandro Francesco Sarno

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Plasmodesmata (PD) are pores that traverse plant cell walls, providing a route for intercellular trafficking of essential metabolites, nutrients, and signaling molecules between adjacent plant cells, thereby aiding communication. The increased size exclusion limit 2 (ise2) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana has an increased abundance of branched PD, as well as a greater flux of intercellular trafficking. A search for proteins that interact with ISE2 identified THIOGLUCOSIDE GLUCOHYDROLASE 2 (a myrosinase). A. thaliana also encodes a second, closely-related myrosinase, TGG1. Myrosinases are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of glucosinolates, a type of secondary metabolite that are amino acid derivatives. The breakdown ...


Tea Induction Of Cyp6a8 Promoter In Drosophila Melanogaster, Fiona Retzer Dec 2017

Tea Induction Of Cyp6a8 Promoter In Drosophila Melanogaster, Fiona Retzer

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Design And Synthesis Of Analogs Of Myo-Inositol, Serine, And Cysteine To Enable Chemical Biology Studies, Tanei J. Ricks Dec 2017

Design And Synthesis Of Analogs Of Myo-Inositol, Serine, And Cysteine To Enable Chemical Biology Studies, Tanei J. Ricks

Doctoral Dissertations

Phosphorylated myo-inositol compounds including inositol phosphates (InsPs) as well as the phosphatidylinositol polyphosphate lipids (PIPns) are critical biomolecules that regulate many of the most important biological processes and pathways. They are aberrant in many disease states due to their regulatory function. The same is true of the phospholipid phosphatidylserine (PS) which can serve as a marker to begin apoptosis. However, the full scope of activities of these structures is not clear, particularly since techniques that enable global detection and analysis of the production of these compounds spatially and temporally are lacking. With all of these obstacles in ...


Investigating The Regulation Of Indole-3-Acetic Acid Production By The Plant Associated Microbe Pantoea Sp. Yr343, Kasey Noel Estenson Dec 2017

Investigating The Regulation Of Indole-3-Acetic Acid Production By The Plant Associated Microbe Pantoea Sp. Yr343, Kasey Noel Estenson

Doctoral Dissertations

The auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) plays a central role in plant growth and development and many plant-associated microbes produce IAA. Several IAA biosynthetic pathways have been identified in microbes which use the precursor tryptophan. Pantoea sp. YR343, which was isolated from the Populus deltoides rhizosphere, is a robust plant root colonizer that produces IAA. Using genomic and metabolomics analyses, we predicted that the indole-3-pyruvate (IPA) pathway is the major pathway in Pantoea sp. YR343 for IAA production. To better understand IAA biosynthesis and the effects of IAA exposure on cell physiology, we performed proteomics on Pantoea sp. YR343 grown in ...


Bioinformatic And Experimental Approaches For Deeper Metaproteomic Characterization Of Complex Environmental Samples, Ramsunder Mahadevan Iyer Dec 2017

Bioinformatic And Experimental Approaches For Deeper Metaproteomic Characterization Of Complex Environmental Samples, Ramsunder Mahadevan Iyer

Doctoral Dissertations

The coupling of high performance multi-dimensional liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry for characterization of microbial proteins from complex environmental samples has paved the way for a new era in scientific discovery. The field of metaproteomics, which is the study of protein suite of all the organisms in a biological system, has taken a tremendous leap with the introduction of high-throughput proteomics. However, with corresponding increase in sample complexity, novel challenges have been raised with respect to efficient peptide separation via chromatography and bioinformatic analysis of the resulting high throughput data. In this dissertation, various aspects of metaproteomic characterization, including ...


Detection, Diversity, And Evolution Of Fungal Nitric Oxide Reductases (P450nor), Steven Adam Higgins Aug 2017

Detection, Diversity, And Evolution Of Fungal Nitric Oxide Reductases (P450nor), Steven Adam Higgins

Doctoral Dissertations

Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a gas responsible for significant ozone layer depletion and contributes to greenhouse effects in Earth’s atmosphere. N2O is primarily generated by denitrification, whereby nitrate (NO3-) or nitrite (NO2-) is converted to gaseous N2O or N2. Teragram quantities of N2O are emitted annually from agricultural soils treated with nitrogenous fertilizers due to the activity of soil microbiota. Although bacteria and fungi harbor genes permitting denitrification, fungi lack NosZ, an enzyme responsible for reducing N2O into inert N2 gas. Historically, scientists have linked fungi to ...


Characterizing Tmx And Chemotactic Receptor Arrays Through Bacterial Two-Hybrid And Beta-Galactosidase Assays, Adam Keith Hubler May 2017

Characterizing Tmx And Chemotactic Receptor Arrays Through Bacterial Two-Hybrid And Beta-Galactosidase Assays, Adam Keith Hubler

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Biochemistry, Cellular and Molecular Biology

No abstract provided.


Characterizing Tmx And Chemotactic Receptor Arrays Through Bacterial Two-Hybrid And Beta-Galactosidase Assays, Adam Keith Hubler May 2017

Characterizing Tmx And Chemotactic Receptor Arrays Through Bacterial Two-Hybrid And Beta-Galactosidase Assays, Adam Keith Hubler

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


The Crowding Effects Of Rmlc On R67 And Chromosomal Dihydrofolate Reductase Enzymes, Michael A. Craig May 2017

The Crowding Effects Of Rmlc On R67 And Chromosomal Dihydrofolate Reductase Enzymes, Michael A. Craig

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Effects Of Nicotine On The Cyp6a8 Gene Promoter Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Leslie M. Stroud May 2017

Effects Of Nicotine On The Cyp6a8 Gene Promoter Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Leslie M. Stroud

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


A Study On The Interactions Of Trehalose With Model Folate Compounds, Carolyn R Ware May 2017

A Study On The Interactions Of Trehalose With Model Folate Compounds, Carolyn R Ware

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Evaluation Of Receptor Protein Too Many Mouths (Tmm) As A Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Protein, Emily J. Miller May 2017

Evaluation Of Receptor Protein Too Many Mouths (Tmm) As A Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Protein, Emily J. Miller

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Myosin Xi-I Works In Tandem With A Microtubule-Associated Mechanism To Position The Nucleus In Arabidopsis Root Hairs, Ian Andrew Windham May 2017

Myosin Xi-I Works In Tandem With A Microtubule-Associated Mechanism To Position The Nucleus In Arabidopsis Root Hairs, Ian Andrew Windham

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Comparative Chemical Characterization Of Lunasin-Enriched Preparations And Modifications Of The Inflammasomes In Vitro, Samuel James Price May 2017

Comparative Chemical Characterization Of Lunasin-Enriched Preparations And Modifications Of The Inflammasomes In Vitro, Samuel James Price

Masters Theses

Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the most cultivated crops in the world providing the population with large amounts of protein and oil. In addition to its nutritional composition, soybean also contains biologically active compounds with potential health-promoting properties. The presence of these bioactives may be responsible for the lower incidence of chronic diseases in populations that consume a significant portion of soybeans in their diet. One group of soybeanderived bioactives are bioactive peptides and proteins including lunasin, Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) and Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor (KTI). The overall objective of this research was to develop a method of preparing lunasin-enriched ...


Tetrameric Photosystem I: From Initial Discovery And Characterization In Chroococcidiopsis Sp. Ts-821 To Exploration Of Its Distribution And Understanding Of Its Significance In Cyanobacteria, Meng Li Dec 2016

Tetrameric Photosystem I: From Initial Discovery And Characterization In Chroococcidiopsis Sp. Ts-821 To Exploration Of Its Distribution And Understanding Of Its Significance In Cyanobacteria, Meng Li

Doctoral Dissertations

Photosystem I (PSI) forms trimeric complexes in most characterized cyanobacteria. We had reported the tetrameric form of PSI in the unicellular cyanobacterium, Chroococcidiopsis sp. TS-821 (TS-821). Using Cryo-EM, a 3D model of the PSI tetramer structure at 11.5 [Angstrom] resolution was obtained and a 2D map within the membrane plane of at 6.1 [Angstrom]. In contrast to the three-fold symmetry in trimeric PSI crystal structure from T. elongatus, two different inter-monomer interactions involving PsaLs are found in the PSI tetramer. Phylogenetic analysis based on PsaL protein sequences shows that TS-821 is closely related to heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria. Additionally, this ...


Spatial Crowding And Confinement Effects On Bursty Gene Expression, Charles Wei-Shing Chin Dec 2016

Spatial Crowding And Confinement Effects On Bursty Gene Expression, Charles Wei-Shing Chin

Doctoral Dissertations

Synthetic biology and genetic engineering are valuable tools in the development of new, sustainable energy generation technologies. The characterization of stochastic gene expression is vital to the efficient application of genetic engineering techniques. Transcriptional bursting, in which periods of high expression are punctuated by periods of no expression, is extensively observed in gene expression. While various molecular mechanisms have been hypothesized to be responsible for transcriptional bursting, spatial considerations have largely been neglected. This work uses computational modeling to examine in detail the influence of spatial factors such as macromolecular crowding and confinement on gene expression.

In the first part ...


Characterization Of Fusarium Species And Alternaria Alternata, And Their Effects On Switchgrass Health And Chemical Components, Sara Beth Collins Dec 2016

Characterization Of Fusarium Species And Alternaria Alternata, And Their Effects On Switchgrass Health And Chemical Components, Sara Beth Collins

Masters Theses

Panicum virgatum L., readily referred to as Switchgrass, is a perennial warm-season bunch grass, used as an alternative energy source for biofuel production. There is insufficient research on switchgrass pathogens, and is expected that an increase in disease pressure will result as more land is reserved for this perennial crop. The purpose of this research was to identify and characterize pathogenic Alternaria alternata and Fusarium species on Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), and to evaluate their impact on stand establishment and plant health. Molecular identifications of fungal isolates obtained from infected commercial switchgrass seed yielded eight species (A. alternata, F. acuminatum ...


Rapid Molecular Detection And Population Genetics Of Pityophthorus Juglandis, A Vector Of Thousand Cankers Disease In Juglans Spp., Emel Oren Dec 2016

Rapid Molecular Detection And Population Genetics Of Pityophthorus Juglandis, A Vector Of Thousand Cankers Disease In Juglans Spp., Emel Oren

Masters Theses

Thousand Cankers Disease (TCD) is a disease complex involving the fungal pathogen Geosmithia morbida, an insect vector Pityophthorus juglandis, and the hosts, Juglans spp. and Pterocarya spp. Signs and symptoms of TCD include crown thinning due to branch dieback, yellowing and wilting of the leaves, appearance of epicormic shoots, numerous entrance/exit holes, gallery formation by P. juglandis, and the development of small, dark brown cankers underneath the bark. TCD originally described from western U.S., has now expanded to eastern U.S. and northwestern Italy. The disease complex is often difficult to diagnose due to the absence of symptoms ...


Effect Of Varying Rumen Degradable And Undegradable Protein On Milk Production And Nitrogen Efficiency In Lactating Dairy Cows Under Summer Conditions, Jeffrey D. Kaufman Dec 2016

Effect Of Varying Rumen Degradable And Undegradable Protein On Milk Production And Nitrogen Efficiency In Lactating Dairy Cows Under Summer Conditions, Jeffrey D. Kaufman

Masters Theses

The objective is to determine the effect of reducing nitrogen input through feeding low rumen degradable protein (RDP) and rumen undegradable protein (RUP) proportions on milk production, nitrogen efficiency and metabolism in heat-stressed cows. Forty-eight mid-lactating, Holstein cows were assigned to treatments using a randomized block design in a 2x2 factorial arrangement of treatments (n = 12/treatment). Treatments included two levels of RDP (10 and 8%) and two levels of RUP (8 and 6%). From d 1 to 21, a common diet (10% RDP-8% RUP) was fed to cows followed with their respective treatment diets fed from d 22 to ...


Exploring Enrichment Cultures Of Denitrifying Microorganisms From El Yunque National Forest, Samiha Ahsan, Jenny Onley, Frank Loeffler Dec 2016

Exploring Enrichment Cultures Of Denitrifying Microorganisms From El Yunque National Forest, Samiha Ahsan, Jenny Onley, Frank Loeffler

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Towards Understanding Osmolyte Effects On Folate(S) And Dihydrofolate Reductase Proteins, Purva Prashant Bhojane Dec 2016

Towards Understanding Osmolyte Effects On Folate(S) And Dihydrofolate Reductase Proteins, Purva Prashant Bhojane

Doctoral Dissertations

Osmolytes are small molecules that alter water activity and probe role of water in biological processes. Osmotic stress approach explored the role of water in ligand binding to dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). DHFR catalyzes NADPH dependent reduction of dihydrofolate (DHF) to tetrahydrofolate (THF), which is essential for the synthesis of DNA, amino acids and other metabolic intermediates. R67 DHFR is a plasmid-encoded DHFR that confers resistance against trimethoprim, which is a potent inhibitor of E.coli chromosomal DHFR.

Osmolytes addition decreases the affinity of the substrate towards both the DHFRs. Weak preferential interactions between the osmolytes and DHF impede substrate binding ...


Switchgrass Extractives Have Potential As A Value-Added Antimicrobial Against Plant Pathogens And Foodborne Pathogens, Alexander Ian Bruce Dec 2016

Switchgrass Extractives Have Potential As A Value-Added Antimicrobial Against Plant Pathogens And Foodborne Pathogens, Alexander Ian Bruce

Masters Theses

Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), a perennial grass native to North America, is a leading biomass feedstock candidate for the manufacture of cellulosic ethanol. Switchgrass is considered a viable option for biofuel production due to its cheap production cost and ability to grow on marginal land. Biofuel derived from switchgrass has been shown to be very energy efficient, producing 540% more renewable energy versus nonrenewable energy expended. Switchgrass-derived biofuel is also estimated to have greenhouse gas emissions that are 94% lower than emissions from gasoline (Schmer et al 2008). Biofuels are created through biochemical processes that utilize various enzymes and microorganisms for ...