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Articles 1 - 30 of 113

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

An Unexpected Rhenium(Iv)–Rhenium(Vii) Salt: [Co(Nh3)6]3[Reviio4][Reivf6]46h2o, James Louis_Jean, Samudee Mariappan Balasekaran, Adelheid Hagenbach, Frederic Poineau Jul 2019

An Unexpected Rhenium(Iv)–Rhenium(Vii) Salt: [Co(Nh3)6]3[Reviio4][Reivf6]46h2o, James Louis_Jean, Samudee Mariappan Balasekaran, Adelheid Hagenbach, Frederic Poineau

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

The title hydrated salt, tris[hexaamminecobalt(III)] tetraoxidorhenate(VII) tetrakis[hexafluoridorhenate(IV)] hexahydrate, arose unexpectedly due to possible contamination of the K2ReF6 starting material with KReO4. It consists of octahedral [Co(NH3)6] 3+ cation (Co1 site symmetry 1), tetrahedral [ReVIIO4] anions (Re site symmetry 1) and octahedral [ReIVF6] 2 anions (Re site symmetries 1and 3). The [ReF6] 2 octahedral anions (mean Re—F = 1.834 A˚ ), [Co(NH3)6] 3+ octahedral cations (mean Co—N = 1.962 A˚ ), and the [ReO4] tetrahedral anion (mean Re—O = 1.719 A˚ ) are slightly distorted. A network of N—HF hydrogen bonds ...


Acid Sphingomyelinase Regulates The Localization And Trafficking Of Palmitoylated Proteins, Xiahui Xiong, Chia-Fang Lee, Wenjing Li, Jiekai Yu, Linyu Zhu, Yongsoon Kim, Hul Zhang, Hong Sun May 2019

Acid Sphingomyelinase Regulates The Localization And Trafficking Of Palmitoylated Proteins, Xiahui Xiong, Chia-Fang Lee, Wenjing Li, Jiekai Yu, Linyu Zhu, Yongsoon Kim, Hul Zhang, Hong Sun

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

In human, loss of Acid Sphingomeylinase (ASM/SMPD1) causes Niemann-Pick Disease, type A. ASM hydrolyzes sphingomyelins to produce ceramides but protein targets of ASM remain largely unclear. ... See full text for complete abstract.


Induction Of Met Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Down-Regulation Through Antibody-Mediated Receptor Clustering, Wenjing Li, Adam Dick, Fei Lu, Hong Sun Feb 2019

Induction Of Met Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Down-Regulation Through Antibody-Mediated Receptor Clustering, Wenjing Li, Adam Dick, Fei Lu, Hong Sun

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

The proto-oncoprotein MET is a receptor tyrosine kinase that plays a key role in cancer cell growth and invasion. We have used fluorescence-tagged antibodies to activate MET in live serum-starved glioblastoma cells and monitor the fate of antibody-bound MET receptor in single cell-based assays. We found that the antibodies induced rapid and transient formation of highly polarized MET clusters on the plasma membrane and promoted the activation of MET, resembling the initial effects of binding to its ligand, HGF. However, the antibody-induced clustering and activation of MET led to the rapid removal of the receptor from cell surface and altered ...


Aligning Best Practices In Student Success And Career Preparedness: An Exploratory Study To Establish Pathways To Stem Careers For Undergraduate Minority Students, Kimberly D. Kendricks, Anthony A. Arment, K. V. Nedunuri, Cadance A. Lowell Jan 2019

Aligning Best Practices In Student Success And Career Preparedness: An Exploratory Study To Establish Pathways To Stem Careers For Undergraduate Minority Students, Kimberly D. Kendricks, Anthony A. Arment, K. V. Nedunuri, Cadance A. Lowell

Journal of Research in Technical Careers

Undergraduate minority retention and graduation rates in STEM disciplines is a nationally recognized challenge for workforce growth and diversification. The Benjamin Banneker Scholars Program (BBSP) was a five-year undergraduate study developed to increase minority student retention and graduation rates at an HBCU. The program structure utilized a family model as a vehicle to orient students to the demands of college. Program activities integrated best K-12 practices and workforce skillsets to increase academic preparedness and career readiness. Findings revealed that a familial atmosphere improved academic performance, increased undergraduate research, and generated positive perceptions of faculty mentoring. Retention rates among BBSP participants ...


Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen Interacts With The Crl4 Ubiquitin Ligase Subunit Cdt2 In Dna Synthesis-Induced Degradation Of Cdt1, Feng Leng, Lovely Saxena, Nam Hoang, Chunxiao Zhang, Logan Lee, Wenjing Li, Xiaoshan Gong, Fei Lu, Hong Sun, Hui Zhang Oct 2018

Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen Interacts With The Crl4 Ubiquitin Ligase Subunit Cdt2 In Dna Synthesis-Induced Degradation Of Cdt1, Feng Leng, Lovely Saxena, Nam Hoang, Chunxiao Zhang, Logan Lee, Wenjing Li, Xiaoshan Gong, Fei Lu, Hong Sun, Hui Zhang

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

During DNA replication or repair, the DNA polymerase cofactor, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), homotrimerizes and encircles the replicating DNA, thereby acting as a DNA clamp that promotes DNA polymerase processivity. The formation of the PCNA trimer is also essential for targeting the replication-licensing protein, chromatin-licensing, and DNA replication factor 1 (CDT1), for ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis to prevent chromosomal DNA re-replication. CDT1 uses its PCNA-interacting peptide box (PIP box) to interact with PCNA, and the CRL4 E3 ubiquitin ligase subunit CDT2 is recruited through the formation of PCNA–CDT1 complexes. However, it remains unclear how CDT1 and many other PIP box ...


Ultrafast Laser Filament-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy Of Uranyl Fluoride, P. J. Skrodzki, M. Burger, L. A. Finney, F. Poineau, S. M. Balasekaran, J. Nees, K. R. Czerwinski, I. Jovanovic Aug 2018

Ultrafast Laser Filament-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy Of Uranyl Fluoride, P. J. Skrodzki, M. Burger, L. A. Finney, F. Poineau, S. M. Balasekaran, J. Nees, K. R. Czerwinski, I. Jovanovic

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Uranyl fluoride (UO2F2) is a compound which forms in the reaction between water and uranium hexafluoride, a uranium containing gas widely used for uranium enrichment. Uranyl fluoride exhibits negligible natural background in atmosphere; as a result, its observation implies the presence and active operation of nearby enrichment facilities and could be used as a tracer for treaty verification technologies. Additionally, detection of UO2F2 has a potential application in guiding remediation efforts around enrichment facilities. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) has been proposed in the past as a viable technique for the detection and tracking of UO2F2. We demonstrate that ultrafast laser filamentation ...


Dietary Polyphenols And Periodontitis—A Mini-Review Of Literature, Arpita Basu, Emily Masek, Jeffrey L. Ebersole Jul 2018

Dietary Polyphenols And Periodontitis—A Mini-Review Of Literature, Arpita Basu, Emily Masek, Jeffrey L. Ebersole

Kinesiology and Nutrition Sciences Faculty Publications

Periodontitis, which is a chronic infection and disease of the periodontium, is a significant global health burden and is linked to other chronic health conditions such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Dietary polyphenols present in a wide variety of plant-based foods, herbs, and botanicals have been shown to exert antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and reduced osteoclast and alveolar bone loss activities in animal models of periodontitis. Polyphenol-containing beverages and foods especially green tea and its active catechin epigallocatechin-3-gallate, cranberries, pomegranates, and fruit and vegetable extracts have reported bacteriostatic/bactericidal activity against microbial species such as P. gingivalis and shown total bacterial burden ...


Effect Of Bmp Treatment On Periostin Gene Expression In Pre-Osteoblastic Mc3t3-E1 Mouse Cells, Vincent Lee Khang May 2018

Effect Of Bmp Treatment On Periostin Gene Expression In Pre-Osteoblastic Mc3t3-E1 Mouse Cells, Vincent Lee Khang

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Periostin is a secreted, extracellular matrix (ECM) protein widely expressed within collagen-rich fibrous connective tissues of the body including the periodontal ligament (PDL), bone, skin, heart, and cornea. Periostin has been shown to serve many important regulatory functions including cell adhesion, cell motility, wound healing and of particular importance to the dental field, differentiation of osteoblasts. The deletion of periostin compromises osteoblast attachment to bone matrix and induces a reduction in mineralization and expression of bone markers, including type I collagen, osteocalcin, osteopontin and alkaline phosphatase. Periostin has also been shown to play a significant role in collagen fibrillogenesis by ...


Transcriptional Silencing And Anti-Silencing Of Virulence Genes In The Bacterial Pathogen Shigella Flexneri: Virb, Dna Supercoiling, And The Histone-Like Nucleoid Structuring Protein, Michael Adam Picker May 2018

Transcriptional Silencing And Anti-Silencing Of Virulence Genes In The Bacterial Pathogen Shigella Flexneri: Virb, Dna Supercoiling, And The Histone-Like Nucleoid Structuring Protein, Michael Adam Picker

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Transcriptional silencing and anti-silencing affect many aspects of bacterial physiology, including virulence in bacterial pathogens. In Shigella species, a group of gram-negative pathogens that cause bacillary dysentery in humans, the histone-like nucleoid structuring protein (H-NS) transcriptionally silences virulence genes found on the large virulence plasmid while VirB anti-silences these genes. However, the mechanistic details of their interplay are not fully understood. To elucidate their regulatory mechanisms, I use the icsP virulence locus, which shares a long intergenic region with the divergently transcribed ospZ gene (1535 bp from TSS to TSS). Prior to this work, two discrete H-NS binding regions had ...


The Caspase Cascade During Hibernation In The Golden-Mantled Ground Squirrel, Spermophilus Lateralis, Michael David Treat May 2018

The Caspase Cascade During Hibernation In The Golden-Mantled Ground Squirrel, Spermophilus Lateralis, Michael David Treat

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

In several human pathologies like heart attack, stroke, neurodegenerative diseases, and autoimmune disorders, widespread cell death, or apoptosis, is a major cause of organ dysfunction and death. Hibernating golden-mantled ground squirrels, Spermophilus lateralis, experience numerous conditions during the winter that are known to be pro-apoptotic in other mammal systems (e.g. extreme hypothermia, ischemia and reperfusion, acidosis, increased reactive oxygen species, bone and muscle disuse). However, studies suggest that hibernators may invoke a protective phenotype to limit widespread cell damage and loss during the hibernation season. Could regulating apoptosis provide protection against the harmful conditions experienced during the hibernation season ...


Quantifying The Differences In Binding Affinity Of Reduced Glutathione For Glutathione S-Transferase At Ph 6.5 And 8.5 Using Isothermal Titration Calorimetry, Clay P. Renshaw Jr, Ronald K. Gary Jan 2018

Quantifying The Differences In Binding Affinity Of Reduced Glutathione For Glutathione S-Transferase At Ph 6.5 And 8.5 Using Isothermal Titration Calorimetry, Clay P. Renshaw Jr, Ronald K. Gary

McNair Poster Presentations

The binding affinity between an enzyme and its substrate is often dependent on the pH of the local environment. Knowing the pH at which reduced glutathione (GSH) binds with the highest affinity to the enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) is useful for determining the optimal pH for purification of GST-fusion proteins during GST-affinity chromatography. In this study, GST of the species Schistosoma japonicum was purified, quantified, and utilized to study its binding interaction with GSH at pH 6.5 and 8.5 via isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). After protein expression, extraction, and purification, the GST concentration was quantified using Qubit ...


Complete Sequencing And Comparative Analysis Of The Genomes Of The First Magnetotactic Gammaproteobacteria Isolated In Pure Culture: Strains Bw-2 And Ss-5, Corey Geurink Dec 2017

Complete Sequencing And Comparative Analysis Of The Genomes Of The First Magnetotactic Gammaproteobacteria Isolated In Pure Culture: Strains Bw-2 And Ss-5, Corey Geurink

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The genomes of the first two discovered magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) belonging to the ammaproteobacteria, strains BW-2 and SS-51, were sequenced, sealed, annotated and compared to MTB of other phylogenetic groups. Cells of both strains are rod-shaped and biomineralize cuboctahedral and elongated octahedral crystals of magnetite, respectively, that are enveloped in a protein-embedded, lipid-bilayer membrane referred to as the magnetosome membrane or vesicle. The crystals and their associated membranes are known as magnetosomes. Magnetosome crystals consist of either magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4) and, because of their specific mineral compositions, crystal morphologies and sizes, the biomineralization processes involved in magnetosome formation ...


A Potential Solution To A Poopy Problem: Bile Salt Analogs As Prophylactics Against Clostridium Difficile Infection, Jacqueline Renee Phan Dec 2017

A Potential Solution To A Poopy Problem: Bile Salt Analogs As Prophylactics Against Clostridium Difficile Infection, Jacqueline Renee Phan

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. In 2011, over 500,000 patients were diagnosed with CDI in the United States and over 29,000 people died of CDI-related complications. With an average of $35,000 to treat a single case of inpatient CDI, cost burden to the healthcare system can reach up to $3.2 billion annually. As both hospital- and community-acquired CDI incidences rise due to the emergence of hypervirulent strains and CDI reoccurrences of up to 25%, standard treatments are rendered less effective and new methods of prevention are critical.

CDI is caused ...


The San1 Ubiquitin Ligase Functions Preferentially With Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme Ubc1 During Protein Quality Control, Rebeca Lea Ibarra Aug 2016

The San1 Ubiquitin Ligase Functions Preferentially With Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme Ubc1 During Protein Quality Control, Rebeca Lea Ibarra

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Protein quality control (PQC) is a critical process wherein misfolded or damaged proteins are cleared from the cell to maintain protein homeostasis. In eukaryotic cells, the removal of misfolded proteins is primarily accomplished by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). In the UPS, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes and ubiquitin ligases append poly-ubiquitin chains onto misfolded protein substrates signaling for their degradation. The kinetics of protein ubiquitylation are paramount since a balance must be achieved between the rapid removal of misfolded proteins versus providing sufficient time for protein chaperones to attempt refolding. To uncover the molecular basis for how PQC substrate ubiquitylation rates are controlled ...


Paenibacillus Larvae Spore Germination And American Foulbrood Disease Development In Honey Bee Larvae, Israel Alvarado Aug 2015

Paenibacillus Larvae Spore Germination And American Foulbrood Disease Development In Honey Bee Larvae, Israel Alvarado

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Honey bee (Apis mellifera) pollination plays an important role in meeting our agricultural needs, yet we are incapable of completely preventing a decline in bee health, partially due to bacterial diseases. American Foulbrood (AFB), a bacterial disease of honey bee larvae, is particularly troublesome because the infectious agent is the bacterial spore of Paenibacillus larvae. Bacterial spores are resistant to extreme temperatures, unaffected by antibiotics, withstand exposure to disinfectants, and can remain dormant for years until they can revert back to vegetative cells.

Our research investigated P. larvae spore germination at the functional and pathogen-host level. We have found that ...


The Presence Of Clostridium Difficile On Environmental Surfaces In Healthcare Facilities Pre- And Post-Decontamination Of Patient Rooms, Theresa Trice Aug 2015

The Presence Of Clostridium Difficile On Environmental Surfaces In Healthcare Facilities Pre- And Post-Decontamination Of Patient Rooms, Theresa Trice

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are infections related to receiving medical care. HAIs are responsible for an excess of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients. Though most HAIs rates are on the decline, Clostridium difficile infection rates are at an all-time high, primarily due to the persistence of C. difficile spores in the environment. In the United States, Clostridium difficile-related mortality rates per million have increased from 5.7 in 1999 to 23.7 in 2004, with an estimated 26,642 deaths due to Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs). Clostridium difficile is transmitted via the fecal-oral route or aerosolized endospores, but it can ...


In Vitro Studies Of Gold And Gold Silica Nanoparticle Radiosensitization With Kilovoltage X-Rays, Gregory Colarch May 2015

In Vitro Studies Of Gold And Gold Silica Nanoparticle Radiosensitization With Kilovoltage X-Rays, Gregory Colarch

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Technological advances in the ability to construct and manipulate nanoscale particles have opened up the possibility of using solid metallic nanoparticles and mixed metal nanoshells as a means to increase dose enhancement and treatment efficacy to tumors. In order for nanoparticles to be an effective form of treatment, they must be delivered to tumors in sufficient concentrations so that there is a dose enhancement factor due to ionizing radiation, as well as being essentially non-toxic to healthy cells. Gold nanoparticles and silica-gold nanoshells fit these requirements. Gold has a high atomic number (Z=79), which gives a larger cross section ...


Beryllium Is A Potent And Unique Gsk-3Β Inhibitor With Potential To Differentially Regulate Glycogen Synthase And Β-Catenin, Ata Ur Rahman Mohammed Abdul May 2015

Beryllium Is A Potent And Unique Gsk-3Β Inhibitor With Potential To Differentially Regulate Glycogen Synthase And Β-Catenin, Ata Ur Rahman Mohammed Abdul

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β (GSK-3β) is an important serine/threonine kinase that phosphorylates/regulates diverse and metabolically important proteins. Some of the important substrates of GSK-3β are glycogen synthase, tau, β-catenin, cyclin D1, axin, c-jun, c-myc, Heat Shock Factor–1, BCL-3, CREB, Histone H1.5, mdm2, p21 (CIP1), pyruvate dehydrogenase and many more. De-regulation of GSK-3β has been implicated in diseases like cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, bipolar disorder and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Currently, GSK-3β is one of the most widely studied proteins and there is a great interest in developing potent and efficient GSK-3β-inhibitors for research as well as therapeutic ...


Alternate Germinants Of C. Difficile, A Leading Hospital Pathogen, Sean Tanzey, Ernesto Abel-Santos Jan 2015

Alternate Germinants Of C. Difficile, A Leading Hospital Pathogen, Sean Tanzey, Ernesto Abel-Santos

McNair Poster Presentations

Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) are the leading nosocomial infections worldwide. Humans are asymptomatic carriers of C. difficile spores in the intestinal tract. The process known as germination occurs when otherwise harmless C. difficile spores are converted to toxin-producing cells upon recognition of bile salts in humans. This distinctive transition ultimately leads to the onset of disease and recurrent CDI. Germination profiles will be characterized in response to peptidoglycan (PG) fragments isolated from various bacterial species. These specific peptidoglycan fragments contain different amino acid residues that may induce different germination responses. Purification and structural determination of the peptidoglycan fragments will be ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Novel Platinum(Ii) And Platinum(Iv) Complexes Containing 4,4′--Disubstituted--2,2′--Bipyridine Ligands For The Treatment Of Cancer, Van Vo Aug 2014

Synthesis And Characterization Of Novel Platinum(Ii) And Platinum(Iv) Complexes Containing 4,4′--Disubstituted--2,2′--Bipyridine Ligands For The Treatment Of Cancer, Van Vo

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Three series of platinum(II) and platinum(IV) complexes containing 4,4′-disubstituted-2,2′-bipyridine ligands have been synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, mass spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry measurements. The MTS cell proliferation assay was used to examine the in vitro anti-proliferative activities of these complexes in various human breast, lung, and prostate cancer cells. The cell's response to the complexes varies between different cell lines; however, the low EC50 values determined from the MTS data indicate that several of the complexes are much more potent than cisplatin.

Flow cytometric analysis ...


Determining The Presence Of Carbapenem Antibiotic Resistance In Clinical Isolates, Fidelis Uzoma Enyinnaya May 2014

Determining The Presence Of Carbapenem Antibiotic Resistance In Clinical Isolates, Fidelis Uzoma Enyinnaya

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Carbapenems are β-lactam antibiotics reserved for the treatment of severe microbial infections, especially those targeting the Enterobacteriaceae. Introduced in the 1980s, carbapenems have been used successfully in hospitals, and in the 1990s resistance was discovered. Carbapenem resistance is conferred through the production of carbapenemases. In the U.S., the most common carbapenemase is Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC). In 2012, the National Healthcare Safety Network reported a carbapenem resistance rate of 13.0% among Klebsiella pneumoniae infections, and indicated that the mortality rate associated with carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infections ranged from 48.0-71.9%. According to the Food and Drug ...


Initial Characterization Of A Conserved Active Site Residue For The Cdc34 Ubiquitin Conjugating Enzyme, Arvin Akoopie May 2014

Initial Characterization Of A Conserved Active Site Residue For The Cdc34 Ubiquitin Conjugating Enzyme, Arvin Akoopie

Theses

Ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s) covalently modify protein substrates with ubiquitins. The active site cysteine residues on E2s are essential for catalyzing the transfer of ubiquitin from the E2 active site onto the protein substrate, however there is a limited amount of information available concerning additional active site residues for E2s that may also participate in catalysis. Cdc34 is an essential E2 that has merited the lion’s share of attention for biochemical analysis of the E2 family. Previous phylogenetic analysis of Cdc34 amino acid sequences has identified an invariably conserved histidine residue close to the active site cysteine in the primary ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Pt(Ii) Complexes For Anticancer Therapy, Mihaela A. Ciulei, Pradip K. Bhowmik Professor Jan 2014

Synthesis And Characterization Of Pt(Ii) Complexes For Anticancer Therapy, Mihaela A. Ciulei, Pradip K. Bhowmik Professor

McNair Poster Presentations

The first platinum-based drug was discovered and approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1978 is cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) (cisplatin or CDDP). Cisplatin is used for about 50% of the chemotherapeutic cancer treatments along with its two analogues carboplatin and oxaliplatin. So far these drugs have been used extensively as treatment for ovarian, bladder, head and neck, and lung cancers. Although cisplatin has been used so often, it has toxic side effects and drug resistance.1-4 Due to these limitations other compounds have been synthesized. Specifically, our lab in conjunction with a biochemistry lab has recently published one ...


Efficacy Of Gold Silica Nanoshells And Gold Nanorods For Photothermal Therapy Of Human Glioma Spheroids, Suyog Jung Chhetri Aug 2013

Efficacy Of Gold Silica Nanoshells And Gold Nanorods For Photothermal Therapy Of Human Glioma Spheroids, Suyog Jung Chhetri

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Gold-based nanoparticles including gold-silica nano-spheres and gold nano-rods have been investigated for a number of therapeutic and diagnostic applications. The ability of these nanoparticles to convert light into heat energy makes them particularly appealing for photothermal therapy in which cancer cells are destroyed via light-induced heat generation. The overall objective of the study is to compare the efficacy of gold-silica nano-spheres and gold nano-rods in an in vitro system consisting of human brain tumor (glioma) spheroids.

Delivery of the nanoparticles to the spheroids was accomplished using murine macrophages. Nanoparticles (spheres or rods) were incubated with macrophages for 24 hours. Thereafter ...


What Can Biochemistry Students Learn About Protein Translation? Using Variation Theory To Explore The Space Of Learning Created By Some Common External Representations, Thomas J. Bussey May 2013

What Can Biochemistry Students Learn About Protein Translation? Using Variation Theory To Explore The Space Of Learning Created By Some Common External Representations, Thomas J. Bussey

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Biochemistry education relies heavily on students' ability to visualize abstract cellular and molecular processes, mechanisms, and components. As such, biochemistry educators often turn to external representations to provide tangible, working models from which students' internal representations (mental models) can be constructed, evaluated, and revised. However, prior research has shown that, while potentially beneficial, external representations can also lead to alternative student conceptions.

Considering the breadth of biochemical phenomena, protein translation has been identified as an essential biochemical process and can subsequently be considered a fundamental concept for biochemistry students to learn. External representations of translation range from static diagrams to ...


The Role Of Oswrky71 And Its Interacting Proteins In Seed Germination And Early Growth Of Cereal Grains, Margaret Ja Shin May 2013

The Role Of Oswrky71 And Its Interacting Proteins In Seed Germination And Early Growth Of Cereal Grains, Margaret Ja Shin

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

During seed germination and early seedling growth, complex molecular and physiological events occur in rice (Oryza sativa) and other cereal grains. As the seed transitions to vegetative tissue, it responds to both favorable and unfavorable environmental conditions and is vulnerable to attack by predation and disease. Although seeds are relatively small and tender in size, extensive and sophisticated molecular networks enables the immobile seed to grow, survive and adapt in its environment. One of the networks I am interested in is in the crosstalk between the gibberellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathways. These pathways are interesting because they ...


Secondary Structure, A Missing Component Of Sequence- Based Minimotif Definitions, David P. Sargeant, Michael R. Gryk, Mark W. Maciejewsk, Vishal Thapar, Vamsi Kundeti, Sanguthevar Rajasekaran, Pedro Romero, Keith Dunker, Shun-Cheng Li, Tomonori Kaneko, Martin Schiller Dec 2012

Secondary Structure, A Missing Component Of Sequence- Based Minimotif Definitions, David P. Sargeant, Michael R. Gryk, Mark W. Maciejewsk, Vishal Thapar, Vamsi Kundeti, Sanguthevar Rajasekaran, Pedro Romero, Keith Dunker, Shun-Cheng Li, Tomonori Kaneko, Martin Schiller

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

Minimotifs are short contiguous segments of proteins that have a known biological function. The hundreds of thousands of minimotifs discovered thus far are an important part of the theoretical understanding of the specificity of protein-protein interactions, posttranslational modifications, and signal transduction that occur in cells. However, a longstanding problem is that the different abstractions of the sequence definitions do not accurately capture the specificity, despite decades of effort by many labs. We present evidence that structure is an essential component of minimotif specificity, yet is not used in minimotif definitions. Our analysis of several known minimotifs as case studies, analysis ...


A Genetic, Transgenic, And Transcriptomic Analysis Of Larval Salivary Gland Physiology In Drosophila Melanogaster, Elana A. Paladino Dec 2012

A Genetic, Transgenic, And Transcriptomic Analysis Of Larval Salivary Gland Physiology In Drosophila Melanogaster, Elana A. Paladino

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Cholesterol is the precursor to a unique class of lipophilic signaling molecules called steroid hormones that initiate the development of sexual characteristics, reactions to stress, and maintenance of metabolism, among many other functions. Although much progress has been made in understanding the function of these signaling hormones, we do not fully understand how a single steroid can cause many distinct, tissue-specific responses. Drosophila melanogaster is an effective model for understanding steroid hormone action because of its simplicity. The steroid molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (hereafter, 20E) is the primary active steroid in Drosophila and mediates not only larval molts and the emergence ...


Characterization Of Beryllium As A Novel Agent To Study Cell Cycle Arrest And Cellular Senescence, Priyatham Gorjala Dec 2012

Characterization Of Beryllium As A Novel Agent To Study Cell Cycle Arrest And Cellular Senescence, Priyatham Gorjala

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Cancer cells evade senescence, apoptosis, and other constraints on proliferation, often via mutation of the p53 tumor suppressor gene (TP53). Normal human lung fibroblasts have been shown to enter premature senescence upon exposure to beryllium. In these cells, BeSO4 stabilizes p53 protein, increases p21 gene expression, induces senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity and causes cell proliferation arrest. In the present study, we have investigated whether BeSO4 is able to induce similar effects in cancer cells that have wildtype p53. We have demonstrated that beryllium salt at low concentration can induce molecular changes in the p53 signaling pathway leading to cell ...


Anti-Germinants As A New Strategy To Prevent Clostridium Difficile Infections, Amber Janece Howerton Dec 2012

Anti-Germinants As A New Strategy To Prevent Clostridium Difficile Infections, Amber Janece Howerton

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Clostridium difficileinfections (CDI) have emerged as a leading cause of hospital-associated complications. CDI is the major cause of antibiotic-related cases of diarrhea and nearly all cases of pseudomembranous colitis. The infective form of C. difficileis the spore, a dormant and hardy structure that forms under stress. Germination of C. difficile spores into toxin producing bacteria in the GI tract of susceptible patients is the first step in CDI establishment. Patient susceptibility occurs with a disruption of the natural gut microbiota by broad-spectrum antibiotics. Antibiotic treatments usually resolve CDI but refractory cases are on the rise. Of great concern is the ...