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Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology Commons

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Articles 1 - 3 of 3

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Autophagy In Adipocyte Browning: Emerging Drug Target For Intervention In Obesity, Seung-Hyun Ro, Yura Jang, Jiyoung Bae, Isaac M. Kim, Cameron Schaecher, Zachery D. Shomo Jan 2019

Autophagy In Adipocyte Browning: Emerging Drug Target For Intervention In Obesity, Seung-Hyun Ro, Yura Jang, Jiyoung Bae, Isaac M. Kim, Cameron Schaecher, Zachery D. Shomo

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Autophagy, lipophagy, and mitophagy are considered to be the major recycling processes for protein aggregates, excess fat, and damaged mitochondria in adipose tissues in response to nutrient status-associated stress, oxidative stress, and genotoxic stress in the human body. Obesity with increased body weight is often associated with white adipose tissue (WAT) hypertrophy and hyperplasia and/or beige/brown adipose tissue atrophy and aplasia, which significantly contribute to the imbalance in lipid metabolism, adipocytokine secretion, free fatty acid release, and mitochondria function. In recent studies, hyperactive autophagy in WAT was observed in obese and diabetic patients, and inhibition of adipose autophagy ...


Suppression Of Nlrp3 Inflammasome By Γ-Tocotrienol Ameliorates Type 2 Diabetes, Yongeun Kim, Wei Wang, Meshail Okla, Inhae Kang, Regis Moreau, Soonkyu Chung Jan 2016

Suppression Of Nlrp3 Inflammasome By Γ-Tocotrienol Ameliorates Type 2 Diabetes, Yongeun Kim, Wei Wang, Meshail Okla, Inhae Kang, Regis Moreau, Soonkyu Chung

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

The Nod-like receptor 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is an intracellular sensor that sets off the innate immune system in response to microbial-derived and endogenous metabolic danger signals. We previously reported that γ-tocotrienol (γT3) attenuated adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance in diet-induced obesity, but the underlying mechanism remained elusive. Here, we investigated the effects of γT3 on NLRP3 inflammasome activation and attendant consequences on type 2 diabetes. γT3 repressed inflammasome activation, caspase-1 cleavage, and interleukin (IL) 1β secretion in murine macrophages, implicating the inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome in the anti-inflammatory and antipyroptotic properties of γT3. Furthermore, supplementation of leptin-receptor KO mice ...


Microrna Function In Human Diseases, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Mary Anne Smith, Cody J. Wehrkamp, Ashley M. Mohr, Justin L. Mott Jan 2013

Microrna Function In Human Diseases, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Mary Anne Smith, Cody J. Wehrkamp, Ashley M. Mohr, Justin L. Mott

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

MicroRNAs are emerging as a hot topic in research, and rightfully so. They show great promise as targets of treatment and as markers for common human diseases, such as cancer and metabolic diseases. In this review, we address some of the basic questions regarding micro- RNA function in human disease and the clinical significance of microRNAs. Specifically, micro- RNAs in epigenetics, cancer, and metabolic diseases are discussed, with examples taken from cholangiocarcinoma and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.