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Articles 1 - 14 of 14

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Seasonal Variation And Ecosystem Dependence Of Emission Factors For Selected Trace Gases And Pm2.5 For Southern African Savanna Fires, S. Korontzi, Darold E. Ward, Ronald A. Susott, Robert J. Yokelson, C. O. Justice, Peter V. Hobbs, E.A. H. Smithwick, Wei Min Hao Dec 2003

Seasonal Variation And Ecosystem Dependence Of Emission Factors For Selected Trace Gases And Pm2.5 For Southern African Savanna Fires, S. Korontzi, Darold E. Ward, Ronald A. Susott, Robert J. Yokelson, C. O. Justice, Peter V. Hobbs, E.A. H. Smithwick, Wei Min Hao

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

[1] In this paper we present the first early dry season (early June-early August) emission factor measurements for carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), and particulates with a diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) for southern African grassland and woodland fires. Seasonal emission factors for grassland fires correlate linearly with the proportion of green grass, used as a surrogate for the fuel moisture content, and are higher for products of incomplete combustion in the early part of the dry season compared with later in the dry season. Models of emission ...


Comprehensive Laboratory Measurements Of Biomass-Burning Emissions: 1. Emissions From Indonesian, African, And Other Fuels, Ted J. Christian, B. Kleiss, Robert J. Yokelson, R. Holzinger, P. J. Crutzen, Wei Min Hao, B. H. Saharjo, Darold E. Ward Dec 2003

Comprehensive Laboratory Measurements Of Biomass-Burning Emissions: 1. Emissions From Indonesian, African, And Other Fuels, Ted J. Christian, B. Kleiss, Robert J. Yokelson, R. Holzinger, P. J. Crutzen, Wei Min Hao, B. H. Saharjo, Darold E. Ward

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

[1] Trace gas and particle emissions were measured from 47 laboratory fires burning 16 regionally to globally significant fuel types. Instrumentation included the following: open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry; filter sampling with subsequent analysis of particles with diameter <2.5 μm for organic and elemental carbon and other elements; and canister sampling with subsequent analysis by gas chromatography (GC)/flame ionization detector, GC/electron capture detector, and GC/mass spectrometry. The emissions of 26 compounds are reported by fuel type. The results include the first detailed measurements of the emissions from Indonesian fuels. Carbon dioxide, CO, CH4, NH3, HCN, methanol, and acetic acid were the seven most abundant emissions (in order) from burning Indonesian peat. Acetol (hydroxyacetone) was a major, previously unobserved emission from burning rice straw (21–34 g/kg). The emission factors for our simulated African fires are consistent with field data for African fires for compounds measured in both ...


Evaluation Of Adsorption Effects On Measurements Of Ammonia, Acetic Acid, And Methanol, Robert J. Yokelson, Ted J. Christian, Isaac T. Bertschi, Wei M. Hao Oct 2003

Evaluation Of Adsorption Effects On Measurements Of Ammonia, Acetic Acid, And Methanol, Robert J. Yokelson, Ted J. Christian, Isaac T. Bertschi, Wei M. Hao

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

[1] We examined how adsorption and desorption of gases from inlets and a cell could affect the accuracy of closed-cell FTIR measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), methanol (CH3OH), acetic acid (CH3COOH), and ammonia (NH3). When standards were delivered to the cell through a stainless steel inlet, temporarily reduced transmission was observed for CH3OH and NH3. However, a halocarbon wax coated inlet (normally used on the system) had excellent transmission (comparable to room temperature Teflon) for both CH3 ...


Magnetic Storage Device Using Induced Magnetic Reversal Of A Cobalt Element Array, Hanning Chen, Scott L. Whittenburg Oct 2003

Magnetic Storage Device Using Induced Magnetic Reversal Of A Cobalt Element Array, Hanning Chen, Scott L. Whittenburg

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

The effects of the applied field, cell size, and cutting area on the ‘‘seed’’ induced magnetic reversal of a cobalt element array have been studied by a stochastic dynamic micromagnetics code using the Laudau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation. Three magnetic reversal mechanisms under different magnitudes of the applied field have been investigated by examining the energy profiles. To minimize the effect of the thermal fluctuations on the switching time, an applied field with magnitude around 0.7 or 0.8 T and an element array with cutting area less than 10 nm X 10 nm are required. By using the smaller ...


Distributions Of Trace Gases And Aerosols During The Dry Biomass Burning Season In Southern Africa, Parikhit Sinha, Peter V. Hobbs, Robert J. Yokelson, Donald R. Blake, Song Gao, Thomas W. Kirschsetter Sep 2003

Distributions Of Trace Gases And Aerosols During The Dry Biomass Burning Season In Southern Africa, Parikhit Sinha, Peter V. Hobbs, Robert J. Yokelson, Donald R. Blake, Song Gao, Thomas W. Kirschsetter

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

[1] Vertical profiles in the lower troposphere of temperature, relative humidity, sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), condensation nuclei (CN), and carbon monoxide (CO), and horizontal distributions of twenty gaseous and particulate species, are presented for five regions of southern Africa during the dry biomass burning season of 2000. The regions are the semiarid savannas of northeast South Africa and northern Botswana, the savanna-forest mosaic of coastal Mozambique, the humid savanna of southern Zambia, and the desert of western Namibia. The highest average concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), CO, methane (CH4), O3, black particulate carbon, and ...


Trace Gas Measurements In Nascent, Aged, And Cloud-Processed Smoke From African Savanna Fires By Airborne Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (Aftir), Robert J. Yokelson, Issac T. Bertschi, Ted J. Christian, Peter V. Hobbs, Darold E. Ward, Wei Min Hao Jul 2003

Trace Gas Measurements In Nascent, Aged, And Cloud-Processed Smoke From African Savanna Fires By Airborne Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (Aftir), Robert J. Yokelson, Issac T. Bertschi, Ted J. Christian, Peter V. Hobbs, Darold E. Ward, Wei Min Hao

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

[1] We measured stable and reactive trace gases with an airborne Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (AFTIR) on the University of Washington Convair-580 research aircraft in August/September 2000 during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign in Southern Africa. The measurements included vertical profiles of CO2, CO, H2O, and CH4 up to 5.5 km on six occasions above instrumented ground sites and below the TERRA satellite and ER-2 high-flying research aircraft. We also measured the trace gas emissions from 10 African savanna fires. Five of these fires featured extensive ground-based fuel characterization, and two were in ...


Thickness Dependence Of Magnetic Blocking In Granular Thin Films With Interacting Magnetic Particles, Jian Qing Wang, Zhi Dong Zhao, Scott L. Whittenburg Jun 2003

Thickness Dependence Of Magnetic Blocking In Granular Thin Films With Interacting Magnetic Particles, Jian Qing Wang, Zhi Dong Zhao, Scott L. Whittenburg

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Interparticle interaction among single domain nanosize magnetic particles embedded in nonmagnetic matrix was studied. Attention was paid to concentrated Cu–Co granular thin films with a fixed magnetic volume fraction (20%). By analyzing theoretical models and comparing with experimental results, a dimensional constraint on the magnetic properties was found. As the film thickness reduces toward the thin limit the interparticle interaction plays important roles in modifying the magnetic behavior. The dipolar interaction energy was calculated among magnetic particles including far-neighbor interaction for films with different thickness values. When magnetization variation is included in the calculation, the resulting calculated interaction energy ...


Tropospheric Carbon Monoxide Measurements From The Scanning High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder On 7 September 2000 In Southern Africa During Safari 2000, W. W. Mcmillan, M. L. Mccourt, H. E. Revercomb, R. O. Knuteson, Ted J. Christian, B. G. Doddridge, Peter V. Hobbs, J. V. Lukovich, P. C. Novelli, S. J. Piketh, L. Sparling, D. Stein, R. J. Swap, Robert J. Yokelson Apr 2003

Tropospheric Carbon Monoxide Measurements From The Scanning High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder On 7 September 2000 In Southern Africa During Safari 2000, W. W. Mcmillan, M. L. Mccourt, H. E. Revercomb, R. O. Knuteson, Ted J. Christian, B. G. Doddridge, Peter V. Hobbs, J. V. Lukovich, P. C. Novelli, S. J. Piketh, L. Sparling, D. Stein, R. J. Swap, Robert J. Yokelson

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

[1] Retrieved tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) column densities are presented for more than 9000 spectra obtained by the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UWis) Scanning High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder (SHIS) during a flight on the NASA ER-2 on 7 September 2000 as part of the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) dry season field campaign. Enhancements in tropospheric column CO were detected in the vicinity of a controlled biomass burn in the Timbavati Game Reserve in northeastern South Africa and over the edge of the river of smoke in south central Mozambique. Relatively clean air was observed over the far southern coast ...


Emissions Of Trace Gases And Particles From Savanna Fires In Southern Africa, Parikhit Sinha, Peter V. Hobbs, Robert J. Yokelson, I. T. Bertschi, Donald R. Blake, Isobel J. Simpson, Song Gao, Thomas W. Kirschsetter, Tica Novakov Mar 2003

Emissions Of Trace Gases And Particles From Savanna Fires In Southern Africa, Parikhit Sinha, Peter V. Hobbs, Robert J. Yokelson, I. T. Bertschi, Donald R. Blake, Isobel J. Simpson, Song Gao, Thomas W. Kirschsetter, Tica Novakov

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

[1] Airborne measurements made on initial smoke from 10 savanna fires in southern Africa provide quantitative data on emissions of 50 gaseous and particulate species, including carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, methane, ammonia, dimethyl sulfide, nonmethane organic compounds, halocarbons, gaseous organic acids, aerosol ionic components, carbonaceous aerosols, and condensation nuclei (CN). Measurements of several of the gaseous species by gas chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy are compared. Emission ratios and emission factors are given for eight species that have not been reported previously for biomass burning of savanna in southern Africa (namely, dimethyl sulfide, methyl nitrate ...


Evolution Of Gases And Particles From A Savanna Fire In South Africa, Peter V. Hobbs, Parikhit Sinha, Robert J. Yokelson, Ted J. Christian, Donald R. Blake, Song Gao, Thomas W. Kirschsetter, Tica Novakov, Peter Pilewskie Mar 2003

Evolution Of Gases And Particles From A Savanna Fire In South Africa, Peter V. Hobbs, Parikhit Sinha, Robert J. Yokelson, Ted J. Christian, Donald R. Blake, Song Gao, Thomas W. Kirschsetter, Tica Novakov, Peter Pilewskie

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

[1] Airborne measurements of particles and gases from a 1000-ha savanna fire in South Africa are presented. These measurements represent the most extensive data set reported on the aging of biomass smoke. The measurements include total concentrations of particles (CN), particle sizes, particulate organic carbon and black carbon, light-scattering coefficients, downwelling UV fluxes, and mixing ratios for 42 trace gases and 7 particulate species. The ratios of excess nitrate, ozone, and gaseous acetic acid to excess CO increased significantly as the smoke aged over ∼40–45 min, indicating that these species were formed by photochemistry in the plume. For 17 ...


Trace Gas And Particle Emissions From Fires In Large Diameter And Belowground Biomass Fuels, Isaac T. Bertschi, Robert J. Yokelson, Darold E. Ward, R. E. Babbitt, Ronald A. Susott, Jon G. Goode, Wei Min Hao Feb 2003

Trace Gas And Particle Emissions From Fires In Large Diameter And Belowground Biomass Fuels, Isaac T. Bertschi, Robert J. Yokelson, Darold E. Ward, R. E. Babbitt, Ronald A. Susott, Jon G. Goode, Wei Min Hao

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

[1] We adopt a working definition of residual smoldering combustion (RSC) as biomass combustion that produces emissions that are not lofted by strong fire-induced convection. RSC emissions can be produced for up to several weeks after the passage of a flame front and they are mostly unaffected by flames. Fuels prone to RSC include downed logs, duff, and organic soils. Limited observations in the tropics and the boreal forest suggest that RSC is a globally significant source of emissions to the troposphere. This source was previously uncharacterized. We measured the first emission factors (EF) for RSC in a series of ...


Trace Gas Emissions From The Production And Use Of Domestic Biofuels In Zambia Measured By Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Isaac T. Bertschi, Robert J. Yokelson, Darold E. Ward, Ted J. Christian, Wei Min Hao Feb 2003

Trace Gas Emissions From The Production And Use Of Domestic Biofuels In Zambia Measured By Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Isaac T. Bertschi, Robert J. Yokelson, Darold E. Ward, Ted J. Christian, Wei Min Hao

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

[1] Domestic biomass fuels (biofuels) were recently estimated to be the second largest source of carbon emissions from global biomass burning. Wood and charcoal provide approximately 90% and 10% of domestic energy in tropical Africa. In September 2000, we used open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectroscopy to quantify 18 of the most abundant trace gases emitted by wood and charcoal cooking fires and an earthen charcoal-making kiln in Zambia. These are the first in situ measurements of an extensive suite of trace gases emitted by tropical biofuel burning. We report emission ratios (ER) and emission factors (EF) for (in order ...


Fluorescence Determination Of Tryptophan Side-Chain Accessibility And Dynamics In Triple-Helical Collagen-Like Peptides, K. V. Simon-Lukasik, A. V. Persikov, B. Brodsky, J. A. M. Ramshaw, William Laws, J. B. A. Ross, R. D. Ludescher Jan 2003

Fluorescence Determination Of Tryptophan Side-Chain Accessibility And Dynamics In Triple-Helical Collagen-Like Peptides, K. V. Simon-Lukasik, A. V. Persikov, B. Brodsky, J. A. M. Ramshaw, William Laws, J. B. A. Ross, R. D. Ludescher

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

We report tryptophan fluorescence measurements of emission intensity, iodide quenching, and anisotropy that describe the environment and dynamics at X and Y sites in stable collagen-like peptides of sequence (Gly-X-Y)(n). About 90% of tryptophans at both sites have similar solvent exposed fluorescence properties and a lifetime of 8.5-9 ns. Analysis of anisotropy decays using an associative model indicates that these long lifetime populations undergo rapid depolarizing motion with a 0.5 ns correlation time; however, the extent of fast motion at the Y site is considerably less than the essentially unrestricted motion at the X site. About 10 ...


Constrained Analysis Of Fluorescence Anisotropy Decay: Application To Experimental Protein Dynamics, E. Feinstein, G. Deikus, E. Rusinova, E. L. Rachofsky, J. B. A. Ross, William Laws Jan 2003

Constrained Analysis Of Fluorescence Anisotropy Decay: Application To Experimental Protein Dynamics, E. Feinstein, G. Deikus, E. Rusinova, E. L. Rachofsky, J. B. A. Ross, William Laws

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Hydrodynamic properties as well as structural dynamics of proteins can be investigated by the well-established experimental method of fluorescence anisotropy decay. Successful use of this method depends on determination of the correct kinetic model, the extent of cross-correlation between parameters in the fitting function, and differences between the timescales; of the depolarizing motions and the fluorophore's fluorescence lifetime. We have tested the utility of an independently measured steady-state anisotropy value as a constraint during data analysis to reduce parameter cross correlation and to increase the timescales over which anisotropy decay parameters can be recovered accurately for two calcium-binding proteins ...