Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

University of Montana

Discipline
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 98

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Interleukin-6 And Exercise; Early Evidence Of A Novel Myokine, Brendan Hogg Mr. Jan 2018

Interleukin-6 And Exercise; Early Evidence Of A Novel Myokine, Brendan Hogg Mr.

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was first identified as a pleiotropic cytokine, with a host of body-wide functions. Cytokine functions are characterized by chronically elevated levels within various inflammatory states. In this regard, IL-6 is largely associated with the acute phase response to many stimuli and performs specific actions when produced from certain cell types. Accrued evidence indicates IL-6 release from skeletal muscle often includes myokine functions. Novel myokine functions are adaptive in nature, and as compared to inflammatory/cytokine roles, exhibit a transient time course. Following exercise plasma IL-6 peaks and returns to resting levels within 1-2 hours. In contrast, IL-6 is ...


Characterization Of Tetraethyl Orthosilicate-Based Dynamic Hydrogels For Use As Reversible 3-D Cell Culture Matrices, Krisitan Stipe Jan 2018

Characterization Of Tetraethyl Orthosilicate-Based Dynamic Hydrogels For Use As Reversible 3-D Cell Culture Matrices, Krisitan Stipe

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

No abstract provided.


The E. Coli Protein Ybgl: A Novel Dna Repair Enzyme?, Mason H. Conen, Brooke D. Martin, Kent Sugden, Savannah Whitfield Jan 2017

The E. Coli Protein Ybgl: A Novel Dna Repair Enzyme?, Mason H. Conen, Brooke D. Martin, Kent Sugden, Savannah Whitfield

Undergraduate Theses and Professional Papers

Cr(V) is a carcinogen that oxidizes guanine aggressively to form spiroiminodihydantion (Sp) and guanidinohydantoin (Gh), both of which contain an unusual hydantoin moiety that cause G→T transversion mutations at a high rate. Endonuclease VIII (nei) can recognize and excise these oxidation products from DNA and is translated as one of five protein products of the Nei operon in Escherichia coli (E. coli). However, the functions of the other four proteins remain unknown. To address this gap in knowledge, we focused on one of the four that immediately precedes nei, the ybgL protein. Previous work by our group has ...


Evolution Of The Kinetics And Dynamics Of Heme-Crevice Loop Regulating Chemistry In Human Cytochrome C, Shiloh M. Nold Jan 2017

Evolution Of The Kinetics And Dynamics Of Heme-Crevice Loop Regulating Chemistry In Human Cytochrome C, Shiloh M. Nold

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Cytochrome c, cytc, is a metalloprotein that plays primary roles in electron transport and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. Much of the chemistry that cytc is involved with is regulated by a highly conserved region known as the heme crevice loop, consisting of residues 70-85. Only three of these residues (those at positions 81, 83 and 85) are not universally conserved within the evolutionary timeline. Here I look to elucidate possible evolutionary roles for several of the key residues known to be important in regulating heme chemistry of cytc.

I first address the role that lysine 72 plays in ...


A Review Of Natural And Engineered Enzymes Involved In Bioethanol Production, Ines Cuesta Urena Jan 2016

A Review Of Natural And Engineered Enzymes Involved In Bioethanol Production, Ines Cuesta Urena

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Alternative petroleum-derived fuels, such as biofuels, is another form to decrease the dependence of non-renewable energy. The most promising alternative energy is cellulosic ethanol because of the abundance of cellulose and the overall lack of concern for the food-versus-fuel dilemma.

In order to produce ethanol from cellulosic materials, pretreatment is required to “open” the lignocellulosic matrix and make cellulose more susceptible to enzymatic degradation. Enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose is an important area of research due to the absence of negative effects in downstream processes in comparison with acid hydrolysis. Both natural enzymes and engineered enzymes can be used in the ...


In Situ Measurements And Modeling Of Reactive Trace Gases In A Small Biomass Burning Plume, M. Muller, B. Anderson, A. Beyersdorf, J. H. Crawford, G. Diskin, P. Eichler, A. Fried, F. N. Keutsch, T. Mikoviny, K. L. Thornhill, J. G. Walega, A. J. Weinheimer, M. Yang, Robert Yokelson, A. Wisthaler Nov 2015

In Situ Measurements And Modeling Of Reactive Trace Gases In A Small Biomass Burning Plume, M. Muller, B. Anderson, A. Beyersdorf, J. H. Crawford, G. Diskin, P. Eichler, A. Fried, F. N. Keutsch, T. Mikoviny, K. L. Thornhill, J. G. Walega, A. J. Weinheimer, M. Yang, Robert Yokelson, A. Wisthaler

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

An instrumented NASA P-3B aircraft was used for airborne sampling of trace gases in a plume that had emanated from a small forest understory fire in Georgia, USA. The plume was sampled at its origin for deriving emission factors and followed ~ 13.6 km downwind for observing chemical changes during the first hour of atmospheric aging. The P-3B payload included a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS), which measured non-methane organic gases (NMOGs) at unprecidented spatio-temporal resolution (10m/0.1 s). Quantitative emission data are reported for CO2, CO, NO, NO2, HONO, NH3 and 16 NMOGs (formaldehyde, methanol ...


Biomass Burning Emissions And Potential Air Quality Impacts Of Volatile Organic Compounds And Other Trace Gases From Temperate Fuels Common In The United States, J. B. Gilman, B. M. Lerner, W. C. Kuster, P. D. Goldan, C. Warneke, P. R. Veres, J. M. Roberts, J. A. De Gouw, I. R. Burling, Robert Yokelson Aug 2015

Biomass Burning Emissions And Potential Air Quality Impacts Of Volatile Organic Compounds And Other Trace Gases From Temperate Fuels Common In The United States, J. B. Gilman, B. M. Lerner, W. C. Kuster, P. D. Goldan, C. Warneke, P. R. Veres, J. M. Roberts, J. A. De Gouw, I. R. Burling, Robert Yokelson

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

A comprehensive suite of instruments was used to quantify the emissions of over 200 organic gases, including methane and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and 9 inorganic gases from 56 laboratory burns of 18 different biomass fuel types common in the southeastern, southwestern, or northern United States. A gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) provided extensive chemical detail of discrete air samples collected during a laboratory burn and was complemented by real-time measurements of organic and inorganic species via an open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (OP-FTIR) and 3 different chemical ionization-mass spectrometers. These measurements were conducted in February 2009 at the U.S ...


Investigating The Links Between Ozone And Organic Aerosol Chemistry In A Biomass Burning Plume From A Prescribed Fire In California Chaparral, M. J. Alvarado, C. R. Lonsdale, Robert Yokelson, Sheryl Kashi Akagi, H. Coe, J. S. Craven, E. V. Fischer, G. R. Mcmeeking, J. H. Seinfeld, T. Soni, J. W. Taylor, D. R. Weise, C. E. Wold Jun 2015

Investigating The Links Between Ozone And Organic Aerosol Chemistry In A Biomass Burning Plume From A Prescribed Fire In California Chaparral, M. J. Alvarado, C. R. Lonsdale, Robert Yokelson, Sheryl Kashi Akagi, H. Coe, J. S. Craven, E. V. Fischer, G. R. Mcmeeking, J. H. Seinfeld, T. Soni, J. W. Taylor, D. R. Weise, C. E. Wold

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Within minutes after emission, complex photochemistry in biomass burning smoke plumes can cause large changes in the concentrations of ozone (O3) and organic aerosol (OA). Being able to understand and simulate this rapid chemical evolution under a wide variety of conditions is a critical part of forecasting the impact of these fires on air quality, atmospheric composition, and climate. Here we use version 2.1 of the Aerosol Simulation Program (ASP) to simulate the evolution of O3 and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) within a young biomass burning smoke plume from the Williams prescribed fire in chaparral, which was sampled ...


Revealing Important Nocturnal And Day-To-Day Variations In Fire Smoke Emissions Through A Multiplatform Inversion, Pablo E. Saide, David A. Peterson, Arlindo Da Silva, Bruce Anderson, Luke D. Ziemba, Glenn Diskin, Glen Sachse, Johnathan Hair, Carolyn Butler, Marta Fenn, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Anne E. Perring, Joshua P. Schwarz, Milos Z. Markovic, Phil Russell, Jens Redemann, Yohei Shinozuka, David G. Streets, Fang Yan, Jack Dibb, Robert Yokelson, O. Brian Toon, Edward Hyer, Gregory R. Carmichael May 2015

Revealing Important Nocturnal And Day-To-Day Variations In Fire Smoke Emissions Through A Multiplatform Inversion, Pablo E. Saide, David A. Peterson, Arlindo Da Silva, Bruce Anderson, Luke D. Ziemba, Glenn Diskin, Glen Sachse, Johnathan Hair, Carolyn Butler, Marta Fenn, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Anne E. Perring, Joshua P. Schwarz, Milos Z. Markovic, Phil Russell, Jens Redemann, Yohei Shinozuka, David G. Streets, Fang Yan, Jack Dibb, Robert Yokelson, O. Brian Toon, Edward Hyer, Gregory R. Carmichael

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

We couple airborne, ground-based, and satellite observations; conduct regional simulations; and develop and apply an inversion technique to constrain hourly smoke emissions from the Rim Fire, the third largest observed in California, USA. Emissions constrainedwithmultiplatform data show notable nocturnal enhancements (sometimes over a factor of 20), correlate better with daily burned area data, and are a factor of 2–4 higher than a priori estimates, highlighting the need for improved characterization of diurnal profiles and day-to-day variability when modeling extreme fires. Constraining only with satellite data results in smaller enhancements mainly due to missing retrievals near the emissions source, suggesting ...


Identification And Quantification Of Gaseous Organic Compounds Emitted From Biomass Burning Using Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography–Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry, L. E. Hatch, W. Luo, J. F. Pankow, Robert Yokelson, C. Stockwell, K. C. Barsanti Feb 2015

Identification And Quantification Of Gaseous Organic Compounds Emitted From Biomass Burning Using Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography–Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry, L. E. Hatch, W. Luo, J. F. Pankow, Robert Yokelson, C. Stockwell, K. C. Barsanti

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

The current understanding of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation within biomass burning (BB) plumes is limited by the incomplete identification and quantification of the non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) emitted from such fires. Gaseous organic compounds were collected on sorbent cartridges during laboratory burns as part of the fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME-4) and analyzed by two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC x GC-ToFMS). The sensitivity and resolving power of GC x GC-ToFMS allowed the acquisition of the most extensive data set of BB NMOCs to date, with measurements from 708 positively or tentatively identified compounds. Estimated emission factors ...


Characterization Of Biomass Burning Emissions From Cooking Fires, Peat, Crop Residue, And Other Fuels With High-Resolution Proton-Transfer-Reaction Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry, C. Stockwell, P. Veres, J. Williams Jan 2015

Characterization Of Biomass Burning Emissions From Cooking Fires, Peat, Crop Residue, And Other Fuels With High-Resolution Proton-Transfer-Reaction Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry, C. Stockwell, P. Veres, J. Williams

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

We deployed a high-resolution proton-transferreaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) to measure biomass-burning emissions from peat, crop residue, cooking fires, and many other fire types during the fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME-4) laboratory campaign. A combination of gas standard calibrations and composition sensitive, mass-dependent calibration curves was applied to quantify gas-phase non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) observed in the complex mixture of fire emissions. We used several approaches to assign the best identities to most major “exact masses”, including many high molecular mass species. Using these methods, approximately 80–96% of the total NMOC mass detected by the PTR-TOFMS and ...


Observations And Analysis Of Organic Aerosol Evolution In Some Prescribed Fire Smoke Plumes, A. A. May, T. Lee, G. R. Mcmeeking, Sheryl Kashi Akagi, A. P. Sullivan, S. P. Urbanski, Robert Yokelson, S. M. Kreidenweis Jan 2015

Observations And Analysis Of Organic Aerosol Evolution In Some Prescribed Fire Smoke Plumes, A. A. May, T. Lee, G. R. Mcmeeking, Sheryl Kashi Akagi, A. P. Sullivan, S. P. Urbanski, Robert Yokelson, S. M. Kreidenweis

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Open biomass burning is a significant source of primary air pollutants such as particulate matter and non-methane organic gases. However, the physical and chemical atmospheric processing of these emissions during transport is poorly understood. Atmospheric 5 transformations of biomass burning emissions have been investigated in environmental chambers, but there have been limited opportunities to investigate these transformations in the atmosphere. In this study, we deployed a suite of real-time instrumentation on a Twin Otter aircraft to sample smoke from prescribed fires in South Carolina, conducting measurements at both the source and downwind to character10 ize smoke evolution with atmospheric aging ...


Thermodynamics Of Hhr23a Ubiquitin-Associated (Uba) Domains, Moses Joseph Leavens Jan 2015

Thermodynamics Of Hhr23a Ubiquitin-Associated (Uba) Domains, Moses Joseph Leavens

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Ubiquitin-associated (UBA) domains have been discovered in several proteins within the cell, and at least one domain plays an important functional role in cellular phenomena such as NF-κB signaling. Mutations within the UBA(2) domain of the ubiquitin-binding scaffold protein p62 are frequently observed in patients suffering from Paget’s disease of bone. The human DNA excision repair protein HHR23A contains the UBA(1) and UBA(2) domains, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structures depict their compact three-helix bundles. Moreover, the HHR23A UBA(1) and UBA(2) only share approximately 20% primary sequence identity. The p62 UBA(2) domain has ...


Investigating The Links Between Ozone And Organic Aerosol Chemistry In A Biomass Burning Plume From A Prescribed Fire In California Chaparral, M. J. Alvarado, C. R. Lonsdale, Robert Yokelson, S. K. Akagi, H. Coe, J. S. Craven, E. V. Fischer, G. R. Mcmeeking, J. H. Seinfeld, T. Soni, J. W. Taylor, D. R. Weise, C. E. Wold Dec 2014

Investigating The Links Between Ozone And Organic Aerosol Chemistry In A Biomass Burning Plume From A Prescribed Fire In California Chaparral, M. J. Alvarado, C. R. Lonsdale, Robert Yokelson, S. K. Akagi, H. Coe, J. S. Craven, E. V. Fischer, G. R. Mcmeeking, J. H. Seinfeld, T. Soni, J. W. Taylor, D. R. Weise, C. E. Wold

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Within minutes after emission, rapid, complex photochemistry within a biomass burning smoke plume can cause large changes in the concentrations of ozone (O3) and organic aerosol (OA). Being able to understand and simulate this rapid chemical evolution under a wide variety of conditions is a critical part of forecasting the impact of these fires on air quality, atmospheric composition, and climate. Here we use version 2.1 of the Aerosol Simulation Program (ASP) to simulate the evolution of O3 and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) within a young biomass burning smoke plume from the Williams prescribed burn in chaparral ...


Cold Magnetically Trapped 2DG Scandium Atoms. I. Interaction Potential, Tijs Karman, Xi Chu, Gerrit C. Groenenboom Nov 2014

Cold Magnetically Trapped 2DG Scandium Atoms. I. Interaction Potential, Tijs Karman, Xi Chu, Gerrit C. Groenenboom

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

We present a first principles description of the interaction of two ground-state scandium atoms. Scandium has a 2Dg ground state. Thirty molecular states correlate to the lowest dissociation limit of the dimer. In the short range, potential energy curves are calculated using second-order n-electron valence state perturbation theory. The first-order long-range interaction is calculated at the complete active space self-consistent field level. We determine the second-order long-range dispersion interaction from atomic dynamic polarizabilities at imaginary frequencies. These polarizabilities are calculated using time-dependent density functional theory. We merge the short-range approach with the long-range model to obtain a physical ...


Aerosol Emissions From Prescribed Fires In The United States: A Synthesis Of Laboratory And Aircraft Measurements, A. A. May, G. R. Mcmeeking, T. Lee, J. W. Taylor, J. S. Craven, I. R. Burling, A. P. Sullivan, Sheryl Kashi Akagi, J. L. Collett Jr., M. Flynn, H. Coe, S. P. Urbanski, J. H. Seinfeld, Robert Yokelson, S. M. Kreidenweis Oct 2014

Aerosol Emissions From Prescribed Fires In The United States: A Synthesis Of Laboratory And Aircraft Measurements, A. A. May, G. R. Mcmeeking, T. Lee, J. W. Taylor, J. S. Craven, I. R. Burling, A. P. Sullivan, Sheryl Kashi Akagi, J. L. Collett Jr., M. Flynn, H. Coe, S. P. Urbanski, J. H. Seinfeld, Robert Yokelson, S. M. Kreidenweis

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Aerosol emissions from prescribed fires can affect air quality on regional scales. Accurate representation of these emissions in models requires information regarding the amount and composition of the emitted species.Wemeasured a suite of submicron particulatematter species in young plumes emitted from prescribed fires (chaparral and montane ecosystems in California; coastal plain ecosystem in South Carolina) and from open burning of over 15 individual plant species in the laboratory. We report emission ratios and emission factors for refractory black carbon (rBC) and submicron nonrefractory aerosol and compare field and laboratory measurements to assess the representativeness of our laboratory-measured emissions. Laboratory ...


Airborne Characterization Of Smoke Marker Ratios From Prescribed Burning, A. P. Sullivan, A. A. May, T. Lee, G. R. Mcmeeking, S. M. Kreidenweis, S. K. Akagi, Robert Yokelson, S. P. Urbanski, J. L. Collett Jr. Oct 2014

Airborne Characterization Of Smoke Marker Ratios From Prescribed Burning, A. P. Sullivan, A. A. May, T. Lee, G. R. Mcmeeking, S. M. Kreidenweis, S. K. Akagi, Robert Yokelson, S. P. Urbanski, J. L. Collett Jr.

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

A Particle-Into-Liquid Sampler – Total Organic Carbon (PILS-TOC) and fraction collector system was flown aboard a Twin Otter aircraft sampling prescribed burning emissions in South Carolina in November 2011 to obtain smoke marker measurements. The fraction collector provided 2 min time-integrated offline samples for carbohydrate (i.e., smoke markers levoglucosan, mannosan, and galactosan) analysis by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. Each fire location appeared to have a unique 1levoglucosan /1water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) ratio (RF01/RF02/RF03/RF05 = 0.163± 0.007 μg C μg−1 C, RF08 = 0.115 ± 0.011 μg C μg−1 C, RF09A = 0 ...


Identification And Quantification Of Gaseous Organic Compounds Emitted From Biomass Burning Using Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography/Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry, L. E. Hatch, W. Luo, J. F. Pankow, Robert Yokelson, C. Stockwell, K. C. Barsanti Sep 2014

Identification And Quantification Of Gaseous Organic Compounds Emitted From Biomass Burning Using Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography/Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry, L. E. Hatch, W. Luo, J. F. Pankow, Robert Yokelson, C. Stockwell, K. C. Barsanti

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

The current understanding of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation within biomass burning (BB) plumes is limited by the incomplete identification and quantification of the non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) emitted from such fires. Gaseous organic compounds were collected on sorbent cartridges during laboratory burns as part of the fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME-4), with analysis by two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC/TOFMS). The sensitivity and resolving power of GC×GC/TOFMS allowed the acquisition of the most extensive data set of BB NMOCs to date, with measure ments for 722 positively or tentatively identified compounds. Estimated ...


Field Measurements Of Trace Gases Emitted By Prescribed Fires In Southeastern Us Pine Forests Using An Open-Path Ftir System, S. K. Akagi, I. R. Burling, A. Mendoza, T. J. Johnson, M. Cameron, David W. T. Griffith, C. Paton-Walsh, D. R. Weise, J. Reardon, Robert Yokelson Jan 2014

Field Measurements Of Trace Gases Emitted By Prescribed Fires In Southeastern Us Pine Forests Using An Open-Path Ftir System, S. K. Akagi, I. R. Burling, A. Mendoza, T. J. Johnson, M. Cameron, David W. T. Griffith, C. Paton-Walsh, D. R. Weise, J. Reardon, Robert Yokelson

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

We report trace-gas emission factors from three pine-understory prescribed fires in South Carolina, US measured during the fall of 2011. The fires were more intense than many prescribed burns because the fuels included mature pine stands not subjected to prescribed fire in decades that were lit following an extended drought. Emission factors were measured with a fixed open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) system that was deployed on the fire control lines. We compare these emission factors to those measured with a roving, point sampling, land-based FTIR and an airborne FTIR deployed on the same fires. We also compare to emission ...


Aerosol Single Scattering Albedo Dependence On Biomass Combustion Efficiency: Laboratory And Field Studies, Shang Liu, Allison C. Aiken, Caleb Arata, Manvendra K. Dubey, C. Stockwell, Robert Yokelson, Elizabeth A. Stone, Thilina Jayarathne, Allen L. Robinson, Paul J. Demott, Sonia M. Kreidenweis Jan 2014

Aerosol Single Scattering Albedo Dependence On Biomass Combustion Efficiency: Laboratory And Field Studies, Shang Liu, Allison C. Aiken, Caleb Arata, Manvendra K. Dubey, C. Stockwell, Robert Yokelson, Elizabeth A. Stone, Thilina Jayarathne, Allen L. Robinson, Paul J. Demott, Sonia M. Kreidenweis

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Single scattering albedo (ω) of fresh biomass burning (BB) aerosols produced from 92 controlled laboratory combustion experiments of 20 different woods and grasses was analyzed to determine the factors that control the variability in ω. Results show that ω varies strongly with fire-integrated modified combustion efficiency (MCEFI)—higher MCEFI results in lower ω values and greater spectral dependence of ω. A parameterization of ω as a function of MCEFI for fresh BB aerosols is derived from the laboratory data and is evaluated by field observations from two wildfires. The parameterization suggests that MCEFI explains 60% of ...


Laboratory Characterization Of Pm Emissions From Combustion Of Wildland Biomass Fuels, S. Hosseini, S. P. Urbanski, P. Dixit, L. Qi, I. R. Burling, Robert J. Yokelson, T. J. Johnson, M. Shrivastava, H. S. Jung, D. R. Weise, J. W. Miller, D. R. Cocker Iii Sep 2013

Laboratory Characterization Of Pm Emissions From Combustion Of Wildland Biomass Fuels, S. Hosseini, S. P. Urbanski, P. Dixit, L. Qi, I. R. Burling, Robert J. Yokelson, T. J. Johnson, M. Shrivastava, H. S. Jung, D. R. Weise, J. W. Miller, D. R. Cocker Iii

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

[1] Particle emissions from open burning of southwestern (SW) and southeastern (SE) U.S. fuel types during 77 controlled laboratory burns are presented. The fuels include SW vegetation types: ceanothus, chamise/scrub oak, coastal sage scrub, California sagebrush, manzanita, maritime chaparral, masticated mesquite, oak savanna, and oak woodland, as well as SE vegetation types: 1 year, 2 year rough, pocosin, chipped understory, understory hardwood, and pine litter. The SW fuels burned at higher modified combustion efficiency (MCE) than the SE fuels resulting in lower particulate matter mass emission factor. Particle mass distributions for six fuels and particle number emission for ...


Pitfalls With The Use Of Enhancement Ratios Or Normalized Excess Mixing Ratios Measured In Plumes To Characterize Pollution Sources And Aging, Robert J. Yokelson, Meinrat O. Andreae, S. K. Akagi Aug 2013

Pitfalls With The Use Of Enhancement Ratios Or Normalized Excess Mixing Ratios Measured In Plumes To Characterize Pollution Sources And Aging, Robert J. Yokelson, Meinrat O. Andreae, S. K. Akagi

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Normalized excess mixing ratios (NEMRs), also known as enhancement ratios, are a common way to characterize plumes of pollution in atmospheric research. As single-source pollutant plumes disperse in the atmosphere, they are diluted by mixing with the adjacent background air. Changes in the composition of this background air can cause large changes to the NEMR that is subsequently measured by remote-sensing, airborne, or ground-based instruments. This scenario is common when boundary layer plumes enter the free troposphere and could also impact long-range transport or plumes near the top of the troposphere. We provide a context for these issues and an ...


Coupling Field And Laboratory Measurements To Estimate The Emission Factors Of Identified And Unidentified Trace Gases For Prescribed Fires, Robert J. Yokelson, I. R. Burling, J. Gilman, C. Warneke, C. Stockwell, J. De Gouw, S. K. Akagi, S. P. Urbanski, P. Veres, J. M. Roberts, W. C. Kuster, J. Reardon, David W. T. Griffith, T. J. Johnson, S. Hosseini, J. W. Miller, D. R. Cocker Iii, H. Jung, D. R. Weise Jan 2013

Coupling Field And Laboratory Measurements To Estimate The Emission Factors Of Identified And Unidentified Trace Gases For Prescribed Fires, Robert J. Yokelson, I. R. Burling, J. Gilman, C. Warneke, C. Stockwell, J. De Gouw, S. K. Akagi, S. P. Urbanski, P. Veres, J. M. Roberts, W. C. Kuster, J. Reardon, David W. T. Griffith, T. J. Johnson, S. Hosseini, J. W. Miller, D. R. Cocker Iii, H. Jung, D. R. Weise

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

An extensive program of experiments focused on biomass burning emissions began with a laboratory phase in which vegetative fuels commonly consumed in prescribed fires were collected in the southeastern and southwestern US and burned in a series of 71 fires at the US Forest Service Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana. The particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions were measured by gravimetric filter sampling with subsequent analysis for elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and 38 elements. The trace gas emissions were measured by an open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometer, proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTRMS), proton-transfer ion-trap mass spectrometry (PIT-MS), negative-ion ...


Role Of Resonance-Enhanced Multiphoton Excitation In High-Harmonic Generation Of N-2: A Time-Dependent Density-Functional-Theory Study, Xi Chu, Gerrit C. Groenenboom Jan 2013

Role Of Resonance-Enhanced Multiphoton Excitation In High-Harmonic Generation Of N-2: A Time-Dependent Density-Functional-Theory Study, Xi Chu, Gerrit C. Groenenboom

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

A minimum at similar to 39 eV is observed in the high-harmonic-generation spectra of N-2 for several laser intensities and frequencies. This minimum appears to be invariant for different molecular orientations. We reproduce this minimum for a set of laser parameters and orientations in time-dependent density-functional-theory calculations, which also render orientation-dependent maxima at 23-26 eV. Photon energies of these maxima overlap with ionization potentials of excited states observed in photoelectron spectra. Time profile analysis shows that these maxima are caused by resonance-enhanced multiphoton excitation. We propose a four-step mechanism, in which an additional excitation step is added to the well-accepted ...


Measurements Of Reactive Trace Gases And Variable O-3 Formation Rates In Some South Carolina Biomass Burning Plumes, S. K. Akagi, Robert J. Yokelson, I. R. Burling, S. Meinardi, Isobel J. Simpson, Donald R. Blake, G. R. Mcmeeking, A. Sullivan, T. Lee, S. Kreidenweis, S. P. Urbanski, J. Reardon, David W. T. Griffith, T. J. Johnson, D. R. Weise Jan 2013

Measurements Of Reactive Trace Gases And Variable O-3 Formation Rates In Some South Carolina Biomass Burning Plumes, S. K. Akagi, Robert J. Yokelson, I. R. Burling, S. Meinardi, Isobel J. Simpson, Donald R. Blake, G. R. Mcmeeking, A. Sullivan, T. Lee, S. Kreidenweis, S. P. Urbanski, J. Reardon, David W. T. Griffith, T. J. Johnson, D. R. Weise

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

In October-November 2011 we measured trace gas emission factors from seven prescribed fires in South Carolina (SC), US, using two Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) systems and whole air sampling (WAS) into canisters followed by gas-chromatographic analysis. A total of 97 trace gas species were quantified from both airborne and ground-based sampling platforms, making this one of the most detailed field studies of fire emissions to date. The measurements include the first emission factors for a suite of monoterpenes produced by heating vegetative fuels during field fires. The first quantitative FTIR observations of limonene in smoke are reported along with ...


Time-Dependent Density-Functional-Theory Calculation Of High-Order-Harmonic Generation Of H-2, Xi Chu, Gerrit C. Groenenboom May 2012

Time-Dependent Density-Functional-Theory Calculation Of High-Order-Harmonic Generation Of H-2, Xi Chu, Gerrit C. Groenenboom

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

The observation of the isotope effect in the high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) of H-2 presents a challenge for time-dependent density-functional-theory (TDDFT) methods, since this effect is related to the dynamics of the ion created in the tunneling ionization step of HHG and it depends on the harmonic order. As an initial step toward describing this effect within current computational capacity, we benchmark a method in which the nuclear and electronic degrees of freedom are separated and both treated quantum mechanically. For the electrons two TDDFT formalisms are adopted. Although the ion-dynamics effect is not described in our method, it reproduces the ...


The Nucleotide Exchange Factor Ric-8a Is A Chaperone For The Conformationally Dynamic Nucleotide-Free State Of G Alpha I1, Celestine J. Thomas, Klara Briknarova, Jonathan K. Hilmer, Navid Movahed, Brian Bothner, John P. Sumida, Gregory G. Tall, Stephen R. Sprang Aug 2011

The Nucleotide Exchange Factor Ric-8a Is A Chaperone For The Conformationally Dynamic Nucleotide-Free State Of G Alpha I1, Celestine J. Thomas, Klara Briknarova, Jonathan K. Hilmer, Navid Movahed, Brian Bothner, John P. Sumida, Gregory G. Tall, Stephen R. Sprang

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Heterotrimeric G protein alpha subunits are activated upon exchange of GDP for GTP at the nucleotide binding site of G alpha, catalyzed by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). In addition to transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which act on G protein heterotrimers, members of the family cytosolic proteins typified by mammalian Ric-8A are GEFs for Gi/q/12/13-class G alpha subunits. Ric-8A binds to G alpha.GDP, resulting in the release of GDP. The Ric-8A complex with nucleotide-free G alpha i1 is stable, but dissociates upon binding of GTP to G alpha i1. To gain insight into the mechanism ...


Quantifying The Flux Of Caco3 And Organic Carbon From The Surface Ocean Using In Situ Measurements Of O-2, N-2, Pco(2), And Ph, Steven Emerson, Christopher Sabine, Meghan F. Cronin, Richard Feely, Sarah E. Cullison Gray, Michael Degrandpre Jul 2011

Quantifying The Flux Of Caco3 And Organic Carbon From The Surface Ocean Using In Situ Measurements Of O-2, N-2, Pco(2), And Ph, Steven Emerson, Christopher Sabine, Meghan F. Cronin, Richard Feely, Sarah E. Cullison Gray, Michael Degrandpre

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Ocean acidification from anthropogenic CO2 has focused our attention on the importance of understanding the rates and mechanisms of CaCO3 formation so that changes can be monitored and feedbacks predicted. We present a method for determining the rate of CaCO3 production using in situ measureme nts of fCO(2) and pH in surface waters of the eastern subarctic Pacific Ocean. These quantities were determined on a surface mooring every 3 h for a period of about 9 months in 2007 at Ocean Station Papa (50 degrees N, 145 degrees W). We use the data in a simple surface ocean, mass ...


Emission Factors For Open And Domestic Biomass Burning For Use In Atmospheric Models, S. K. Akagi, Robert J. Yokelson, C. Wiedinmyer, M. Alvarado, J. S. Reid, T. Karl, J. D. Crounse, P. O. Wennberg Jan 2011

Emission Factors For Open And Domestic Biomass Burning For Use In Atmospheric Models, S. K. Akagi, Robert J. Yokelson, C. Wiedinmyer, M. Alvarado, J. S. Reid, T. Karl, J. D. Crounse, P. O. Wennberg

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Biomass burning (BB) is the second largest source of trace gases and the largest source of primary fine carbonaceous particles in the global troposphere. Many recent BB studies have provided new emission factor (EF) measurements. This is especially true for non-methane organic compounds (NMOC), which influence secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and ozone formation. New EF should improve regional to global BB emissions estimates and therefore, the input for atmospheric models. In this work we present an up-to-date, comprehensive tabulation of EF for known pyrogenic species based on measurements made in smoke that has cooled to ambient temperature, but not yet ...


Airborne And Ground-Based Measurements Of The Trace Gases And Particles Emitted By Prescribed Fires In The United States, I. R. Burling, Robert J. Yokelson, S. K. Akagi, S. P. Urbanski, C. E. Wold, David W. T. Griffith, T. J. Johnson, J. Reardon, D. R. Weise Jan 2011

Airborne And Ground-Based Measurements Of The Trace Gases And Particles Emitted By Prescribed Fires In The United States, I. R. Burling, Robert J. Yokelson, S. K. Akagi, S. P. Urbanski, C. E. Wold, David W. T. Griffith, T. J. Johnson, J. Reardon, D. R. Weise

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

We have measured emission factors for 19 trace gas species and particulate matter (PM2.5) from 14 prescribed fires in chaparral and oak savanna in the southwestern US, as well as conifer forest understory in the southeastern US and Sierra Nevada mountains of California. These are likely the most extensive emission factor field measurements for temperate biomass burning to date and the only published emission factors for temperate oak savanna fuels. This study helps to close the gap in emissions data available for temperate zone fires relative to tropical biomass burning. We present the first field measurements of the biomass ...