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Articles 1 - 30 of 348

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Automatic 13C Chemical Shift Reference Correction Of Protein Nmr Spectral Data Using Data Mining And Bayesian Statistical Modeling, Xi Chen Jan 2019

Automatic 13C Chemical Shift Reference Correction Of Protein Nmr Spectral Data Using Data Mining And Bayesian Statistical Modeling, Xi Chen

Theses and Dissertations--Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a highly versatile analytical technique for studying molecular configuration, conformation, and dynamics, especially of biomacromolecules such as proteins. However, due to the intrinsic properties of NMR experiments, results from the NMR instruments require a refencing step before the down-the-line analysis. Poor chemical shift referencing, especially for 13C in protein Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) experiments, fundamentally limits and even prevents effective study of biomacromolecules via NMR. There is no available method that can rereference carbon chemical shifts from protein NMR without secondary experimental information such as structure or resonance assignment.

To solve this problem, we ...


Computational Tools For The Untargeted Assignment Of Ft-Ms Metabolomics Datasets, Joshua Merritt Mitchell Jan 2019

Computational Tools For The Untargeted Assignment Of Ft-Ms Metabolomics Datasets, Joshua Merritt Mitchell

Theses and Dissertations--Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

Metabolomics is the study of metabolomes, the sets of metabolites observed in living systems. Metabolism interconverts these metabolites to provide the molecules and energy necessary for life processes. Many disease processes, including cancer, have a significant metabolic component that manifests as differences in what metabolites are present and in what quantities they are produced and utilized. Thus, using metabolomics, differences between metabolomes in disease and non-disease states can be detected and these differences improve our understanding of disease processes at the molecular level. Despite the potential benefits of metabolomics, the comprehensive investigation of metabolomes remains difficult.

A popular analytical technique ...


Trade-Offs Shape Carotenoid-Based Color Variation In Redheaded Pine Sawfly (Neodiprion Lecontei) Larvae, Maranda Gaines Jan 2019

Trade-Offs Shape Carotenoid-Based Color Variation In Redheaded Pine Sawfly (Neodiprion Lecontei) Larvae, Maranda Gaines

Lewis Honors College Capstone Collection

Carotenoids serve various ecological roles in animals including coloration, immune responses, and vision. Carotenoid-derived coloration is greatly emphasized in the literature, particularly relating to mate choice and aposematic warning. However, the trade-offs between the color and non-color functions of carotenoids are not thoroughly explored. In the redheaded pine sawfly (Neodiprion lecontei), some larval populations have yellow pigmentation, using carotenoids derived from their diets for aposematic warning coloration. Other larval populations are white in color, having genetically lost the ability to produce the yellow pigment. Because carotenoids are essential to life functions in both the yellow and white populations, we aim ...


Investigation Of Amyloid Β Oligomer Dissociation Mechanisms By Single Molecule Fluorescence Techniques, Hope Cook Abdalla Jan 2019

Investigation Of Amyloid Β Oligomer Dissociation Mechanisms By Single Molecule Fluorescence Techniques, Hope Cook Abdalla

Theses and Dissertations--Chemistry

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is currently considered the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease and places a large financial burden on society as healthcare resources are limited and the disease does not have a cure. Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by the presence of amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles; however current literature suggests Aβ oligomers are the main aggregating species leading to AD symptoms. Therefore, the underlying cause of Alzheimer’s, accumulation of amyloid beta, is currently being studied in hopes of developing treatment options. Our research aims at determining the mechanism and kinetics of Aβ oligomer dissociation into non-toxic ...


Canvass: A Crowd-Sourced, Natural-Product Screening Library For Exploring Biological Space, Sara E. Kearney, Gergely ZahoráNszky-KőHalmi, Kyle R. Brimacombe, Mark J. Henderson, Caitlin Lynch, Tongan Zhao, Kanny K. Wan, Zina Itkin, Christopher Dillon, Min Shen, Dorian M. Cheff, Tobie D. Lee, Danielle Bougie, Ken Cheng, Nathan P. Coussens, Dorjbal Dorjsuren, Richard T. Eastman, Ruili Huang, Michael J. Iannotti, Surendra Karavadhi, Carleen Klumpp-Thomas, Jacob S. Roth, Srilatha Sakamuru, Wei Sun, Steven A. Titus, Adam Yasgar, Ya-Qin Zhang, Jinghua Zhao, Rodrigo B. Andrade, M. Kevin Brown, Robert B. Grossman Dec 2018

Canvass: A Crowd-Sourced, Natural-Product Screening Library For Exploring Biological Space, Sara E. Kearney, Gergely ZahoráNszky-KőHalmi, Kyle R. Brimacombe, Mark J. Henderson, Caitlin Lynch, Tongan Zhao, Kanny K. Wan, Zina Itkin, Christopher Dillon, Min Shen, Dorian M. Cheff, Tobie D. Lee, Danielle Bougie, Ken Cheng, Nathan P. Coussens, Dorjbal Dorjsuren, Richard T. Eastman, Ruili Huang, Michael J. Iannotti, Surendra Karavadhi, Carleen Klumpp-Thomas, Jacob S. Roth, Srilatha Sakamuru, Wei Sun, Steven A. Titus, Adam Yasgar, Ya-Qin Zhang, Jinghua Zhao, Rodrigo B. Andrade, M. Kevin Brown, Robert B. Grossman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Natural products and their derivatives continue to be wellsprings of nascent therapeutic potential. However, many laboratories have limited resources for biological evaluation, leaving their previously isolated or synthesized compounds largely or completely untested. To address this issue, the Canvass library of natural products was assembled, in collaboration with academic and industry researchers, for quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) across a diverse set of cell-based and biochemical assays. Characterization of the library in terms of physicochemical properties, structural diversity, and similarity to compounds in publicly available libraries indicates that the Canvass library contains many structural elements in common with approved drugs. The ...


Targeting The Brd4/Foxo3a/Cdk6 Axis Sensitizes Akt Inhibition In Luminal Breast Cancer, Jingyi Liu, Weijie Guo, Zhibing Duan, Lei Zeng, Yadi Wu, Yule Chen, Fang Tai, Yifan Wang, Yiwei Lin, Qiang Zhang, Yanling He, Jiong Deng, Rachel L. Stewart, Chi Wang, Pengnian Charles Lin, Saghi Ghaffari, B. Mark Evers, Suling Liu, Ming-Ming Zhou, Binhua P. Zhou, Jian Shi Dec 2018

Targeting The Brd4/Foxo3a/Cdk6 Axis Sensitizes Akt Inhibition In Luminal Breast Cancer, Jingyi Liu, Weijie Guo, Zhibing Duan, Lei Zeng, Yadi Wu, Yule Chen, Fang Tai, Yifan Wang, Yiwei Lin, Qiang Zhang, Yanling He, Jiong Deng, Rachel L. Stewart, Chi Wang, Pengnian Charles Lin, Saghi Ghaffari, B. Mark Evers, Suling Liu, Ming-Ming Zhou, Binhua P. Zhou, Jian Shi

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

BRD4 assembles transcriptional machinery at gene super-enhancer regions and governs the expression of genes that are critical for cancer progression. However, it remains unclear whether BRD4-mediated gene transcription is required for tumor cells to develop drug resistance. Our data show that prolonged treatment of luminal breast cancer cells with AKT inhibitors induces FOXO3a dephosphorylation, nuclear translocation, and disrupts its association with SirT6, eventually leading to FOXO3a acetylation as well as BRD4 recognition. Acetylated FOXO3a recognizes the BD2 domain of BRD4, recruits the BRD4/RNAPII complex to the CDK6 gene promoter, and induces its transcription. Pharmacological inhibition of either BRD4/FOXO3a ...


Mitochondrial Metabolism In Major Neurological Diseases, Zhengqiu Zhou, Grant L. Austin, Lyndsay E. A. Young, Lance A. Johnson, Ramon Sun Nov 2018

Mitochondrial Metabolism In Major Neurological Diseases, Zhengqiu Zhou, Grant L. Austin, Lyndsay E. A. Young, Lance A. Johnson, Ramon Sun

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Mitochondria are bilayer sub-cellular organelles that are an integral part of normal cellular physiology. They are responsible for producing the majority of a cell’s ATP, thus supplying energy for a variety of key cellular processes, especially in the brain. Although energy production is a key aspect of mitochondrial metabolism, its role extends far beyond energy production to cell signaling and epigenetic regulation–functions that contribute to cellular proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, migration, and autophagy. Recent research on neurological disorders suggest a major metabolic component in disease pathophysiology, and mitochondria have been shown to be in the center of metabolic dysregulation ...


Snare-Dependent Membrane Fusion Initiates Α-Granule Matrix Decondensation In Mouse Platelets, Irina D. Pokrovskaya, Smita Joshi, Michael Tobin, Rohan Desai, Maria A. Aronova, Jeffrey A. Kamykowski, Guofeng Zhang, Sidney W. Whiteheart, Richard D. Leapman, Brian Storrie Nov 2018

Snare-Dependent Membrane Fusion Initiates Α-Granule Matrix Decondensation In Mouse Platelets, Irina D. Pokrovskaya, Smita Joshi, Michael Tobin, Rohan Desai, Maria A. Aronova, Jeffrey A. Kamykowski, Guofeng Zhang, Sidney W. Whiteheart, Richard D. Leapman, Brian Storrie

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Platelet α-granule cargo release is fundamental to both hemostasis and thrombosis. Granule matrix hydration is a key regulated step in this process, yet its mechanism is poorly understood. In endothelial cells, there is evidence for 2 modes of cargo release: a jack-in-the-box mechanism of hydration-dependent protein phase transitions and an actin-driven granule constriction/extrusion mechanism. The third alternative considered is a prefusion, channel-mediated granule swelling, analogous to the membrane “ballooning” seen in procoagulant platelets. Using thrombin-stimulated platelets from a set of secretion-deficient, soluble N-ethylmaleimide factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) mutant mice and various ultrastructural approaches, we tested predictions of ...


Alterations In Platelet Secretion Differentially Affect Thrombosis And Hemostasis, Smita Joshi, Meenakshi Banerjee, Jinchao Zhang, Akhil Kesaraju, Irina D. Pokrovskaya, Brian Storrie, Sidney W. Whiteheart Sep 2018

Alterations In Platelet Secretion Differentially Affect Thrombosis And Hemostasis, Smita Joshi, Meenakshi Banerjee, Jinchao Zhang, Akhil Kesaraju, Irina D. Pokrovskaya, Brian Storrie, Sidney W. Whiteheart

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

We genetically manipulated the major platelet vesicle-associated membrane proteins (VAMP2, VAMP3, and VAMP8) to create mice with varying degrees of disrupted platelet secretion. As previously shown, loss of VAMP8 reduced granule secretion, and this defect was exacerbated by further deletion of VAMP2 and VAMP3. VAMP2Δ3Δ8−/− platelets also had reduced VAMP7. Loss of VAMP2 and VAMP3 (VAMP2Δ3Δ) had a minimal impact on secretion when VAMP7 and VAMP8 were present. Integrin αIIbβ3 activation and aggregation were not affected, although spreading was reduced in VAMP2Δ3Δ8−/− platelets. Using these mice as tools, we ...


Structure Of The Mouse Trpc4 Ion Channel, Jingjing Duan, Jian Li, Bo Zeng, Gui-Lan Chen, Xiaogang Peng, Yixing Zhang, Jianbin Wang, David E. Clapham, Zongli Li, Jin Zhang Aug 2018

Structure Of The Mouse Trpc4 Ion Channel, Jingjing Duan, Jian Li, Bo Zeng, Gui-Lan Chen, Xiaogang Peng, Yixing Zhang, Jianbin Wang, David E. Clapham, Zongli Li, Jin Zhang

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels conduct cations into cells. They mediate functions ranging from neuronally mediated hot and cold sensation to intracellular organellar and primary ciliary signaling. Here we report a cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of TRPC4 in its unliganded (apo) state to an overall resolution of 3.3 Å. The structure reveals a unique architecture with a long pore loop stabilized by a disulfide bond. Beyond the shared tetrameric six-transmembrane fold, the TRPC4 structure deviates from other TRP channels with a unique cytosolic domain. This unique cytosolic N-terminal domain forms extensive aromatic contacts with the ...


Cross Photoreaction Of Glyoxylic And Pyruvic Acids In Model Aqueous Aerosol, Sha-Sha Xia, Alexis J. Eugene, Marcelo I. Guzman Jul 2018

Cross Photoreaction Of Glyoxylic And Pyruvic Acids In Model Aqueous Aerosol, Sha-Sha Xia, Alexis J. Eugene, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Aerosols of variable composition, size, and shape are associated with public health concerns as well as with light-particle interactions that play a role in the energy balance of the atmosphere. Photochemical reactions of 2-oxocarboxylic acids in the aqueous phase are now known to contribute to the total secondary organic aerosol (SOA) budget. This work explores the cross reaction of glyoxylic acid (GA) and pyruvic acid (PA) in water, the two most abundant 2-oxocarboxylic acids in the atmosphere, under solar irradiation and dark thermal aging steps. During irradiation, PA and GA are excited and initiate proton-coupled electron transfer or hydrogen abstraction ...


Cysteine Modifiers Suggest An Allosteric Inhibitory Site On The Cal Pdz Domain, Yu Zhao, Patrick R. Cushing, David C. Smithson, Maria Pellegrini, Alexandre A. Pletnev, Sahar Al-Ayyoubi, Andrew V. Grassetti, Scott A. Gerber, R. Kiplin Guy, Dean R. Madden Jul 2018

Cysteine Modifiers Suggest An Allosteric Inhibitory Site On The Cal Pdz Domain, Yu Zhao, Patrick R. Cushing, David C. Smithson, Maria Pellegrini, Alexandre A. Pletnev, Sahar Al-Ayyoubi, Andrew V. Grassetti, Scott A. Gerber, R. Kiplin Guy, Dean R. Madden

Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty Publications

Protein–protein interactions have become attractive targets for both experimental and therapeutic interventions. The PSD-95/Dlg1/ZO-1 (PDZ) domain is found in a large family of eukaryotic scaffold proteins that plays important roles in intracellular trafficking and localization of many target proteins. Here, we seek inhibitors of the PDZ protein that facilitates post-endocytic degradation of the cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR): the CFTR-associated ligand (CAL). We develop and validate biochemical screens and identify methyl-3,4-dephostatin (MD) and its analog ethyl-3,4-dephostatin (ED) as CAL PDZ inhibitors. Depending on conditions, MD can bind either covalently or non-covalently. Crystallographic and ...


Transcriptional Correlates Of Proximal-Distal Identify And Regeneration Timing In Axolotl Limbs, S. Randal Voss, David Murrugarra, Tyler B. Jensen, James R Monaghan Jun 2018

Transcriptional Correlates Of Proximal-Distal Identify And Regeneration Timing In Axolotl Limbs, S. Randal Voss, David Murrugarra, Tyler B. Jensen, James R Monaghan

Neuroscience Faculty Publications

Cells within salamander limbs retain memories that inform the correct replacement of amputated tissues at different positions along the length of the arm, with proximal and distal amputations completing regeneration at similar times. We investigated the possibility that positional memory is associated with variation in transcript abundances along the proximal-distal limb axis. Transcripts were deeply sampled from Ambystoma mexicanum limbs at the time they were administered fore arm vs upper arm amputations, and at 19 post-amputation time points. After amputation and prior to regenerative outgrowth, genes typically expressed by differentiated muscle cells declined more rapidly in upper arms while cell ...


Agronomic And Chemical Performance Of Field-Grown Tobacco Engineered For Triterpene And Methylated Triterpene Metabolism, Zuodong Jiang, Chase Kempinski, Santosh Kumar, Scott Kinison, Kristin Linscott, Eric Nybo, Sarah Janze, Constance Wood, Joseph Chappell Jun 2018

Agronomic And Chemical Performance Of Field-Grown Tobacco Engineered For Triterpene And Methylated Triterpene Metabolism, Zuodong Jiang, Chase Kempinski, Santosh Kumar, Scott Kinison, Kristin Linscott, Eric Nybo, Sarah Janze, Constance Wood, Joseph Chappell

Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty Publications

Squalene is a linear intermediate to nearly all classes of triterpenes and sterols and is itself highly valued for its use in wide range of industrial applications. Another unique linear triterpene is botryococcene and its methylated derivatives generated by the alga Botryococcus braunii race B, which are progenitors to fossil fuel deposits. Production of these linear triterpenes was previously engineered into transgenic tobacco by introducing the key steps of triterpene metabolism into the particular subcellular compartments. In this study, the agronomic characteristics (height, biomass accumulation, leaf area), the photosynthetic capacity (photosynthesis rate, conductance, internal CO2 levels) and triterpene content ...


Cloning And Characterization Of A Pyrethroid Pesticide Decomposing Esterase Gene, Est3385, From Rhodopseudomonas Palustris Psb-S, Xiangwen Luo, Deyong Zhang, Xuguo Zhou, Jiao Du, Songbai Zhang, Yong Liu May 2018

Cloning And Characterization Of A Pyrethroid Pesticide Decomposing Esterase Gene, Est3385, From Rhodopseudomonas Palustris Psb-S, Xiangwen Luo, Deyong Zhang, Xuguo Zhou, Jiao Du, Songbai Zhang, Yong Liu

Entomology Faculty Publications

Full length open reading frame of pyrethroid detoxification gene, Est3385, contains 963 nucleotides. This gene was identified and cloned based on the genome sequence of Rhodopseudomonas palustris PSB-S available at the GneBank. The predicted amino acid sequence of Est3385 shared moderate identities (30–46%) with the known homologous esterases. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Est3385 was a member in the esterase family I. Recombinant Est3385 was heterologous expressed in E. coli, purified and characterized for its substrate specificity, kinetics and stability under various conditions. The optimal temperature and pH for Est3385 were 35 °C and 6.0, respectively. This enzyme could ...


Abcg5 And Abcg8: More Than A Defense Against Xenosterols, Shailendra B. Patel, Gregory A. Graf, Ryan E. Temel May 2018

Abcg5 And Abcg8: More Than A Defense Against Xenosterols, Shailendra B. Patel, Gregory A. Graf, Ryan E. Temel

Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty Publications

The elucidation of the molecular basis of the rare disease, sitosterolemia, has revolutionized our mechanistic understanding of how dietary sterols are excreted and how cholesterol is eliminated from the body. Two proteins, ABCG5 and ABCG8, encoded by the sitosterolemia locus, work as obligate dimers to pump sterols out of hepatocytes and enterocytes. ABCG5/ABCG8 are key in regulating whole-body sterol trafficking, by eliminating sterols via the biliary tree as well as the intestinal tract. Importantly, these transporters keep xenosterols from accumulating in the body. The sitosterolemia locus has been genetically associated with lipid levels and downstream atherosclerotic disease, as well ...


Amylin And Diabetic Cardiomyopathy – Amylin-Induced Sarcolemmal Ca2+ Leak Is Independent Of Diabetic Remodeling Of Myocardium, Miao Liu, Amanda Hoskins, Nirmal Verma, Donald M. Bers, Sanda Despa, Florin Despa May 2018

Amylin And Diabetic Cardiomyopathy – Amylin-Induced Sarcolemmal Ca2+ Leak Is Independent Of Diabetic Remodeling Of Myocardium, Miao Liu, Amanda Hoskins, Nirmal Verma, Donald M. Bers, Sanda Despa, Florin Despa

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Amylin is a pancreatic β-cell hormone co-secreted with insulin, plays a role in normal glucose homeostasis, and forms amyloid in the pancreatic islets of individuals with type-2 diabetes. Aggregated amylin is also found in blood and extra-pancreatic tissues, including myocardium. Myocardial amylin accumulation is associated with myocyte Ca2+ dysregulation in diabetic rats expressing human amylin. Whether deposition of amylin in the heart is a consequence of or a contributor to diabetic cardiomyopathy remains unknown. We used amylin knockout (AKO) mice intravenously infused with either human amylin (i.e, the aggregated form) or non-amyloidogenic (i.e., monomeric) rodent amylin to ...


Bioprospecting Deep-Sea Actinobacteria For Novel Anti-Infective Natural Products, Dongbo Xu, Linna Han, Chunhui Li, Qi Cao, Duolong Zhu, Nolan H. Barrett, Dedra Harmody, Jing Chen, Haining Zhu, Peter J. Mccarthy, Xingmin Sun, Guojun Wang Apr 2018

Bioprospecting Deep-Sea Actinobacteria For Novel Anti-Infective Natural Products, Dongbo Xu, Linna Han, Chunhui Li, Qi Cao, Duolong Zhu, Nolan H. Barrett, Dedra Harmody, Jing Chen, Haining Zhu, Peter J. Mccarthy, Xingmin Sun, Guojun Wang

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

The global prevalence of drug resistance has created an urgent need for the discovery of novel anti-infective drugs. The major source of antibiotics in current clinical practice is terrestrial actinobacteria; the less-exploited deep-sea actinobacteria may serve as an unprecedented source of novel natural products. In this study, we evaluated 50 actinobacteria strains derived from diverse deep water sponges and environmental niches for their anti-microbial activities against a panel of pathogens including Candida albicans, Clostridium difficile, Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. More than half of the tested strains (27) were identified as active in at least ...


Role Of Protein Charge Density On Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Formation, Xinyu Sun, Dong Li, Zhaoshuai Wang, Panchao Yin, Rundong Hu, Rundong Hu, Hui Li, Qiao Liu, Yunyi Gao, Baiping Ren, Jie Zheng, Yinan Wei, Tianbo Liu Apr 2018

Role Of Protein Charge Density On Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Formation, Xinyu Sun, Dong Li, Zhaoshuai Wang, Panchao Yin, Rundong Hu, Rundong Hu, Hui Li, Qiao Liu, Yunyi Gao, Baiping Ren, Jie Zheng, Yinan Wei, Tianbo Liu

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The role of electrostatic interactions in the viral capsid assembly process was studied by comparing the assembly process of a truncated hepatitis B virus capsid protein Cp149 with its mutant protein D2N/D4N, which has the same conformational structure but four fewer charges per dimer. The capsid protein self-assembly was investigated under a wide range of protein surface charge densities by changing the protein concentration, buffer pH, and solution ionic strength. Lowering the protein charge density favored the capsid formation. However, lowering charge beyond a certain point resulted in capsid aggregation and precipitation. Interestingly, both the wild-type and D2N/D4N ...


Transmembrane Domains Of Highly Pathogenic Viral Fusion Proteins Exhibit Trimeric Association In Vitro, Stacy R. Webb, Stacy E. Smith, Michael G. Fried, Rebecca Ellis Dutch Apr 2018

Transmembrane Domains Of Highly Pathogenic Viral Fusion Proteins Exhibit Trimeric Association In Vitro, Stacy R. Webb, Stacy E. Smith, Michael G. Fried, Rebecca Ellis Dutch

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Enveloped viruses require viral fusion proteins to promote fusion of the viral envelope with a target cell membrane. To drive fusion, these proteins undergo large conformational changes that must occur at the right place and at the right time. Understanding the elements which control the stability of the prefusion state and the initiation of conformational changes is key to understanding the function of these important proteins. The construction of mutations in the fusion protein transmembrane domains (TMDs) or the replacement of these domains with lipid anchors has implicated the TMD in the fusion process. However, the structural and molecular details ...


Increased Liver Tumor Formation In Neutral Sphingomyelinase-2-Deficient Mice, Liansheng Zhong, Ji Na Kong, Michael B. Dinkins, Silvia Leanhart, Zhihui Zhu, Stefka D. Spassieva, Haiyan Qin, Hsuan-Pei Lin, Ahmed Elsherbini, Rebecca Wang, Xue Jiang, Mariana N. Nikolova‑Karakashian, Guanghu Wang, Erhard Bieberich Mar 2018

Increased Liver Tumor Formation In Neutral Sphingomyelinase-2-Deficient Mice, Liansheng Zhong, Ji Na Kong, Michael B. Dinkins, Silvia Leanhart, Zhihui Zhu, Stefka D. Spassieva, Haiyan Qin, Hsuan-Pei Lin, Ahmed Elsherbini, Rebecca Wang, Xue Jiang, Mariana N. Nikolova‑Karakashian, Guanghu Wang, Erhard Bieberich

Physiology Faculty Publications

Sphingolipids are key signaling lipids in cancer. Genome-wide studies have identified neutral SMase-2 (nSMase2), an enzyme generating ceramide from SM, as a potential repressor for hepatocellular carcinoma. However, little is known about the sphingolipids regulated by nSMase2 and their roles in liver tumor development. We discovered growth of spontaneous liver tumors in 27.3% (9 of 33) of aged male nSMase2-deficient (fro/fro) mice. Lipidomics analysis showed a marked increase of SM in the tumor. Unexpectedly, tumor tissues presented with more than a 7-fold increase of C16-ceramide, concurrent with upregulation of ceramide synthase 5. The fro/fro liver ...


Profiling Prostate Cancer Therapeutic Resistance, Cameron A. Wade, Natasha Kyprianou Mar 2018

Profiling Prostate Cancer Therapeutic Resistance, Cameron A. Wade, Natasha Kyprianou

Urology Faculty Publications

The major challenge in the treatment of patients with advanced lethal prostate cancer is therapeutic resistance to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) and chemotherapy. Overriding this resistance requires understanding of the driving mechanisms of the tumor microenvironment, not just the androgen receptor (AR)-signaling cascade, that facilitate therapeutic resistance in order to identify new drug targets. The tumor microenvironment enables key signaling pathways promoting cancer cell survival and invasion via resistance to anoikis. In particular, the process of epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT), directed by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), confers stem cell properties and acquisition of a migratory and invasive phenotype via resistance to anoikis ...


Structure Of Full-Length Human Trpm4, Jingjing Duan, Zongli Li, Jian Li, Ana Santa-Cruz, Silvia Sanchez-Martinez, Jin Zhang, David E. Clapham Mar 2018

Structure Of Full-Length Human Trpm4, Jingjing Duan, Zongli Li, Jian Li, Ana Santa-Cruz, Silvia Sanchez-Martinez, Jin Zhang, David E. Clapham

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Transient receptor potential melastatin subfamily member 4 (TRPM4) is a widely distributed, calcium-activated, monovalent-selective cation channel. Mutations in human TRPM4 (hTRPM4) result in progressive familial heart block. Here, we report the electron cryomicroscopy structure of hTRPM4 in a closed, Na+-bound, apo state at pH 7.5 to an overall resolution of 3.7 Å. Five partially hydrated sodium ions are proposed to occupy the center of the conduction pore and the entrance to the coiled-coil domain. We identify an upper gate in the selectivity filter and a lower gate at the entrance to the cytoplasmic coiled-coil domain. Intramolecular interactions ...


Lafora Disease Offers A Unique Window Into Neuronal Glycogen Metabolism, Matthew S. Gentry, Joan J. Guinovart, Berge A. Minassian, Peter J. Roach, Jose M. Serratosa Feb 2018

Lafora Disease Offers A Unique Window Into Neuronal Glycogen Metabolism, Matthew S. Gentry, Joan J. Guinovart, Berge A. Minassian, Peter J. Roach, Jose M. Serratosa

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Lafora disease (LD) is a fatal, autosomal recessive, glycogen-storage disorder that manifests as severe epilepsy. LD results from mutations in the gene encoding either the glycogen phosphatase laforin or the E3 ubiquitin ligase malin. Individuals with LD develop cytoplasmic, aberrant glycogen inclusions in nearly all tissues that more closely resemble plant starch than human glycogen. This Minireview discusses the unique window into glycogen metabolism that LD research offers. It also highlights recent discoveries, including that glycogen contains covalently bound phosphate and that neurons synthesize glycogen and express both glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase.


Distinct Properties Underlie Flavin-Based Electron Bifurcation In A Novel Electron Transfer Flavoprotein Fixab From Rhodopseudomonas Palustris, H. Diessel Duan, Carolyn E. Lubner, Monika Tokmina-Lukaszewska, George H. Gauss, Brian Bothner, Paul W. King, John W. Peters, Anne-Frances Miller Feb 2018

Distinct Properties Underlie Flavin-Based Electron Bifurcation In A Novel Electron Transfer Flavoprotein Fixab From Rhodopseudomonas Palustris, H. Diessel Duan, Carolyn E. Lubner, Monika Tokmina-Lukaszewska, George H. Gauss, Brian Bothner, Paul W. King, John W. Peters, Anne-Frances Miller

Chemistry Faculty Publications

A newly recognized third fundamental mechanism of energy conservation in biology, electron bifurcation, uses free energy from exergonic redox reactions to drive endergonic redox reactions. Flavin-based electron bifurcation furnishes low-potential electrons to demanding chemical reactions, such as reduction of dinitrogen to ammonia. We employed the heterodimeric flavoenzyme FixAB from the diazotrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris to elucidate unique properties that underpin flavin-based electron bifurcation. FixAB is distinguished from canonical electron transfer flavoproteins (ETFs) by a second FAD that replaces the AMP of canonical ETF. We exploited near-UV–visible CD spectroscopy to resolve signals from the different flavin sites in FixAB and ...


Insulin-Degrading Enzyme Is Not Secreted From Cultured Cells, Eun Suk Song, David W. Rodgers, Louis Hersh Feb 2018

Insulin-Degrading Enzyme Is Not Secreted From Cultured Cells, Eun Suk Song, David W. Rodgers, Louis Hersh

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) functions in the catabolism of bioactive peptides. Established roles include degrading insulin and the amyloid beta peptide (Aβ), linking it to diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease. IDE is primarily located in the cytosol, and a longstanding question is how it gains access to its peptide substrates. Reports suggest that IDE secreted by an unconventional pathway participates in extracellular hydrolysis of insulin and Aβ. We find that IDE release from cultured HEK-293 or BV-2 cells represents only ~1% of total cellular IDE, far less than has been reported previously. Importantly, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and other cytosolic enzymes are ...


Contractile Response Of Bovine Lateral Saphenous Vein To Ergotamine Tartrate Exposed To Different Concentrations Of Molecularly Imprinted Polymer, Manoj B. Kudupoje, James L. Klotz, Alexandros Yiannikouris, Karl A. Dawson, Kyle R. Mcleod, Eric S. Vanzant Feb 2018

Contractile Response Of Bovine Lateral Saphenous Vein To Ergotamine Tartrate Exposed To Different Concentrations Of Molecularly Imprinted Polymer, Manoj B. Kudupoje, James L. Klotz, Alexandros Yiannikouris, Karl A. Dawson, Kyle R. Mcleod, Eric S. Vanzant

Animal and Food Sciences Faculty Publications

Ergot alkaloids, in their active isomeric form, affect animal health and performance, and adsorbents are used to mitigate toxicities by reducing bioavailability. Adsorbents with high specificity (molecularly imprinted polymers: MIP) adsorb ergot alkaloids in vitro, but require evaluation for biological implications. Using ex vivo myography, synthetic polymers were evaluated for effects on the bioactivity of ergotamine tartrate (ETA). Polymers were first evaluated using isotherms. Lateral saphenous veins were collected from 17 steers for four independent studies: dose response of ETA, adsorbent dose response, validation of pre-myograph incubation conditions and MIP/ non-molecularly imprinted polymer (NIP) comparison. Norepinephrine normalized percent contractile response ...


Kruppel-Like Factor 4-Dependent Staufen1-Mediated Mrna Decay Regulates Cortical Neurogenesis, Byoung-San Moon, Jinlun Bai, Mingyang Cai, Chunming Liu, Jiandang Shi, Wange Lu Jan 2018

Kruppel-Like Factor 4-Dependent Staufen1-Mediated Mrna Decay Regulates Cortical Neurogenesis, Byoung-San Moon, Jinlun Bai, Mingyang Cai, Chunming Liu, Jiandang Shi, Wange Lu

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Kruppel-like factor 4 (Klf4) is a zinc-finger-containing protein that plays a critical role in diverse cellular physiology. While most of these functions attribute to its role as a transcription factor, it is postulated that Klf4 may play a role other than transcriptional regulation. Here we demonstrate that Klf4 loss in neural progenitor cells (NPCs) leads to increased neurogenesis and reduced self-renewal in mice. In addition, Klf4 interacts with RNA-binding protein Staufen1 (Stau1) and RNA helicase Ddx5/17. They function together as a complex to maintain NPC self-renewal. We report that Klf4 promotes Stau1 recruitment to the 3′-untranslated region of ...


Amyloid-Beta Solubility In The Treatment Of Alzheimer's Disease, Michael Paul Murphy Jan 2018

Amyloid-Beta Solubility In The Treatment Of Alzheimer's Disease, Michael Paul Murphy

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Informing Efforts To Develop Nitroreductase For Amine Production, Anne-Frances Miller, Jonathan T. Park, Kyle L. Ferguson, Warintra Pitsawong, Andreas S. Bommarius Jan 2018

Informing Efforts To Develop Nitroreductase For Amine Production, Anne-Frances Miller, Jonathan T. Park, Kyle L. Ferguson, Warintra Pitsawong, Andreas S. Bommarius

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Nitroreductases (NRs) hold promise for converting nitroaromatics to aromatic amines. Nitroaromatic reduction rate increases with Hammett substituent constant for NRs from two different subgroups, confirming substrate identity as a key determinant of reactivity. Amine yields were low, but compounds yielding amines tend to have a large π system and electron withdrawing substituents. Therefore, we also assessed the prospects of varying the enzyme. Several different subgroups of NRs include members able to produce aromatic amines. Comparison of four NR subgroups shows that they provide contrasting substrate binding cavities with distinct constraints on substrate position relative to the flavin. The unique architecture ...