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Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Fishing For A Sustainable Future: Aquaponics As A Method Of Food Production, Richard Ramsundar May 2015

Fishing For A Sustainable Future: Aquaponics As A Method Of Food Production, Richard Ramsundar

Student Theses 2015-Present

This thesis compares and explains the advantages aquaponics farming has over modern industrial intensive farming. Through a comparison natural capital usage, conservation, recycling and cost, the thesis advocates for the expansion of aquaponics usage in urban settings. The thesis also explains the history of intensive farming and aquaponics in America, the science of how aquaponics operates, the economic and environmental costs of modern intensive farming versus aquaponics farming, and the social implications of aquaponics. Lastly, I propose a policy that reallocates farm subsidies by modifying the Farm Bill. Then I propose policies that support creating a new standard of farm ...


Schrödinger And Nietzsche On Life: The Eternal Recurrence Of The Same, Babette Babich Sep 2011

Schrödinger And Nietzsche On Life: The Eternal Recurrence Of The Same, Babette Babich

Working Papers

Schrödinger and Nietzsche on Life: The Eternal Recurrence of the Same

This essay explores Schrödinger’s reflections on measurement, consciousness, and personal identity. Schrödinger’s, What Is Life? is read together with Nietzsche’s own reflections on the same question, in his aphorism What is Life? together with Nietzsche’s teaching of the eternal return of the selfsame. Schrödinger’s own thinking is influenced as is Nietzsche’s by Schopenhauer but Schrödinger also has the Vedic tradition as this influenced Schopenhauer himself in view.


Curriculum Vitae, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd Jan 2007

Curriculum Vitae, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Curriculum vitae of Donald Clarke, PhD, professor of chemistry at Fordham University, Rose Hill campus


Effect Of N-Halosucinimides On 5-, 7- And 5,7-8-Quinolinol Sulfonic Acids / Herman Gershon, Muriel Gershon, And Donald D. Clark Harding Laboratory, The New York Botanical Garde, Fordham University, Bronx, New York 10458, Usa, Herman Gershon, Muriel Gershon, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd Jan 2007

Effect Of N-Halosucinimides On 5-, 7- And 5,7-8-Quinolinol Sulfonic Acids / Herman Gershon, Muriel Gershon, And Donald D. Clark Harding Laboratory, The New York Botanical Garde, Fordham University, Bronx, New York 10458, Usa, Herman Gershon, Muriel Gershon, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd

Chemistry Faculty Publications

8-Quinolinol 5-, 7- and 5,7-sulfonic acids were treated with N-halosuccinimides (NXS) where the halogen atom was chlorine, bromine or iodine under different conditions of solvent, temperature and time. Under neutral or basic conditions the sulfonic acid group was retained while in dilute acid the S03H group was largely displaced by halogen. Excess NXS caused additional electrophilic substitution. Mild hydrolysis of 5-iodo-8-quinolinol- 7-sulfonic acid and 7-iodo-8-quinolinol-5-sulfonic acid with 15% sulfuric acid in acetic acid formed the 5- and 7-iodo-8-quinolinol respectively in high yield


Effect Of Geometry Of Molecules On Penetrability Of Fungal Wall And Antifungal Activity Of Cooper(Ii) Biscomplexes Of Substituted 8-Quinolinols And Their 2-Methyl Analogues / Herman Gershon, Muriel Gershon, And Donald D. Clark Harding Laboratory, The New York Botanical Garde, Fordham University, Bronx, New York 10458, Usa, Herman Gershon, Muriel Gershon, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd Jan 2006

Effect Of Geometry Of Molecules On Penetrability Of Fungal Wall And Antifungal Activity Of Cooper(Ii) Biscomplexes Of Substituted 8-Quinolinols And Their 2-Methyl Analogues / Herman Gershon, Muriel Gershon, And Donald D. Clark Harding Laboratory, The New York Botanical Garde, Fordham University, Bronx, New York 10458, Usa, Herman Gershon, Muriel Gershon, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd

Chemistry Faculty Publications

It was shown that the lack of fungitoxicity of some classes of square planar compounds can be altered by adding substituents that make the potential toxicant non-planar and/or dipolar. Corrections were made of errors in a number of published papers. Calculations were made to approximate the sizes and shapes of the perforations in the fungal wall


Further Evidence That Geometries Of Fungicides And Pores In Fungal Wall Must Be Compatible To Show Bioavailability / Herman Gershon, Muriel Gershon, And Donald D. Clark Harding Laboratory, The New York Botanical Garde, Fordham University, Bronx, New York 10458, Usa, Herman Gershon, Muriel Gershon, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd Jan 2006

Further Evidence That Geometries Of Fungicides And Pores In Fungal Wall Must Be Compatible To Show Bioavailability / Herman Gershon, Muriel Gershon, And Donald D. Clark Harding Laboratory, The New York Botanical Garde, Fordham University, Bronx, New York 10458, Usa, Herman Gershon, Muriel Gershon, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Copper(II) biscomplexes of 3-bromo-6-chloro-8- quinolinol and 6-bromo-3-chloro-8-quinolinol were prepared, the long axes ofwhich were 16.8 A and 17.6 A respectively. The long axes of the pores in the walls of the test fungi were determined: A niger (15.0 A), A. oryzae (16.8 A), M verrucaria (17.4 A), T viride (15.0 A). M circinelloides (not determined), and T mentagrophytes (11 .4 A). When the long axis of the copper(II) complex was was shorter or equal to that of the pore, there was fungitoxicity. When the long axis of the complex was longer than ...


Correction Of The Literature Citing Monoiodo-8-Quinolinols: A Critical Review / Herman Gershon And Donald D. Clarke Harding Laboratory, The New York Botanical Garde, And Fordham University, Bronx, New York 10458, Usa, Herman Gershon, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd Jan 2005

Correction Of The Literature Citing Monoiodo-8-Quinolinols: A Critical Review / Herman Gershon And Donald D. Clarke Harding Laboratory, The New York Botanical Garde, And Fordham University, Bronx, New York 10458, Usa, Herman Gershon, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Until 1995, all papers that claimed preparation or further study with monoiodo-8-quinolinol were really working with the 7-iodo isomer. Of the 83 relevant citations 67 dealt with incorrect structural assignments, 13 were critiqued due to errors made in synthesis and interpretation, and 9 had the correct structural assignments. This literature review made the following conclusions apparent. 1. Prototropic forms of 8- quinolinol influence orientation of electrophiles. 2. Under strong acidic conditions, the 5 position is favored. 3. Under mild acidic conditions, mixtures of 5 and 7 substituted compounds are formed. 4. Under basic conditions, the incoming electrophile favors the 7 ...


Synergistic Mixtures Of Fungitoxic Monochloro And Dichloro-8-Quinolinols Against Five Fungi / Herman Gershon, Muriel Gershon, & Donald D. Clarke Harding Laboratory, The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, Ny 10458-5126, Usa; Department Of Chemistry, Fordham University, Bronx, Ny 10458-9993, Usa, Herman Gershon, Muriel Gershon, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd Jan 2004

Synergistic Mixtures Of Fungitoxic Monochloro And Dichloro-8-Quinolinols Against Five Fungi / Herman Gershon, Muriel Gershon, & Donald D. Clarke Harding Laboratory, The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, Ny 10458-5126, Usa; Department Of Chemistry, Fordham University, Bronx, Ny 10458-9993, Usa, Herman Gershon, Muriel Gershon, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Fourteen mono- and dichloro-8-quinolinols were tested against five fungi (Aspergillus niger, A. oryzae, Myrothecium verrucaria, Trichoderma viride, and Mucor circinelloides) and compared with the fungitoxicity of 8- quinolinol in Yeast Nitrogen Base containing l% D-glucose and 0.088% L-asparagine. All of the compounds were more fungitoxic than 8-quinolinol except for the surprising activity of 8-quinolinol against A. oryzae. Mixtures of the MICs of monochloro- and dichloro-8-quinolinols in which the halogens were in different positions of the quinoline ring showed synergism. Comparable mixtures in which one position of each compound was occupied by the same halogen showed additive activity. In a ...


Effect Of Dimethyl Sulfoxide And Dimethylformamide On The Stability Of 4-Halo-8quinolinols / Herman Gershon, Donald D. Clarke, And John J. Mcmahon Department Of Chemistry, Fordham University, Bronx, Ny 10458-9993, Usa New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, Ny 10458-9993, Usa, Herman Gershon, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd, John J. Mcmahon Jan 2003

Effect Of Dimethyl Sulfoxide And Dimethylformamide On The Stability Of 4-Halo-8quinolinols / Herman Gershon, Donald D. Clarke, And John J. Mcmahon Department Of Chemistry, Fordham University, Bronx, Ny 10458-9993, Usa New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, Ny 10458-9993, Usa, Herman Gershon, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd, John J. Mcmahon

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Polyhalo-8-quinolinols with chlorine or bromine in position 4 were not stable in DMSO or DMF. The degradation product from 4,5-dichloro-8-quinolinol was 5-chloro-4,8-quinolindiol and the major product from 4,5-dibromo-8-quinolinol was 3,5-dibromo-4,8-quinolindiol. 4,5,7-Trichloro- and 4,5,7-tribromo-8-quinolinols yielded similar hydrolytic products, and for the bromo compound, a rebrominated product in DMSO. In DMF rebrornination did not occur. In pyridine-d5 these reactions did not take place, indicating a special ability of DMSO and DMF to cause such hydrolysis at position 4 of 4-halo-8-quinolinols


Preparation Of 6-Fluoro-8-Quinolinol And Related 6-Fluoroquinolines / Herman Gershon, Donald D. Clarke, And Muriel Gershon Department Of Chemistry, Fordham University, Bronx, New York 10458 U.S.A., New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York 10458, U.S.A., Herman Gershon, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd, Muriel Gershon Jan 2002

Preparation Of 6-Fluoro-8-Quinolinol And Related 6-Fluoroquinolines / Herman Gershon, Donald D. Clarke, And Muriel Gershon Department Of Chemistry, Fordham University, Bronx, New York 10458 U.S.A., New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York 10458, U.S.A., Herman Gershon, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd, Muriel Gershon

Chemistry Faculty Publications

6-Fluoro-8-quinolinol was prepared from 2-amino-5-fluorophenol by a Skraup synthesis. No synergism was observed between 5-fluoro- and 6-fluoro-8-quinolinols or between 6-fluoro-8-quinolinolsuoro- and 7-fluoro-8-quinolinols against any of the six fungi in our test system (Aspergillus niger, A. oryzae, Myrothecium verrucaria, Trichoderma viride, Mucor cirinelloides, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes) in Sabouraud dextrose broth. Unlike the fluoro-8-quinolinols, the 8-quinolinols comparably substituted with chlorine or bromine did form synergistic mixtures. This is attributed to steric factors


Preparation And Antifungal Activity Of 3-Iodo- And 6-Iodo-8-Quinolinols / Herman Gershon, Donald D. Clarke, John J. Mcmahon, And Muriel Gershon Department Of Chemistry, Fordham University, Bronx, Ny 10458-9993, Usa New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, Ny 10458-9993, Usa, Herman Gershon, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd, John J. Mcmahon, Muriel Gershon Jan 2002

Preparation And Antifungal Activity Of 3-Iodo- And 6-Iodo-8-Quinolinols / Herman Gershon, Donald D. Clarke, John J. Mcmahon, And Muriel Gershon Department Of Chemistry, Fordham University, Bronx, Ny 10458-9993, Usa New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, Ny 10458-9993, Usa, Herman Gershon, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd, John J. Mcmahon, Muriel Gershon

Chemistry Faculty Publications

3-Iodo- and 6-Iodo-8-quinolinols were prepared and tested against six fungi: Aspergillus niger, A. oryzae, Myrothecium verrucaria, Trichoderma viride, Mucor cirinelloides, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes in Sabouraud dextrose broth. A comparison with the previously known 5-iodo- and 7-iodo-8-quinolinols showed that the 6-iodo isomer was the most active


Antifungal Activity Of Substituted 8-Quinolinol-5- And 7-Sulfonic Acids: A Mechanism Of Action Is Suggested Based On Intramolecular Synergism / Hermon Gershon, Muriel Gershon, & Donald D. Clarke Harding Laboratory, The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York 10458, Usa; Department Of Chemistry, Fordham University, Bronx, New York 10458, Usa, Herman Gershon, Muriel Gershon, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd Jan 2001

Antifungal Activity Of Substituted 8-Quinolinol-5- And 7-Sulfonic Acids: A Mechanism Of Action Is Suggested Based On Intramolecular Synergism / Hermon Gershon, Muriel Gershon, & Donald D. Clarke Harding Laboratory, The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York 10458, Usa; Department Of Chemistry, Fordham University, Bronx, New York 10458, Usa, Herman Gershon, Muriel Gershon, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd

Chemistry Faculty Publications

8-Quinolinol-5-sulfonic acid was nearly devoid of antimicrobial activity, due to what was believed to be an unfavorable partition coefficient. Since twenty six 8-quinolinol-5- and 7 -sulfonic acids were available from our previous work, they were tested against six fungi. The 7 -chloro and 7 -bromo-5-sulfonic acids and the 5-chloro and 5-bromo-7 -sulfonic acids showed fungal inhibition within one order of magnitude of that of 8-quinolinol. It is suggested that a nonchelating mechanism is in part responsible for this fungitoxicity. Five additional 5-sulfonic acids with chlorine in positions 3-, 6-, 3,6-, 3,7-, and 6,7- that were suitable for ...


Preparation And Fungitoxicity Of Some Trichloro-, Tribromo-, Tetrachloro-, And Tetrabromo-8-Quinolinols / Herman Gershon, Donald D. Clarke, And Muriel Gershon Department Of Chemistry, Fordham University, Bronx, New York 10458-9993 Usa, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York 10458-9993 Usa, Herman Gershon, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd, Muriel Gershon Jan 2001

Preparation And Fungitoxicity Of Some Trichloro-, Tribromo-, Tetrachloro-, And Tetrabromo-8-Quinolinols / Herman Gershon, Donald D. Clarke, And Muriel Gershon Department Of Chemistry, Fordham University, Bronx, New York 10458-9993 Usa, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York 10458-9993 Usa, Herman Gershon, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd, Muriel Gershon

Chemistry Faculty Publications

3,5,6-, 3,5,7-, 4,5,7-, and 5,6,7-trichloro- and -tribromo-8-quinolinols as well as 3,5,6,7- tetrachloro- and -tetrabromo-8-quinolinols were prepared and tested against six fungi (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae, Myrothecium verrucaria, Trichoderma viride, Mucor cirinelloides, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes) in Sabouraud dextrose broth. The compounds strongly inhibit five fungi but not M. cirinelloides. They are less active than the related dichloro-8-quinolinols which is attributed to steric hindrance


Crystal Structure Of Bis(7-Nitro-8-Quinolinolato)Copper(Ii), Cuc18h10o6n4 / M. Shoja, H. Gershon And D. D. Clarke Fordham University, Department Of Chemistry, Fordham Road, Bronx, Ny 10458, Usa, Massud Shoja, Herman Gershon, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd Jan 2000

Crystal Structure Of Bis(7-Nitro-8-Quinolinolato)Copper(Ii), Cuc18h10o6n4 / M. Shoja, H. Gershon And D. D. Clarke Fordham University, Department Of Chemistry, Fordham Road, Bronx, Ny 10458, Usa, Massud Shoja, Herman Gershon, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd

Chemistry Faculty Publications

C1sHwCuN406, monoclinic, P121/cl (No. 14), a= 4.567(9) Å, b = 10.723(8) Å, c = 17.095(6) Å, ~ = 100.0(1)0 , v = 824.5 Å3 , Z = 2, Rgt(F) = 0.043, wRgt(F) = 0.067, T = 293 K


Synthesis Of 2-Acetamido-5,6-Dihalophenyl Acetates / Donald D. Clarke, Herman Gershon, And John J. Mcmahon Department Of Chemistry, Fordham University, Bronx, Ny 10458, Usa, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd, Herman Gershon, John J. Mcmahon Jan 2000

Synthesis Of 2-Acetamido-5,6-Dihalophenyl Acetates / Donald D. Clarke, Herman Gershon, And John J. Mcmahon Department Of Chemistry, Fordham University, Bronx, Ny 10458, Usa, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd, Herman Gershon, John J. Mcmahon

Chemistry Faculty Publications

2-Acetamido-5,6-dihalophenyl acetates were synthesized as intermediates for the preparation of 6, 7-dihalo-8-quinolinols via the Skraup procedure


Circulation And Energy Metabolism In The Brain / Donald D. Clarke And Louis Sokoloff, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd, Louis Sokoloff Jan 1999

Circulation And Energy Metabolism In The Brain / Donald D. Clarke And Louis Sokoloff, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd, Louis Sokoloff

Chemistry Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Preparation And Fungitoxicity Of Some Dichloro-8-Quinolinols / Herman Gershon, Donald D. Clarke, And Muriel Gershon Department Of Chemistry, Fordham University, Bronx, Ny 10458, Usa New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, Ny 10458, Usa, Herman Gershon, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd, Muriel Gershon Jan 1999

Preparation And Fungitoxicity Of Some Dichloro-8-Quinolinols / Herman Gershon, Donald D. Clarke, And Muriel Gershon Department Of Chemistry, Fordham University, Bronx, Ny 10458, Usa New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, Ny 10458, Usa, Herman Gershon, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd, Muriel Gershon

Chemistry Faculty Publications

2,5-, 3,5-, 3,7-, 4,5-, 5,6-, und 6,7-Dichloro-8-quinolinols were prepared and tested along with their 3,6- and 5,7-ana1ogues against six fungi (Aspergillus niger, A. oryzae, Myrothecium verrucaria, Trichoderma viride, Mucor cirinelloides, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes) in Sabouraud dextrose broth. Most of the compounds were strongly antifungal, inhibiting five of the fungi below 1 μg/ml. This activity is attributed to intramolecular synergism. M. cirinelloides was inhibited less by these compounds


Crystal Structures Of Copper(Ii) Complexes Of Some 2-Methyl-8-Quinolinols And Implications For Their Antifungal Activity / Massud Shoja, Herman Gershon, Diana Bray, And Donald D. Clarke Department Of Chemistry, Fordham University, Bronx, Ny 10458, Usa New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, Ny 10458, Usa, Massud Shoja Phd, Herman Gershon, Diana Bray, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd Jan 1998

Crystal Structures Of Copper(Ii) Complexes Of Some 2-Methyl-8-Quinolinols And Implications For Their Antifungal Activity / Massud Shoja, Herman Gershon, Diana Bray, And Donald D. Clarke Department Of Chemistry, Fordham University, Bronx, Ny 10458, Usa New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, Ny 10458, Usa, Massud Shoja Phd, Herman Gershon, Diana Bray, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd

Chemistry Faculty Publications

A hypothesis that the geometry of a potential fungicide must be consistent with that of the pores of the fungal spore wall in order to penetrate it and be toxic has been developed. Certain bis(8-quinolinolato)copper(II) complexes seemed to contradict this. To resolve this issue, structures of bis(7-fluoro-8-quinolinolato )copper(II) (1), bis(2-methyl-8-quinolinolato )copper(II) (2), and bis(2-methyl-7-nitro-8-quinolinolato)copper(II) (3) were solved. The ligands of 1 are square planar with copper at the center of symmetry. In 2 and 3 the methyl group at C2 interacts with the other 8- quinolinol ligand, producing a significant ...


Revision Of The Assigned Structures Of 5- And 7-Iodo-8-Quinolinols And 5- And 7-Iodo-2-Methyl-8-Quinolinols / Donald D. Clarke, Herman Gershon, Massud Shoja, And Mei-Wen Yen Department Of Chemistry, Fordham University, Bronx, Ny 10458, Usa, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd, Herman Gershon, Massud Shoja Phd, Mei-Wen Yen Jan 1998

Revision Of The Assigned Structures Of 5- And 7-Iodo-8-Quinolinols And 5- And 7-Iodo-2-Methyl-8-Quinolinols / Donald D. Clarke, Herman Gershon, Massud Shoja, And Mei-Wen Yen Department Of Chemistry, Fordham University, Bronx, Ny 10458, Usa, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd, Herman Gershon, Massud Shoja Phd, Mei-Wen Yen

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Revised structures are presented for 5- and 7-iodo-8-quinolinols and for 5- and 7-iodo-2-methyl-8-quinolinols based on NMR studies. UV spectroscopic characterization of the compounds was also carried out


Nerve Tissue-Specific Human Glutamate Dehydrogenase That Is Thermolabile And Highly Regulated By Adp / P. Shashidharan, Donald D. Clarke, Naveed Ahmed, Nicholas Moschonas, And Andreas Plaitakis Department Of Neurology, Mount Sinai School Of Medicine, New York; Department Of Chemistry, Fordham University, Bronx New York, Usa; And Department Of Biology And School Of Health Sciences, University Of Crete, Crete, Greece, P. Shashidharan, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd, Naveed Ahmed, Nicholas Moschonas Jan 1997

Nerve Tissue-Specific Human Glutamate Dehydrogenase That Is Thermolabile And Highly Regulated By Adp / P. Shashidharan, Donald D. Clarke, Naveed Ahmed, Nicholas Moschonas, And Andreas Plaitakis Department Of Neurology, Mount Sinai School Of Medicine, New York; Department Of Chemistry, Fordham University, Bronx New York, Usa; And Department Of Biology And School Of Health Sciences, University Of Crete, Crete, Greece, P. Shashidharan, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd, Naveed Ahmed, Nicholas Moschonas

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), an enzyme that is central to the metabolism of glutamate, is present at high levels in the mammalian brain. Studies on human leukocytes and rat brain suggested the presence of two GDH activities differing in thermal stability and allosteric regulation, but molecular biological investigations led to the cloning of two human GDH-specific genes encoding highly homologous polypeptides. The first gene, designated GLUD1, is expressed in all tissues (housekeeping GDH), whereas the second gene, designated GLUD2, is expressed specifically in neural and testicular tissues. In this study, we obtained both GDH isoenzymes in pure form by expressing a ...


Preparation And Fungitoxicity Of 3-Bromo-6-Chloro- And 6-Bromo-3-Chloro-8-Quinolinols / Gershon H., Clarke D. D., Gerhson M, Department Of Chemistry, Fordham University, Bronx, Ny 10458, Usa, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, Ny 10458, Usa, Herman Gershon, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd, Muriel Gershon Jan 1996

Preparation And Fungitoxicity Of 3-Bromo-6-Chloro- And 6-Bromo-3-Chloro-8-Quinolinols / Gershon H., Clarke D. D., Gerhson M, Department Of Chemistry, Fordham University, Bronx, Ny 10458, Usa, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, Ny 10458, Usa, Herman Gershon, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd, Muriel Gershon

Chemistry Faculty Publications

3-Bromo-6-chloro- and 6-bromo-3-chloro-8-nitro, -8-amino-, and -8-hydroxyquinolines along with 3-bromo- and 3-chloroquinolin-6,8-diols were prepared and tested for antifungal activity against six fungi (Aspergillus niger, A. oryzae, Myrothecium verrucaria, Trichoderma viride, Mucor cirinelloides, Trichophyton mentagrophytes) in Sabouraud dextrose broth. Compounds with chlorine in the 3 position were generally more fungitoxic than the corresponding analogues with bromine. 6-Bromo-3-chloro-8-quinolinol inhibited four fungi at levels below 1 μg/ml and A. niger and M. cirinelloides at 2 μg/ml each


Substituted 8-Quinolinols: Halo, Nitro, And Sulfonic Acids / Herman Gershon, Donald D. Clarke, And Muriel Gershon Department Of Chemistry, Fordham University, Bronx, New York 10458 U.S.A., New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York 10458, U.S.A., Herman Gershon, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd, Muriel Gershon Jan 1995

Substituted 8-Quinolinols: Halo, Nitro, And Sulfonic Acids / Herman Gershon, Donald D. Clarke, And Muriel Gershon Department Of Chemistry, Fordham University, Bronx, New York 10458 U.S.A., New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York 10458, U.S.A., Herman Gershon, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd, Muriel Gershon

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Methods have been systematized for preparing substituted 8-quinolinols. The 5 and 7 positions are those available for electrophilic substitution. The entry position of the electrophile can be controlled by controlling the prototropic form of the 8-quinolinol. Under acidic conditions the 5 position is attacked first and under basic conditions the electrophile is directed to the 7 position. Iodination is the reverse. Regiospecificity also can be achieved by blocking the 5 or 7 position with sulfonic acid groups followed by addition of the electrophile and deblocking by acid hydrolysis, providing the new substituent is stable to acid hydrolysis. When compounds containing ...


Antifungal Activity Of Halophenols And Halonitrophenols / H. Gershon, D. D. Clarke, And M. Gershon Department Of Chemistry, Fordham University, Bronx, Ny 10458, Usa New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, Ny 10458, Usa, Herman Gershon, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd, Muriel Gershon Jan 1995

Antifungal Activity Of Halophenols And Halonitrophenols / H. Gershon, D. D. Clarke, And M. Gershon Department Of Chemistry, Fordham University, Bronx, Ny 10458, Usa New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, Ny 10458, Usa, Herman Gershon, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd, Muriel Gershon

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Thirty one compounds (phenol; its 12 possible monohalo analogues; 18 nitrophenols (2- and 4-nitrophenols, 4-, 5-, and 6-halo-2-nitrophenols, 3-halo-4-nitrophenols)) were tested for antifungal activity against six fungi (A. niger, A. oryzae, M. verrucaria, T. viride, M. cirinelloides, and T. mentagrophytes) in Sabouraud dextrose broth. The two most fungitoxic compounds of those studied were 5-fluoro- and 5-iodo-2-nitrophenols which inhibited all the fungi at concentrations under 10 μg/ml. 6-Iodo-2-nitrophenol inhibited five fungi at a concentration below 10 μg/ml and M. cirinelloides at 10- 100 μg/ ml


Preparation And Fungitoxicity Of 3,6-Dichloro- And 3,6-Dibromo-8-Quinolinols / H. Gershon, D. D. Clarke, And M. Gershon Department Of Chemistry, Fordham University, Bronx, Ny 10458, Usa New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, Ny 10458, Usa, Herman Gershon, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd, Muriel Gershon Jan 1994

Preparation And Fungitoxicity Of 3,6-Dichloro- And 3,6-Dibromo-8-Quinolinols / H. Gershon, D. D. Clarke, And M. Gershon Department Of Chemistry, Fordham University, Bronx, Ny 10458, Usa New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, Ny 10458, Usa, Herman Gershon, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd, Muriel Gershon

Chemistry Faculty Publications

3,6-Dichloro- and 3,6-dibromo-8-quinolinols were prepared by direct halogenation of 8-nitroquinoline by N-halosuccinimide in acetic acid or by halogenation of the corresponding 6-halo-8-nitroquinoline prepared via a Skraup reaction. The nitro group was reduced to amino and the amine was hydrolyzed to the phenol in 70% sulfuric acid at 220 °C. The fungitoxicity of 3,6-dichloro- and 3,6-dibromo-8-quinolinols, as well as intermediates in their preparation, against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae, Myrothecium verrucaria, Trichoderma viride, and Mucor cirinelloides was determined. 3,6-dichloro-8-quinolinol is the most fungitoxic analogue of this class of compounds observed to date


Evidence Of Steric Factors In The Fungitoxic Mechanism Of 8-Quinolinol And Its 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, 6- And 7-Chloro And Bromo Analogues / Herman Gershon, Donald D. Clarke, And Muriel Gershon Department Of Chemistry, Fordham University, Bronx, Ny 10458, Usa New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, Ny 10458, Usa, Herman Gershon, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd, Muriel Gershon Jan 1994

Evidence Of Steric Factors In The Fungitoxic Mechanism Of 8-Quinolinol And Its 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, 6- And 7-Chloro And Bromo Analogues / Herman Gershon, Donald D. Clarke, And Muriel Gershon Department Of Chemistry, Fordham University, Bronx, Ny 10458, Usa New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, Ny 10458, Usa, Herman Gershon, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd, Muriel Gershon

Chemistry Faculty Publications

A study was made of the fungitoxicity of 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, 6- and 7-chloro and bromo- 8-quinolinols against Aspergillus niger, A. oryzae, Myrothecium verrucaria, Trichoderma viride and Trichophyton mentagrophytes in Sabouraud dextrose broth and in Yeast Nitrogen Base supplemented with 1% D-glucose and 0.088% L-asparagine. Based on the presence or absence of synergism between pairs of substituted 8-quinolinols and reversal or nonreversal of toxicity by L-cysteine or Nacetyl- L-cysteine, the following conclusions were reached: (1) substituents on the quinoline ring change the site(s) of action of the toxicant; (2) the sites of action of the 5-, 6- ...


Reexamination Of The Thermolytic Rearrangement Of 4-Halophenyl Azides To 2-Aminophenols And Other Products / H. Gershon, D. D. Clarke, And M. Gershon, Department Of Chemistry, Fordham University, Bronx, Ny 10458, Usa, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, Ny 10458, Usa, Herman Gershon, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd, Muriel Gershon Jan 1993

Reexamination Of The Thermolytic Rearrangement Of 4-Halophenyl Azides To 2-Aminophenols And Other Products / H. Gershon, D. D. Clarke, And M. Gershon, Department Of Chemistry, Fordham University, Bronx, Ny 10458, Usa, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, Ny 10458, Usa, Herman Gershon, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd, Muriel Gershon

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The halogenation of derivatives of 2-aminophenol with N-chloro- and N-bromosuccinimides at ambient temperatures in acetic acid was studied. With the necessary compounds available, a reexamination of the thermolytic rearrangement of 2-halophenyl azides to 2-aminophenols and other products was undertaken. It is certain that the rearrangement of 4-halophenyl azides to 2-aminophenols occurs but the products identified in this study differ significantly from those reported previously by Suschitzky et al. (1963, 1966)


Improved Syntheses Of Some Monochloro- And Monobromo-8-Quinolinols / Herman Gershon And Donald D. Clarke Department Of Chemistry, Fordham University, Bronx, Ny 10458, Usa, Herman Gershon, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd Jan 1991

Improved Syntheses Of Some Monochloro- And Monobromo-8-Quinolinols / Herman Gershon And Donald D. Clarke Department Of Chemistry, Fordham University, Bronx, Ny 10458, Usa, Herman Gershon, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Procedures were developed for the preparation of the 2-, 3-, 4-, and 6-monosubstituted chloro and bromo 8-quinolinols which afforded greater yields and/or reduced the number of steps in the preparation. 100 MHz 1H-NMR spectra for the 12 possible monochloro and mono bromo analogues are given


Fluoroacetate And Fluorocitrate: Mechanism Of Action / Donald D. Clarke, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd Jan 1991

Fluoroacetate And Fluorocitrate: Mechanism Of Action / Donald D. Clarke, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The concept of lethal synthesis as suggested by Peters is reviewed in the light of the more recent work in this area. It is suggested that fluorocitrate is a "suicide" substrate for aconitase rather than a competitive inhibitor as originally suggested. The use of these substances to study glialneuronal relationships is considered


Evidence Of Steric Factors In The Fungitoxic Mechanism Of 8-Quinolinol And Its 5- And 7-Halogenated Analogues / Herman Gershon, Donald D. Clarke, And Muriel Gershon, Herman Gershon, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd, Muriel Gershon Jan 1991

Evidence Of Steric Factors In The Fungitoxic Mechanism Of 8-Quinolinol And Its 5- And 7-Halogenated Analogues / Herman Gershon, Donald D. Clarke, And Muriel Gershon, Herman Gershon, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd, Muriel Gershon

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Antifungal studies were made of mixtures of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 8-quinolinol and its 5- and 7-halo analogues against six fungi: Aspergillus niger, A. oryzae, Trichoderma viride, Myrothecium verrucaria, Mucor cirinelloides, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Mixtures of 8-quinolinol with 5- or 7-fluoro-8-quinolinol and of 5- and 7-fluoro-8-quinolinol showed additive activity, and their respective toxicities were reversed by L-cysteine. These results suggested a common mechanism of activity for the three toxicants. Potentiation of the fungitoxicity of mixtures of 8-quinolinol and its 5- and 7-chloro, bromo, and iodo analogues, as well as mixtures of 5- and 7-chloro, 5- and 7-bromo, and 5- ...


Some Diazinon Analogues Containing The 4-Trifluoromethyl Group / Herman Gershon, Donald D. Clarke, Anthony T. Grefig, And Thomas E. Anderson Boyce Thompson Institute For Plant Research At Cornell University, Ithaca, Ny 14853, U.S.A. Department Of Chemistry, Fordham University, Bronx, Ny 10458, U.S.A., Herman Gershon, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd, Anthony T. Grefig, Thomas E. Anderson Jan 1990

Some Diazinon Analogues Containing The 4-Trifluoromethyl Group / Herman Gershon, Donald D. Clarke, Anthony T. Grefig, And Thomas E. Anderson Boyce Thompson Institute For Plant Research At Cornell University, Ithaca, Ny 14853, U.S.A. Department Of Chemistry, Fordham University, Bronx, Ny 10458, U.S.A., Herman Gershon, Donald Dudley Clarke Phd, Anthony T. Grefig, Thomas E. Anderson

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Diazinon analogues were prepared containing trifluoromethyl in place of the 4-methyl group and methylthio (2a), amino (2b), dimethylamino (2c), methylphenylamino (2d), or isopropyl (2e) in position 2 of the pyrimidine ring. The most active analogue (2 b) was less than half as insecticidal as Diazinon