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City University of New York (CUNY)

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Articles 1 - 30 of 155

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Renal Specific Rnai Delivery By Fibrillar Nanoparticle Excipients, Sam Wong Sep 2019

Renal Specific Rnai Delivery By Fibrillar Nanoparticle Excipients, Sam Wong

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool to manipulate the phenotype of an organism by silencing the expression of specific genes and is viewed as a highly promising platform for treating undruggable targets and disorders where small molecule drugs and antibodies would fail. However, development of RNAi based therapies has faced major barriers including cellular and tissue-specific uptake of the Small Interfering RNA (siRNA). Utilizing different nanoparticles as RNAi excipients, cellular uptake and gene silencing potency can be greatly improved. The research in Dr. McDevitt groups has fibrillar carbon nanotubes (CNT) as carriers for siRNA for gene silencing in vitro ...


Hyaluronan At The Brain-Environment Interface, Donald M. Thevalingam Sep 2019

Hyaluronan At The Brain-Environment Interface, Donald M. Thevalingam

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Hyaluronan (HA; Hyaluronic Acid), a primary scaffolding component of the brain extracellular matrix, serves as an integral structural component to the brain extracellular space (ECS). The fossorial African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber; NM-R), a mammal which lives in a low-oxygen environment and is capable of tolerating hypoxia and hypercapnia, has been shown to synthesize and sustain a unique high-molecular-mass variant of hyaluronan macromolecule (HMM-HA). This body of work highlights HA’s role in mediating the interplay between brain ECM composition, ECS structure, and cell viability.

Here we employ the NM-R as a unique animal model to observe the role of ...


Minimalistic Peptide-Based Supramolecular Systems Relevant To The Chemical Origin Of Life, Daniela Kroiss Sep 2019

Minimalistic Peptide-Based Supramolecular Systems Relevant To The Chemical Origin Of Life, Daniela Kroiss

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

All forms of life are based on biopolymers, which are made up of a selection of simple building blocks, such as amino acids, nucleotides, fatty acids and sugars. Their individual properties govern their interactions, giving rise to complex supramolecular structures with highly specialized functionality, including ligand recognition, catalysis and compartmentalization. In this thesis, we aim to answer the question whether short peptides could have acted as precursors of modern proteins during prebiotic evolution. Using a combination of experimental and computational techniques, we screened a large molecular search space for peptide sequences that are capable of forming supramolecular complexes with adenosine ...


Global Biochemical And Structural Analysis Of The Type Iv Pilus From The Gram-Positive Bacterium Streptococcus Sanguinis, Jamie-Lee Berry, Ishwori Gurung, Jan Haug Anonsen, Ingrid Spielman, Elliot Harper, Alexander M. J. Hall, Vivianne J. Goosens, Claire Raynaud, Michael Koomey, Nicolas Biais, Steve Matthews, Vladimir Pelicic Mar 2019

Global Biochemical And Structural Analysis Of The Type Iv Pilus From The Gram-Positive Bacterium Streptococcus Sanguinis, Jamie-Lee Berry, Ishwori Gurung, Jan Haug Anonsen, Ingrid Spielman, Elliot Harper, Alexander M. J. Hall, Vivianne J. Goosens, Claire Raynaud, Michael Koomey, Nicolas Biais, Steve Matthews, Vladimir Pelicic

Publications and Research

Type IV pili (Tfp) are functionally versatile filaments, widespread in prokaryotes, that belong to a large class of filamentous nanomachines known as type IV filaments (Tff). Although Tfp have been extensively studied in several Gram-negative pathogens where they function as key virulence factors, many aspects of their biology remain poorly understood. Here, we performed a global biochemical and structural analysis of Tfp in a recently emerged Gram-positive model, Streptococcus sanguinis. In particular, we focused on the five pilins and pilin-like proteins involved in Tfp biology in S. sanguinis. We found that the two major pilins, PilE1 and PilE2, (i) follow ...


Bisthioether Stapled Peptides Targeting Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 Gene Repression, Gan Zhang Feb 2019

Bisthioether Stapled Peptides Targeting Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 Gene Repression, Gan Zhang

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Interactions between proteins play a key role in nearly all cellular process, and therefore, disruption of such interactions may lead to many different types of cellular dysfunctions. Hence, pathologic protein-protein interactions (PPIs) constitute highly attractive drug targets and hold great potential for developing novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of incurable human diseases. Unfortunately, the identification of PPI inhibitors is an extremely challenging task, since traditionally used small molecule ligands are mostly unable to cover and anchor on the extensive flat surfaces that define those binary protein complexes. In contrast, large biomolecules such as proteins or peptides are ideal fits ...


Solvation Thermodynamic Mapping In Computer Aided Drug Design, Steven Ramsey Feb 2019

Solvation Thermodynamic Mapping In Computer Aided Drug Design, Steven Ramsey

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The displacement of water from surfaces upon biomolecular recognition and association makes a significant contribution to the free energy changes of these processes. We therefore posit that accurate characterization of local structural and thermodynamic molecular water properties can improve computational model accuracy and predictivity of recognition and association processes. In this thesis, we discuss Solvation Thermodynamic Mapping (STM) methods that we have developed using inhomogeneous fluid solvation theory (IST) to better characterize active site water structural and thermodynamic properties on protein surfaces and the open source tools that we have developed, GIST-CPPTRAJ and SSTMap, which implement these methods which we ...


Luciferin Production And Luciferase Transcription In The Bioluminescent Copepod Metridia Lucens, Michael Tessler, Jean P. Gaffney, Jason M. Crawford, Eric Trautman, Nehaben A. Gujarati, Philip Alatalo, Vincent A. Pierbone, David F. Gruber Sep 2018

Luciferin Production And Luciferase Transcription In The Bioluminescent Copepod Metridia Lucens, Michael Tessler, Jean P. Gaffney, Jason M. Crawford, Eric Trautman, Nehaben A. Gujarati, Philip Alatalo, Vincent A. Pierbone, David F. Gruber

Publications and Research

Bioluminescent copepods are often the most abundant marine zooplankton and play critical roles in oceanic food webs. Metridia copepods exhibit particularly bright bioluminescence, and the molecular basis of their light production has just recently begun to be explored. Here we add to this body of work by transcriptomically profiling Metridia lucens, a common species found in temperate, northern, and southern latitudes. In this previously molecularly-uncharacterized species, we find the typical luciferase paralog gene set found in Metridia. More surprisingly, we recover noteworthy putative luciferase sequences that had not been described from Metridia species, indicating that bioluminescence produced by these copepods ...


Towards An Atomic Level Model Of The Structure And Calmodulin Mediated Activation Of Eef-2k, Nathan E. Will Sep 2018

Towards An Atomic Level Model Of The Structure And Calmodulin Mediated Activation Of Eef-2k, Nathan E. Will

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF-2K), the only calmodulin (CaM) dependent member of the a-kinase, phosphorylates eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF-2) on a specific residue (Thr-56), decreasing its affinity for the ribosome and reducing the rate of peptide chain elongation during protein translation. In contrast to the “release-of-inhibition’ mechanism operative in most CaM-dependent proteins kinases, the activation of eEF-2K is proposed to occur through a two-step process subsequent to the engagement of CaM and involves (1) auto-phosphorylation on T348 and (2) engagement of an allosteric site by phospho-T348 leading to a state with the highest activity towards the substrate eEF-2 ...


Phospholipase D-Dependent Mtorc1 Activation By Glutamine, Elyssa Bernfeld Sep 2018

Phospholipase D-Dependent Mtorc1 Activation By Glutamine, Elyssa Bernfeld

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Glutamine, the conditionally essential amino acid and most abundant amino acid in human sera, is a key nutrient required for sustaining cell proliferation. Glutamine is essential for nucleotide, protein, and lipid synthesis, all of which are essential for cell proliferation. The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a highly conserved protein complex that acts as a sensor of nutrients, relaying signals for the shift from catabolic to anabolic metabolism. While glutamine plays an important role in activating mTORC1, the mechanism is not completely clear. Here we describe a Rag-independent mechanism of mTORC1 activation by glutamine that is dependent ...


Renal Risk Variants Of Apolipoprotein L-1 Form Channels At The Plasma Membrane That Lead To A Cytotoxic Influx Of Calcium, Joseph A. Giovinazzo Sep 2018

Renal Risk Variants Of Apolipoprotein L-1 Form Channels At The Plasma Membrane That Lead To A Cytotoxic Influx Of Calcium, Joseph A. Giovinazzo

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Apolipoprotein L-1 (APOL1) is a secreted protein that provides protection against several protozoan parasites due to its channel forming properties. Recently evolved variants, G1 and G2, increase kidney disease risk when present in two copies. In mammalian cells, overexpression of G1 and G2, but not wild-type G0, leads to swelling and eventual lysis. However, the mechanism of cell death remains elusive with multiple pathways being invoked, such as autophagic cell death mediated by a BH3 domain in APOL1, which we evaluated in this study. We hypothesized that the common trigger for these pathways is the APOL1 cation channel, which is ...


Directly Light-Regulated Binding Of Rgs-Lov Photoreceptors To Anionic Membrane Phospholipids, Spencer T. Glantz, Erin E. Berlew, Zaynab Jaber, Benjamin S. Schuster, Kevin H. Gardner, Brian Y. Chow Jul 2018

Directly Light-Regulated Binding Of Rgs-Lov Photoreceptors To Anionic Membrane Phospholipids, Spencer T. Glantz, Erin E. Berlew, Zaynab Jaber, Benjamin S. Schuster, Kevin H. Gardner, Brian Y. Chow

Publications and Research

We report natural light–oxygen–voltage (LOV) photoreceptors with a blue light-switched, high-affinity (KD ∼ 10−7 M), and direct electrostatic interaction with anionic phospholipids. Membrane localization of one such photoreceptor, BcLOV4 from Botrytis cinerea, is directly coupled to its flavin photocycle, and is mediated by a polybasic amphipathic helixinthelinker regionbetween the LOV sensor and its C-terminal domain of unknown function (DUF), as revealed through a combination of bioinformatics, computational protein modeling, structure–function studies, and optogenetic assays in yeast and mammalian cell line expression systems. In model systems, BcLOV4 rapidly translocates from the cytosol to plasma membrane (∼1 second). The ...


Dextran Hydrogels By Crosslinking With Amino Acid Diamines And Their Viscoelastic Properties, Naphtali O'Connor, Andrei Jitianu, G Nunez, Quentin Picard, Madeline Wong, D Akpatsu, Adam Negrin, Rajendra Ghardbaran, D Lugo, S Shaker, Mihaela Jitianu, Stephen Redenti May 2018

Dextran Hydrogels By Crosslinking With Amino Acid Diamines And Their Viscoelastic Properties, Naphtali O'Connor, Andrei Jitianu, G Nunez, Quentin Picard, Madeline Wong, D Akpatsu, Adam Negrin, Rajendra Ghardbaran, D Lugo, S Shaker, Mihaela Jitianu, Stephen Redenti

Publications and Research

Amine functionalized polysaccharide hydrogels such as those based on chitosan are widely examined as biomaterials. Here we set out to develop a facile procedure for developing such hydrogels by crosslinking dextran with amino acid diamines. The dextran-amino acid gels were formed by the addition of the amino acid diamines to a dextran and epichlorohydrin solution once it became homogeneous. This was demonstrated with three amino acid diamines, lysine, lysine methyl ester, and cystine dimethyl ester. Hydrogel networks with albumin entrapped were also demonstrated. These hydrogels were characterized by FTIR, SEM, rotational rheometry, swelling studies and cell biocompatibility analysis. These hydrogels ...


Phase Diagram Of Water Confined By Graphene, Zhenghan Gao, Nicolas Giovambattista, Ozgur Sahin Apr 2018

Phase Diagram Of Water Confined By Graphene, Zhenghan Gao, Nicolas Giovambattista, Ozgur Sahin

Publications and Research

The behavior of water confined at the nanoscale plays a fundamental role in biological processes and technological applications, including protein folding, translocation of water across membranes, and filtration and desalination. Remarkably, nanoscale confinement drastically alters the properties of water. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we determine the phase diagram of water confined by graphene sheets in slab geometry, at T = 300 K and for a wide range of pressures. We find that, depending on the confining dimension D and density σ, water can exist in liquid and vapor phases, or crystallize into monolayer and bilayer square ices, as observed in experiments ...


Assessment Of A Single Decoupling Alchemical Approach For The Calculation Of The Absolute Binding Free Energies Of Protein-Peptide Complexes, Denise Kilburg, Emilio Gallicchio Mar 2018

Assessment Of A Single Decoupling Alchemical Approach For The Calculation Of The Absolute Binding Free Energies Of Protein-Peptide Complexes, Denise Kilburg, Emilio Gallicchio

Publications and Research

The computational modeling of peptide inhibitors to target protein-protein binding interfaces is growing in interest as these are often too large, too shallow, and too feature-less for conventional small molecule compounds. Here, we present a rare successful application of an alchemical binding free energy method for the calculation of converged absolute binding free energies of a series of protein-peptide complexes. Specifically, we report the binding free energies of a series of cyclic peptides derived from the LEDGF/p75 protein to the integrase receptor of the HIV1 virus. The simulations recapitulate the effect of mutations relative to the wild-type binding motif ...


Bpwrapper: Bioperl-Based Sequence And Tree Utilities For Rapid Prototyping Of Bioinformatics Pipelines, Yözen Hernández, Rocky Bernstein, Pedro Pagan, Levy Vargas, William Mccaig, Girish Ramrattan, Saymon Akther, Amanda Larracuente, Lia Di, Filipe G. Vieira, Weigang Qiu Mar 2018

Bpwrapper: Bioperl-Based Sequence And Tree Utilities For Rapid Prototyping Of Bioinformatics Pipelines, Yözen Hernández, Rocky Bernstein, Pedro Pagan, Levy Vargas, William Mccaig, Girish Ramrattan, Saymon Akther, Amanda Larracuente, Lia Di, Filipe G. Vieira, Weigang Qiu

Publications and Research

Abstract:

Background: Automated bioinformatics workflows are more robust, easier to maintain, and results more reproducible when built with command-line utilities than with custom-coded scripts. Command-line utilities further benefit by relieving bioinformatics developers to learn the use of, or to interact directly with, biological software libraries. There is however a lack of command-line utilities that leverage popular Open Source biological software toolkits such as BioPerl (http://bioperl.org) to make many of the well-designed, robust, and routinely used biological classes available for a wider base of end users.

Results: Designed as standard utilities for UNIX-family operating systems, BpWrapper makes functionality of ...


Type I Ifns And Tnf Cooperatively Reprogram The Macrophage Epigenome To Promote Inflammatory Activation, Sung Ho Park, Kyuho Kang, Eugenia Giannopoulou, Yu Qiao, Keunsoo Kang, Geonho Kim, Kyung-Hyun Park-Min, Lionel B. Ivashkiv Feb 2018

Type I Ifns And Tnf Cooperatively Reprogram The Macrophage Epigenome To Promote Inflammatory Activation, Sung Ho Park, Kyuho Kang, Eugenia Giannopoulou, Yu Qiao, Keunsoo Kang, Geonho Kim, Kyung-Hyun Park-Min, Lionel B. Ivashkiv

Publications and Research

Cross-regulation of Toll-like receptor responses by cytokines is essential for effective host defense, avoidance of toxicity, and homeostasis, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. A comprehensive epigenomic approach in human macrophages showed that the proinflammatory cytokines TNF and type I IFNs induce transcriptional cascades that alter chromatin states to broadly reprogram TLR4-induced responses. TNF tolerized inflammatory genes to prevent toxicity, while preserving antiviral and metabolic gene induction. Type I IFNs potentiated TNF inflammatory function by priming chromatin to prevent silencing of inflammatory NF-κB target genes. Priming of chromatin enabled robust transcriptional responses to weak upstream signals. Similar chromatin ...


Retinal Progenitor Cells Release Extracellular Vesicles Containing Developmental Transcription Factors, Microrna And Membrane Proteins, Jing Zhou, Alberto Benito-Martin, Jason Mighty, Lynne Chang, Shima Ghoroghi, Hao Wu, Madeline Wong, Sara Guariglia, Petr Baranov, Michael Young, Rajendra Ghardbaran, Mark Emerson, Milica Tesic Mark, Henrik Molina, M. Valeria Canto-Solar, Hector Peinado Selgas, Stephen Redenti Feb 2018

Retinal Progenitor Cells Release Extracellular Vesicles Containing Developmental Transcription Factors, Microrna And Membrane Proteins, Jing Zhou, Alberto Benito-Martin, Jason Mighty, Lynne Chang, Shima Ghoroghi, Hao Wu, Madeline Wong, Sara Guariglia, Petr Baranov, Michael Young, Rajendra Ghardbaran, Mark Emerson, Milica Tesic Mark, Henrik Molina, M. Valeria Canto-Solar, Hector Peinado Selgas, Stephen Redenti

Publications and Research

A range of cell types, including embryonic stem cells, neurons and astrocytes have been shown to release extracellular vesicles (EVs) containing molecular cargo. Across cell types, EVs facilitate transfer of mRNA, microRNA and proteins between cells. Here we describe the release kinetics and content of EVs from mouse retinal progenitor cells (mRPCs). Interestingly, mRPC derived EVs contain mRNA, miRNA and proteins associated with multipotency and retinal development. Transcripts enclosed in mRPC EVs, include the transcription factors Pax6, Hes1, and Sox2, a mitotic chromosome stabilizer Ki67, and the neural intermediate filaments Nestin and GFAP. Proteomic analysis of EV content revealed retinogenic ...


Mechanisms For Survival And Drug Resistance In Cancer Cells, Matthew B. Utter Feb 2018

Mechanisms For Survival And Drug Resistance In Cancer Cells, Matthew B. Utter

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

PART I

Prostate cells are hormonally driven to grow and divide. Typical treatments for prostate cancer involve blocking the hormone androgen from activating the androgen receptor (AR) and thus inhibit growth and proliferation of the cancer. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) can lead to the selection of cancer cells that grow and divide independently of androgen receptor activation. Prostate cancer cells that are insensitive to androgens commonly display metastatic phenotypes and reduced long-term survival of patients. In this study, we provide evidence that androgen-insensitive prostate cancer cells have elevated phospholipase D (PLD) activity relative to the androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells. PLD ...


Cloning And Spatiotemporal Expression Of Xenopus Laevis Apolipoprotein Ci, Jyotsna Sridharan, Tomomi Haremaki, Daniel C. Weinstein Jan 2018

Cloning And Spatiotemporal Expression Of Xenopus Laevis Apolipoprotein Ci, Jyotsna Sridharan, Tomomi Haremaki, Daniel C. Weinstein

Publications and Research

Apolipoprotein CI (ApoCI) belongs to the Apolipoprotein superfamily, members of which are involved in lipid transport, uptake and homeostasis. Excessive ApoCI has been implicated in atherosclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease in humans. In this study we report the isolation of Xenopus laevis apoCI and describe the expression pattern of this gene during early development, using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and whole mount in situ hybridization. Xenopus apoCI is enriched in the dorsal ectoderm during gastrulation, and is subsequently expressed in sensory placodes, neural tube and cranial neural crest. These data suggest as yet uncharacterized roles for ApoCI during early ...


The Microbe Directory: An Annotated, Searchable Inventory Of Microbes’ Characteristics, Heba Shaaban, David A. Westfall, Rawhi Mohammad, David Danko, Daniela Bezdan, Ebrahim Afshinnekoo, Nicola Segata, Christopher E. Mason Jan 2018

The Microbe Directory: An Annotated, Searchable Inventory Of Microbes’ Characteristics, Heba Shaaban, David A. Westfall, Rawhi Mohammad, David Danko, Daniela Bezdan, Ebrahim Afshinnekoo, Nicola Segata, Christopher E. Mason

Publications and Research

The Microbe Directory is a collective research effort to profile and annotate more than 7,500 unique microbial species from the MetaPhlAn2 database that includes bacteria, archaea, viruses, fungi, and protozoa. By collecting and summarizing data on various microbes’ characteristics, the project comprises a database that can be used downstream of large-scale metagenomic taxonomic analyses, allowing one to interpret and explore their taxonomic classifications to have a deeper understanding of the microbial ecosystem they are studying. Such characteristics include, but are not limited to: optimal pH, optimal temperature, Gram stain, biofilm-formation, spore-formation, antimicrobial resistance, and COGEM class risk rating. The ...


Wnt Secretion Proteins Modulate Rankl-Induced Expression Of Aire In Thymic Epithelial Cells, Daniel Pollack Jan 2018

Wnt Secretion Proteins Modulate Rankl-Induced Expression Of Aire In Thymic Epithelial Cells, Daniel Pollack

Dissertations and Theses

Thymic epithelial cells (TEC) are essential for a proper adaptive immune response by regulating thymocyte development and establishing central tolerance. In the thymus, TECs differentially express Wnt proteins, which activate canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways. Wnt signaling is thought to regulate cell survival, proliferation, and development although the direct molecular mechanisms in TECs have yet to be elucidated. The inducible inhibition of canonical Wnt signaling with Dkk1 leads to a rapid loss of TEC progenitors as well as a decline in mature Aire-expressing mTECs. Therefore, we explore the role of Wnt ligands potentially responsible for stimulating and/or regulating ...


Peptide Density Targets And Impedes Triple Negative Breast Cancer Metastasis, Daxing Liu, Peng Guo, Craig Mccarthy, Biran Wang, Yu Tao, Debra Auguste Jan 2018

Peptide Density Targets And Impedes Triple Negative Breast Cancer Metastasis, Daxing Liu, Peng Guo, Craig Mccarthy, Biran Wang, Yu Tao, Debra Auguste

Publications and Research

The C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4, CD184) pathway is a key regulator of cancer metastasis. Existing therapeutics that block CXCR4 signaling are dependent on single molecule-receptor interactions or silencing CXCR4 expression. CXCR4 localizes in lipid rafts and forms dimers therefore CXCR4 targeting and signaling may depend on ligand density. Herein, we report liposomes presenting a CXCR4 binding peptide (DV1) as a threedimensional molecular array, ranging from 9k to 74k molecules μm−2, target triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). TNBC cells exhibit a maxima in binding and uptake of DV1functionalized liposomes (L-DV1) in vitro at a specific density, which yields ...


Are Fireworms Venomous? Evidence For The Convergent Evolution Of Toxin Homologs In Three Species Of Fireworms (Annelida, Amphinomidae), Aida Verdes, Danny Simpson, Mandë Holford Dec 2017

Are Fireworms Venomous? Evidence For The Convergent Evolution Of Toxin Homologs In Three Species Of Fireworms (Annelida, Amphinomidae), Aida Verdes, Danny Simpson, Mandë Holford

Publications and Research

Amphinomids, more commonly known as fireworms, are a basal lineage of marine annelids characterized by the presence of defensive dorsal calcareous chaetae, which break off upon contact. It has long been hypothesized that amphinomids are venomous and use the chaetae to inject a toxic substance. However, studies investigating fireworm venom from a morphological or molecular perspective are scarce and no venom gland has been identified to date, nor any toxin characterized at the molecular level. To investigate this question, we analyzed the transcriptomes of three species of fireworms— Eurythoe complanata, Hermodice carunculata, andParamphinome jeffreysii—following a venomics approach to identify ...


Transcription Activator Like Effector Nucleases (Talens): A New, Important, And Versatile Gene Editing Technique With A Growing Literature, Philip Barnett Dec 2017

Transcription Activator Like Effector Nucleases (Talens): A New, Important, And Versatile Gene Editing Technique With A Growing Literature, Philip Barnett

Publications and Research

Transcription activator like effector nucleases (TALENs) is a new and powerful technique in genetic engineering that can delete deleterious genes or add beneficial genes to organisms. It is being widely studied to improve crops and livestock, and is also being investigated clinically. Comparing the details of how both TALENs and its competitor, CRISPR-Cas9, function, reveals the potential advantages of TALENs. The growing literature, besides covering the scientific and technical aspects of TALENs, also includes pertinent information on regulatory aspects and the public’s perception and acceptance of TALENs.


Synthesis, Crystal Structure, And Photoluminescent Properties Of 3,3′,4,4′-Tetraethyl-5,5′-Divinyl-2,2′-Bipyrrole Derivatives, Toru Okawara, Reo Kawano, Hiroya Morita, Alan Finkelstein, Renjiro Toyofuku, Kanako Matsumoto, Kenji Takehara, Toshihiko Nagamura, Seiji Iwasa, Sanjai Kumar Oct 2017

Synthesis, Crystal Structure, And Photoluminescent Properties Of 3,3′,4,4′-Tetraethyl-5,5′-Divinyl-2,2′-Bipyrrole Derivatives, Toru Okawara, Reo Kawano, Hiroya Morita, Alan Finkelstein, Renjiro Toyofuku, Kanako Matsumoto, Kenji Takehara, Toshihiko Nagamura, Seiji Iwasa, Sanjai Kumar

Publications and Research

Photoluminescent divinylbipyrroles were synthesized from 3,3′,4,4′-tetraetyl-2,2′-bipyrrole-5,5′-dicarboxaldehyde and activated methylene compounds via aldol condensation.For mechanistic clarity, molecular structures of Meldrum’s acid- and 1,3-dimethylbarbituricacid-derived divinylbipyrroles were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Photoluminescentproperties of the synthesized divinylbipyrroles in dichloromethane were found to be dependent onthe presence of electron withdrawing groups at the vinylic terminal. The divinylbipyrroles derivedfrom malononitrile, Meldrum’s acid, and 1,3-dimethylbarbituric acid showed fluorescent peaks at553, 576, and 602 nm respectively. Computational studies indicated that the alkyl substituents on thebipyrrole 3 and 3′positions increased energy level of the ...


Ligand Modulation Of Sidechain Dynamics In A Wild-Type Human Gpcr, Lindsay D. Clark, Igor Dikiy, Karen Chapman, Karin Ej Rodstrom, James Aramini, Michael V. Levine, George Khelashvili, Soren Gf Rasmussen, Kevin H. Gardner, Daniel M. Rosenbaum Oct 2017

Ligand Modulation Of Sidechain Dynamics In A Wild-Type Human Gpcr, Lindsay D. Clark, Igor Dikiy, Karen Chapman, Karin Ej Rodstrom, James Aramini, Michael V. Levine, George Khelashvili, Soren Gf Rasmussen, Kevin H. Gardner, Daniel M. Rosenbaum

Publications and Research

GPCRs regulate all aspects of human physiology, and biophysical studies have deepened our understanding of GPCR conformational regulation by different ligands. Yet there is no experimental evidence for how sidechain dynamics control allosteric transitions between GPCR conformations. To address this deficit, we generated samples of a wild-type GPCR (A2AR) that are deuterated apart from 1H/13C NMR probes at isoleucine d1 methyl groups, which facilitated 1H/13C methyl TROSY NMR measurements with opposing ligands. Our data indicate that low [Na+] is required to allow large agonist-induced structural changes in A2AR, and that patterns of sidechain dynamics substantially differ between agonist ...


Structural And Biochemical Studies Of The Dna Replication Initiation Mechanism Of The Second Chromosome Of Vibrio Cholerae, Natalia Orlova Sep 2017

Structural And Biochemical Studies Of The Dna Replication Initiation Mechanism Of The Second Chromosome Of Vibrio Cholerae, Natalia Orlova

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Transmission of genetic information through DNA replication is one of the key processes for any living organism. Despite the extensive effort put into studies of the mechanism of DNA replication, the understanding of the process on the molecular level is still incomplete. Specifically the molecular details of the very first events of DNA replication initiation are not sufficiently understood.

The majority of bacteria possess a single circular chromosome, and in order to initiate DNA replication these organisms utilize a conserved system, consisting of a specific DNA sequence - replication origin, called oriC, and replication initiator protein DnaA. However, bacteria with multipartite ...


Pharmacological Antagonism And The Olfactory Code, Mihwa Na Sep 2017

Pharmacological Antagonism And The Olfactory Code, Mihwa Na

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Mammals can detect and discriminate uncountable odors through their odorant receptors. To accommodate the countless and diverse odors, exceptionally large numbers of odorant receptor (OR) genes are expressed in mammals. In addition, the mammals utilize a combinatorial code, where an odorant molecule can activate multiple ORs; an OR also responds to a set of multiple odorants. In nature, an odor is often a complex mixture of multiple odorant molecules. The combination of the ORs activated by each constituent generates the unique olfactory code for the particular odor.

Some odorants can antagonize select ORs, as discussed in Chapter 1. An antagonist ...


Regulation Of The Amyloid Precursor Protein By Prostaglandin J2, A Mediator Of Inflammation: Relevance To Alzheimer’S Disease, Teneka L. Jean-Louis Sep 2017

Regulation Of The Amyloid Precursor Protein By Prostaglandin J2, A Mediator Of Inflammation: Relevance To Alzheimer’S Disease, Teneka L. Jean-Louis

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Inflammation plays a major role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Investigating how specific mediators of inflammation contribute to neurodegeneration in AD is crucial. Our studies focused on cyclooxygenases, which are key enzymes in inflammation and highly relevant to AD. Cyclooxygenases (COX -1, constitutive; COX-2, inducible) have emerged as important determinants of AD pathogenesis and progression. COX-2 is highly induced in AD, correlating with AD severity, and COX-1 is also involved in AD. Cyclooxygenases are the rate-limiting enzymes that convert arachidonic acid into prostaglandins (PGs), the principal mediators of CNS neuroinflammation.

The overall GOAL of these studies was to address the ...


Insight Into The Interaction Between The Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma (Pparγ) And Adipocyte Fatty Acid-Binding Protein (A-Fabp), Qian Wang Sep 2017

Insight Into The Interaction Between The Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma (Pparγ) And Adipocyte Fatty Acid-Binding Protein (A-Fabp), Qian Wang

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The Adipocyte Fatty Acid-Binding Protein (AFABP) is mainly expressed in fat cells. It can bind fatty acids and other lipophilic substances such as eicosanoids and retinoids. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a nuclear receptor protein that requires ligand binding to regulate the specific gene transcription. PPARγ is expressed at extremely high levels in adipose tissue, macrophages, and the large intestine, where it controls lipid adipogenesis and energy conversion. Moreover, it has been found that AFABP and PPARγ can form a complex in vivo. It is proposed that AFABP carries the ligand and enters into the nucleus where it ...