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Articles 1 - 30 of 174

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Muc1 In Normal And Impaired Spermatogenesis, Folker E. Franke, Sigurd Kraus, Claus Eiermann, Katharina Pauls, El-Nasir Lalani, Martin Bergmann Aug 2016

Muc1 In Normal And Impaired Spermatogenesis, Folker E. Franke, Sigurd Kraus, Claus Eiermann, Katharina Pauls, El-Nasir Lalani, Martin Bergmann

El Nasir Lalani

The MUC1 mucin [also known as episialin, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) or polymorphic epithelial mucin (PEM)] is a component of the mucosal glycocalyx, contributing to anti-adhesive and protective cell functions. MUC1 has been shown in a variety of epithelial cell types in the reproductive tracts of males and females, but this is the first report of its expression in human testis and non-epithelial cells of the germ cell lineage. Analysing 65 testes with normal or impaired spermatogenesis, we identified MUC1 protein in maturing germ cells by immunohistochemistry using the monoclonal antibodies HMFG1, HMFG2 and SM3 binding to different glycosylation variants ...


Human Muc1 Mucin: A Potent Glandular Morphogen, Mark J. Hudson, Gordon W. Stamp, Khurram S. Chaudhary, Robert Hewitt, Andrew P. Stubbs, Paul D. Abel, El-Nasir Lalani Aug 2016

Human Muc1 Mucin: A Potent Glandular Morphogen, Mark J. Hudson, Gordon W. Stamp, Khurram S. Chaudhary, Robert Hewitt, Andrew P. Stubbs, Paul D. Abel, El-Nasir Lalani

El Nasir Lalani

Human MUC1 mucin is a high-molecular-weight transmembrane glycoprotein, which is apically expressed in the majority of glandular epithelia. During embryonic development, changes in the pattern of MUC1 mucin expression coincide with the onset of glandular differentiation. This mucin is also frequently overexpressed and aberrantly glycosylated in carcinomas. To investigate the potential role of MUC1 mucin in morphogenesis, a full length MUC1 cDNA was transfected into murine mammary adenocarcinoma (410.4) and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. This generated four clonal cell lines. Western blotting, FACS analysis, and immunohistochemistry confirmed expression of MUC1. All four MUC1-expressing clones demonstrated altered morphogenesis when ...


Characterization Of Ceriporiopsis Subvermispora Bicupin Oxalate Oxidase Expressed In Pichia Pastoris, Patricia Moussatche, Eric Hoffer, Ellen W. Moomaw, Et Al. Jun 2016

Characterization Of Ceriporiopsis Subvermispora Bicupin Oxalate Oxidase Expressed In Pichia Pastoris, Patricia Moussatche, Eric Hoffer, Ellen W. Moomaw, Et Al.

Ellen Moomaw

Oxalate oxidase (E.C. 1.2.3.4) catalyzes the oxygen-dependent oxidation of oxalate to carbon dioxide in a reaction that is coupled with the formation of hydrogen peroxide. Although there is currently no structural information available for oxalate oxidase from Ceriporiopsis subvermispora (CsOxOx), sequence data and homology modeling indicate that it is the first manganese-containing bicupin enzyme identified that catalyzes this reaction. Interestingly, CsOxOx shares greatest sequence homology with bicupin microbial oxalate decarboxylases (OxDC). We show that CsOxOx activity directly correlates with Mn content and other metals do not appear to be able to support catalysis. EPR spectra indicate ...


Fungal Oxalate Decarboxylase Activity Contributes To Sclerotinia Sclerotiorum Early Infection By Affecting Both Compound Appressoria Development And Function, Xiaofei Liang, Ellen W. Moomaw, Jeffrey A. Rollins Jun 2016

Fungal Oxalate Decarboxylase Activity Contributes To Sclerotinia Sclerotiorum Early Infection By Affecting Both Compound Appressoria Development And Function, Xiaofei Liang, Ellen W. Moomaw, Jeffrey A. Rollins

Ellen Moomaw

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum pathogenesis requires the accumulation of high levels of oxalic acid (OA). To better understand the factors affecting OA accumulation, two putative oxalate decarboxylase (OxDC) genes (Ss-odc1 and Ss-odc2) were characterized. Ss-odc1 transcripts exhibited significant accumulation in vegetative hyphae, apothecia, early stages of compound appressorium development and during plant colonization. Ss-odc2 transcripts, in contrast, accumulated significantly only during mid to late stages of compound appressorium development. Neither gene was induced by low pH or exogenous OA in vegetative hyphae. A loss-of-function mutant for Ss-odc1 (Δss-odc1) showed wild-type growth, morphogenesis and virulence, and was not characterized further. Δss-odc2 mutants hyperaccumulated ...


Characterization Of Ceriporiopsis Subvermispora Bicupin Oxalate Oxidase Expressed In Pichia Pastoris, Patricia Moussatche, Eric Hoffer, Ellen W. Moomaw, Et Al. Jun 2016

Characterization Of Ceriporiopsis Subvermispora Bicupin Oxalate Oxidase Expressed In Pichia Pastoris, Patricia Moussatche, Eric Hoffer, Ellen W. Moomaw, Et Al.

Ellen Moomaw

Oxalate oxidase (E.C. 1.2.3.4) catalyzes the oxygen-dependent oxidation of oxalate to carbon dioxide in a reaction that is coupled with the formation of hydrogen peroxide. Although there is currently no structural information available for oxalate oxidase from Ceriporiopsis subvermispora (CsOxOx), sequence data and homology modeling indicate that it is the first manganese-containing bicupin enzyme identified that catalyzes this reaction. Interestingly, CsOxOx shares greatest sequence homology with bicupin microbial oxalate decarboxylases (OxDC). We show that CsOxOx activity directly correlates with Mn content and other metals do not appear to be able to support catalysis. EPR spectra indicate ...


Fungal Oxalate Decarboxylase Activity Contributes To Sclerotinia Sclerotiorum Early Infection By Affecting Both Compound Appressoria Development And Function, Xiaofei Liang, Ellen W. Moomaw, Jeffrey A. Rollins Jun 2016

Fungal Oxalate Decarboxylase Activity Contributes To Sclerotinia Sclerotiorum Early Infection By Affecting Both Compound Appressoria Development And Function, Xiaofei Liang, Ellen W. Moomaw, Jeffrey A. Rollins

Ellen Moomaw

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum pathogenesis requires the accumulation of high levels of oxalic acid (OA). To better understand the factors affecting OA accumulation, two putative oxalate decarboxylase (OxDC) genes (Ss-odc1 and Ss-odc2) were characterized. Ss-odc1 transcripts exhibited significant accumulation in vegetative hyphae, apothecia, early stages of compound appressorium development and during plant colonization. Ss-odc2 transcripts, in contrast, accumulated significantly only during mid to late stages of compound appressorium development. Neither gene was induced by low pH or exogenous OA in vegetative hyphae. A loss-of-function mutant for Ss-odc1 (Δss-odc1) showed wild-type growth, morphogenesis and virulence, and was not characterized further. Δss-odc2 mutants hyperaccumulated ...


Staufen Negatively Modulates Microrna Activity In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Zhiji Ren, Isana Veksler-Lublinsky, David Morrissey, Victor Ambros Mar 2016

Staufen Negatively Modulates Microrna Activity In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Zhiji Ren, Isana Veksler-Lublinsky, David Morrissey, Victor Ambros

Victor R. Ambros

The double-stranded RNA-binding protein Staufen has been implicated in various post-transcriptional gene regulatory processes. Here we demonstrate that the Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of Staufen, STAU-1, functionally interacts with microRNAs. Loss-of-function mutations of stau-1 significantly suppress phenotypes of let-7 family microRNA mutants, a hypomorphic allele of dicer and a lsy-6 microRNA partial loss-of-function mutant. Furthermore, STAU-1 modulates the activity of lin-14, a target of lin-4 and let-7 family microRNAs, and this modulation is abolished when the 3' untranslated region of lin-14 is removed. Deep sequencing of small RNA cDNA libraries reveals no dramatic change in the levels of microRNAs, or other ...


Microrna Cargo Of Extracellular Vesicles From Alcohol-Exposed Monocytes Signals Naive Monocytes To Differentiate Into M2 Macrophages, Banishree Saha, Fatemeh Momen-Heravi, Karen Kodys, Gyongyi Szabo Mar 2016

Microrna Cargo Of Extracellular Vesicles From Alcohol-Exposed Monocytes Signals Naive Monocytes To Differentiate Into M2 Macrophages, Banishree Saha, Fatemeh Momen-Heravi, Karen Kodys, Gyongyi Szabo

Gyongyi Szabo

Membrane-coated extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by cells can serve as vehicles for delivery of biological materials and signals. Recently, we demonstrated that alcohol-treated hepatocytes cross-talk with immune cells via exosomes containing microRNA (miRNAs). Here, we hypothesized that alcohol-exposed monocytes can communicate with naive monocytes via EVs. We observed increased numbers of EVs, mostly exosomes, secreted by primary human monocytes and THP-1 monocytic cells in the presence of alcohol in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. EVs derived from alcohol-treated monocytes stimulated naive monocytes to polarize into M2 macrophages as indicated by increased surface expression of CD68 (macrophage marker), M2 markers (CD206 ...


Expression Of Acyl Carrier Proteins In Spinach, Katherine Schmid, J. Ohlrogge Feb 2016

Expression Of Acyl Carrier Proteins In Spinach, Katherine Schmid, J. Ohlrogge

Katherine Schmid

Dr. Schmid and Dr. Ohlrogge's contribution to the Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Plant Lipids; Wye, England; July 8-13, 1990.


Dihydrosterculate In Tobacco Transformed With Bacterial Cyclopropane Fatty Acid Synthase, Katherine Schmid Feb 2016

Dihydrosterculate In Tobacco Transformed With Bacterial Cyclopropane Fatty Acid Synthase, Katherine Schmid

Katherine Schmid

Many gram negative bacteria accumulate cyclopropane fatty acids (CPFAs) in their membranes during stationary phase. In plants, on the other hand, CPFAs are best known as constituents of certain seed oils. CPFAs make up around 40% of Litchi chinensis seed oil [1] and a significant proportion of oils from other Sapindales. In order Malvales, small amounts of CPFA typically accompany cyclopropene fatty acids in seed oils, although up to 5% CPFA has been observed in the polar lipid fraction from Malvaceous roots [2]. Genetic engineering of oilseeds for unusual fatty acid production requires that the introduced fatty acids accumulate in ...


Effects Of Cyclopropenoid Fatty Acids On Fungal Growth And Lipid Composition, Katherine Schmid, Glenn Patterson Feb 2016

Effects Of Cyclopropenoid Fatty Acids On Fungal Growth And Lipid Composition, Katherine Schmid, Glenn Patterson

Katherine Schmid

Cyclopropenoid fatty acids (CPE) isolated fromSterculia foetida oil by urea clathration and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were introduced into fungal cultures. Stearate levels in phospholipids and triacylglycerols fromUstilago maydis sporidia rose considerably in response to 30 μM CPE. In addition, CPE themselves were incorporated into glycerolipid fractions. Sterol composition was unaffected. Changes in lipid composition were accompanied by inhibition of dry weight accumulation and sporidial number. Treated sporidia showed irregular wall deposition and a branched morphology. Oleate alleviated CPE effects on growth and morphology. Hyphal extension byRhizoctonia solani was inhibited somewhat by 30 μM sterculate, whileFusarium oxysporum ...


Cyclopropane Fatty Acid Expression In Plants, Katherine Schmid Feb 2016

Cyclopropane Fatty Acid Expression In Plants, Katherine Schmid

Katherine Schmid

Pants [sic] are transformed with a bacterial cyclopropane fatty acid synthase gene to produce lipids containing cyclopropane fatty acids. Using this technology dihydrosterculate is produced in oilseed crops such as rape.


The Ssdna Mutator Apobec3a Is Regulated By Cooperative Dimerization, Markus-Frederik Bohn, Shivender Shandilya, Tania Silvas, Ellen Nalivaika, Takahide Kouno, Brian Kelch, Sean Ryder, Nese Yilmaz, Mohan Somasundaran, Celia Schiffer Jan 2016

The Ssdna Mutator Apobec3a Is Regulated By Cooperative Dimerization, Markus-Frederik Bohn, Shivender Shandilya, Tania Silvas, Ellen Nalivaika, Takahide Kouno, Brian Kelch, Sean Ryder, Nese Yilmaz, Mohan Somasundaran, Celia Schiffer

Celia A. Schiffer

Deaminase activity mediated by the human APOBEC3 family of proteins contributes to genomic instability and cancer. APOBEC3A is by far the most active in this family and can cause rapid cell death when overexpressed, but in general how the activity of APOBEC3s is regulated on a molecular level is unclear. In this study, the biochemical and structural basis of APOBEC3A substrate binding and specificity is elucidated. We find that specific binding of single-stranded DNA is regulated by the cooperative dimerization of APOBEC3A. The crystal structure elucidates this homodimer as a symmetric domain swap of the N-terminal residues. This dimer interface ...


Structure Of The Vif-Binding Domain Of The Antiviral Enzyme Apobec3g, Takahide Kouno, Elizabeth Luengas, Megumi Shigematsu, Shivender Shandilya, Jingying Zhang, Luan Chen, Mayuko Hara, Celia Schiffer, Reuben Harris, Hiroshi Matsuo Jan 2016

Structure Of The Vif-Binding Domain Of The Antiviral Enzyme Apobec3g, Takahide Kouno, Elizabeth Luengas, Megumi Shigematsu, Shivender Shandilya, Jingying Zhang, Luan Chen, Mayuko Hara, Celia Schiffer, Reuben Harris, Hiroshi Matsuo

Celia A. Schiffer

The human APOBEC3G (A3G) DNA cytosine deaminase restricts and hypermutates DNA-based parasites including HIV-1. The viral infectivity factor (Vif) prevents restriction by triggering A3G degradation. Although the structure of the A3G catalytic domain is known, the structure of the N-terminal Vif-binding domain has proven more elusive. Here, we used evolution- and structure-guided mutagenesis to solubilize the Vif-binding domain of A3G, thus permitting structural determination by NMR spectroscopy. A smaller zinc-coordinating pocket and altered helical packing distinguish the structure from previous catalytic-domain structures and help to explain the reported inactivity of this domain. This soluble A3G N-terminal domain is bound by ...


Simultaneously Targeting The Ns3 Protease And Helicase Activities For More Effective Hepatitis C Virus Therapy, Jean Ndjomou, M Corby, Noreena Sweeney, Alicia Hanson, Cihan Aydin, Akbar Ali, Celia Schiffer, Kelin Li, Kevin Frankowski, Frank Schoenen, David Frick Jan 2016

Simultaneously Targeting The Ns3 Protease And Helicase Activities For More Effective Hepatitis C Virus Therapy, Jean Ndjomou, M Corby, Noreena Sweeney, Alicia Hanson, Cihan Aydin, Akbar Ali, Celia Schiffer, Kelin Li, Kevin Frankowski, Frank Schoenen, David Frick

Celia A. Schiffer

This study examines the specificity and mechanism of action of a recently reported hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) helicase-protease inhibitor (HPI), and the interaction of HPI with the NS3 protease inhibitors telaprevir, boceprevir, danoprevir, and grazoprevir. HPI most effectively reduced cellular levels of subgenomic genotype 4a replicons, followed by genotypes 3a and 1b replicons. HPI had no effect on HCV genotype 2a or dengue virus replicon levels. Resistance evolved more slowly to HPI than telaprevir, and HPI inhibited telaprevir-resistant replicons. Molecular modeling and analysis of the ability of HPI to inhibit peptide hydrolysis catalyzed by a variety ...


Structural Basis For Mutation-Induced Destabilization Of Profilin 1 In Als, Sivakumar Boopathy, Tania Silvas, Maeve Tischbein, Silvia Jansen, Shivender Shandilya, Jill Zitzewitz, John Landers, Bruce Goode, Celia Schiffer, Daryl Bosco Jan 2016

Structural Basis For Mutation-Induced Destabilization Of Profilin 1 In Als, Sivakumar Boopathy, Tania Silvas, Maeve Tischbein, Silvia Jansen, Shivender Shandilya, Jill Zitzewitz, John Landers, Bruce Goode, Celia Schiffer, Daryl Bosco

Celia A. Schiffer

Mutations in profilin 1 (PFN1) are associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); however, the pathological mechanism of PFN1 in this fatal disease is unknown. We demonstrate that ALS-linked mutations severely destabilize the native conformation of PFN1 in vitro and cause accelerated turnover of the PFN1 protein in cells. This mutation-induced destabilization can account for the high propensity of ALS-linked variants to aggregate and also provides rationale for their reported loss-of-function phenotypes in cell-based assays. The source of this destabilization is illuminated by the X-ray crystal structures of several PFN1 proteins, revealing an expanded cavity near the protein core of the ...


Inhibition Of Apobec3g Activity Impedes Double-Stranded Dna Repair, Ponnandy Prabhu, Shivender Shandilya, Elena Britan-Rosich, Adi Nagler, Celia Schiffer, Moshe Kotler Jan 2016

Inhibition Of Apobec3g Activity Impedes Double-Stranded Dna Repair, Ponnandy Prabhu, Shivender Shandilya, Elena Britan-Rosich, Adi Nagler, Celia Schiffer, Moshe Kotler

Celia A. Schiffer

The cellular cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G (A3G) was first described as an anti-HIV-1 restriction factor, acting by directly deaminating reverse transcripts of the viral genome. HIV-1 Vif neutralizes the activity of A3G, primarily by mediating degradation of A3G to establish effective infection in host target cells. Lymphoma cells, which express high amounts of A3G, can restrict Vif-deficient HIV-1. Interestingly, these cells are more stable in the face of treatments that result in double-stranded DNA damage, such as ionizing radiation and chemotherapies. Previously, we showed that the Vif-derived peptide (Vif25-39) efficiently inhibits A3G deamination, and increases the sensitivity of lymphoma cells to ...


Rediii: A Pipeline For Automated Structure Solution, Markus-Frederik Bohn, Celia Schiffer Jan 2016

Rediii: A Pipeline For Automated Structure Solution, Markus-Frederik Bohn, Celia Schiffer

Celia A. Schiffer

High-throughput crystallographic approaches require integrated software solutions to minimize the need for manual effort. REdiii is a system that allows fully automated crystallographic structure solution by integrating existing crystallographic software into an adaptive and partly autonomous workflow engine. The program can be initiated after collecting the first frame of diffraction data and is able to perform processing, molecular-replacement phasing, chain tracing, ligand fitting and refinement without further user intervention. Preset values for each software component allow efficient progress with high-quality data and known parameters. The adaptive workflow engine can determine whether some parameters require modifications and choose alternative software strategies ...


Modulation Of Hiv Protease Flexibility By The T80n Mutation, Hao Zhou, Shangyang Li, John Badger, Ellen Nalivaika, Yufeng Cai, Jennifer Foulkes-Murzycki, Celia Schiffer, Lee Makowski Jan 2016

Modulation Of Hiv Protease Flexibility By The T80n Mutation, Hao Zhou, Shangyang Li, John Badger, Ellen Nalivaika, Yufeng Cai, Jennifer Foulkes-Murzycki, Celia Schiffer, Lee Makowski

Celia A. Schiffer

The flexibility of HIV protease (HIVp) plays a critical role in enabling enzymatic activity and is required for substrate access to the active site. While the importance of flexibility in the flaps that cover the active site is well known, flexibility in other parts of the enzyme is also critical for function. One key region is a loop containing Thr 80, which forms the walls of the active site. Although not situated within the active site, amino acid Thr80 is absolutely conserved. The mutation T80N preserves the structure of the enzyme but catalytic activity is completely lost. To investigate the ...


A Direct Interaction With Rna Dramatically Enhances The Catalytic Activity Of The Hiv-1 Protease In Vitro, Marc Potempa, Ellen Nalivaika, Debra Ragland, Sook-Kyung Lee, Celia Schiffer, Ronald Swanstrom Jan 2016

A Direct Interaction With Rna Dramatically Enhances The Catalytic Activity Of The Hiv-1 Protease In Vitro, Marc Potempa, Ellen Nalivaika, Debra Ragland, Sook-Kyung Lee, Celia Schiffer, Ronald Swanstrom

Celia A. Schiffer

Though the steps of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virion maturation are well documented, the mechanisms regulating the proteolysis of the Gag and Gag-Pro-Pol polyproteins by the HIV-1 protease (PR) remain obscure. One proposed mechanism argues that the maturation intermediate p15NC must interact with RNA for efficient cleavage by the PR. We investigated this phenomenon and found that processing of multiple substrates by the HIV-1 PR was enhanced in the presence of RNA. The acceleration of proteolysis occurred independently from the substrate's ability to interact with nucleic acid, indicating that a direct interaction between substrate and RNA is ...


A Balance Between Inhibitor Binding And Substrate Processing Confers Influenza Drug Resistance, Li Jiang, Ping Liu, Claudia Bank, Nicholas Renzette, Kristina Prachanronarong, L. Yilmaz, Daniel Caffrey, Konstantin Zeldovich, Celia Schiffer, Timothy Kowalik, Jeffrey Jensen, Robert Finberg, Jennifer Wang, Daniel Bolon Jan 2016

A Balance Between Inhibitor Binding And Substrate Processing Confers Influenza Drug Resistance, Li Jiang, Ping Liu, Claudia Bank, Nicholas Renzette, Kristina Prachanronarong, L. Yilmaz, Daniel Caffrey, Konstantin Zeldovich, Celia Schiffer, Timothy Kowalik, Jeffrey Jensen, Robert Finberg, Jennifer Wang, Daniel Bolon

Celia A. Schiffer

The therapeutic benefits of the neuraminidase (NA) inhibitor oseltamivir are dampened by the emergence of drug resistance mutations in influenza A virus (IAV). To investigate the mechanistic features that underlie resistance, we developed an approach to quantify the effects of all possible single-nucleotide substitutions introduced into important regions of NA. We determined the experimental fitness effects of 450 nucleotide mutations encoding positions both surrounding the active site and at more distant sites in an N1 strain of IAV in the presence and absence of oseltamivir. NA mutations previously known to confer oseltamivir resistance in N1 strains, including H275Y and N295S ...


Structural And Thermodynamic Effects Of Macrocyclization In Hcv Ns3/4a Inhibitor Mk-5172, Djade Soumana, Nese Yilmaz, Kristina Prachanronarong, Cihan Aydin, Akbar Ali, Celia Schiffer Jan 2016

Structural And Thermodynamic Effects Of Macrocyclization In Hcv Ns3/4a Inhibitor Mk-5172, Djade Soumana, Nese Yilmaz, Kristina Prachanronarong, Cihan Aydin, Akbar Ali, Celia Schiffer

Celia A. Schiffer

Recent advances in direct-acting antivirals against Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) have led to the development of potent inhibitors, including MK-5172, that target the viral NS3/4A protease with relatively low susceptibility to resistance. MK-5172 has a P2-P4 macrocycle and a unique binding mode among current protease inhibitors where the P2 quinoxaline packs against the catalytic residues H57 and D81. However, the effect of macrocyclization on this binding mode is not clear, as is the relation between macrocyclization, thermodynamic stabilization, and susceptibility to the resistance mutation A156T. We have determined high-resolution crystal structures of linear and P1-P3 macrocyclic analogs of MK-5172 ...


Peroxisomal Metabolism Of Propionic Acid And Isobutyric Acid In Plants*, Kerry Rouhier Jan 2016

Peroxisomal Metabolism Of Propionic Acid And Isobutyric Acid In Plants*, Kerry Rouhier

Kerry A Rouhier

The subcellular sites of branched-chain amino acid metabolism in plants have been controversial, particularly with respect to valine catabolism. Potential enzymes for some steps in the valine catabolic pathway are clearly present in both mitochondria and peroxisomes, but the metabolic functions of these isoforms are not clear. The present study examined the possible function of these enzymes in metabolism of isobutyryl-CoA and propionyl-CoA, intermediates in the metabolism of valine and of odd-chain and branched-chain fatty acids. Using13C NMR, accumulation of β-hydroxypropionate from [2-13C]propionate was observed in seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana and a range of other ...


Testing The Metabolic Theory Of Ecology., Andrew Kerkhoff Jan 2016

Testing The Metabolic Theory Of Ecology., Andrew Kerkhoff

Andrew J Kerkhoff

The metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) predicts the effects of body size and temperature on metabolism through considerations of vascular distribution networks and biochemical kinetics. MTE has also been extended to characterise processes from cellular to global levels. MTE has generated both enthusiasm and controversy across a broad range of research areas. However, most efforts that claim to validate or invalidate MTE have focused on testing predictions. We argue that critical evaluation of MTE also requires strong tests of both its theoretical foundations and simplifying assumptions. To this end, we synthesise available information and find that MTE's original derivations ...


Acute And Chronic Cadmium Exposure Promotes E-Cadherin Degradation In Mcf7 Breast Cancer Cells, Esmeralda Ponce, Maggie Louie, Mary B. Sevigny Sep 2015

Acute And Chronic Cadmium Exposure Promotes E-Cadherin Degradation In Mcf7 Breast Cancer Cells, Esmeralda Ponce, Maggie Louie, Mary B. Sevigny

Maggie Louie

Cadmium is an environmental carcinogen that usually enters the body at minute concentrations through diet or cigarette smoke and bioaccumulates in soft tissues. In past studies, cadmium has been shown to contribute to the development of more aggressive cancer phenotypes including increased cell migration and invasion. This study aims to determine if cadmium exposure-both acute and chronic-contributes to breast cancer progression by interfering with the normal functional relationship between E-cadherin and β-catenin. An MCF7 breast cancer cell line (MCF7-Cd) chronically exposed to 10(-7)  M CdCl2 was previously developed and used as a model system to study chronic exposures, whereas ...


The Role Of Protein Kinases Rog1 And Srf6 In The Wak Stress Response Pathway, Jaepil Eric Yoon May 2015

The Role Of Protein Kinases Rog1 And Srf6 In The Wak Stress Response Pathway, Jaepil Eric Yoon

Jaepil Eric Yoon

The wall-associated kinases (WAKs) are receptor kinases that bind cell wall pectin to activate expansion and stress response pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana. When bound to pectin polymers, WAKs initiate expansion by inducing the expression of vacuolar invertases that increase cellular turgor pressure, which pushes out against the cell wall. WAKs also bind pathogen or wounding induced pectin fragments called oligogalacturonic acids (OGs). When bound to OGs, WAKs induce a stress response, which leads to the activation of MAP kinases, MPK3 and MPK6. Phosphoproteomics and mass spectrometry identified receptor kinase SRF6, cytoplasmic kinase ROG1, and nuclear DNA binding protein REM2 to ...


Synthesis And Evaluation Of The Diarylthiourea Analogs As Novel Anti-Cancer Agents, Shengquan Liu, Maggie C. Louie, Vanishree Rajagopalan, Guangyan Zhou, Esmeralda Ponce, Tran Nguyen, Linda Green Mar 2015

Synthesis And Evaluation Of The Diarylthiourea Analogs As Novel Anti-Cancer Agents, Shengquan Liu, Maggie C. Louie, Vanishree Rajagopalan, Guangyan Zhou, Esmeralda Ponce, Tran Nguyen, Linda Green

Maggie Louie

en p-nitrodiarylthiourea analogs were designed, synthesized and evaluated in breast (MCF-7, T-47D, MDA-MB-453) and prostate (DU-145, PC-3, LNCaP) cancer cell lines for their anticancer activities. The majority of the compounds were able to inhibit the growth of these six cancer cell lines at low micromolar concentrations. Compound 7 was found to be the most potent anticancer agent in this series with GI50 values of 3.16 μM for MCF-7, 2.53 μM for T-47D, 4.77 μM for MDA-MB-453 breast cancer lines and 3.54 μM for LNCaP prostate cancer cell line. These GI50 values were comparable to the parent ...


Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Breast Cell Carcinogenesis Enhanced By Multiple Carcinogens And Intervened By Dietary Ergosterol And Mimosine, Lenora Pluchino, Amethyst Liu, Hwa-Chain Wang Dec 2014

Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Breast Cell Carcinogenesis Enhanced By Multiple Carcinogens And Intervened By Dietary Ergosterol And Mimosine, Lenora Pluchino, Amethyst Liu, Hwa-Chain Wang

Hwa-Chain Robert Wang

No abstract provided.


Alternative Career Paths, Maggie Louie Nov 2014

Alternative Career Paths, Maggie Louie

Maggie Louie

No abstract available


Neutron Radiography With Combined Computed Tomography: A Novel Tool For Cancer Diagnosis And Imaging (Abstract), Maria Cekanova, H Bilheux, Kusum Rathore, J Bilheux, L Walker, Robert Donnell, Alfred Legendre May 2013

Neutron Radiography With Combined Computed Tomography: A Novel Tool For Cancer Diagnosis And Imaging (Abstract), Maria Cekanova, H Bilheux, Kusum Rathore, J Bilheux, L Walker, Robert Donnell, Alfred Legendre

Alfred M Legendre DVM, MS, DACVIM

No abstract provided.