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Articles 1 - 30 of 37

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Targeted Therapy For The Future: The Use Of Novel Antimicrobial Peptides Against P. Aeurginosa, Matthew Froid Mar 2019

Targeted Therapy For The Future: The Use Of Novel Antimicrobial Peptides Against P. Aeurginosa, Matthew Froid

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Pathogenic bacteria, such as the gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are becoming resistant to our current arsenal of antibiotics at an alarming rate. P. aeruginosa is a leading cause of nosocomial acquired infections and is a primary co-morbidity in patients with compromised immune systems. One potential source of new antibiotic agents is antimicrobial peptides. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are small proteins, and some have shown a high degree of efficacy and broad-spectrum activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. An experimental AMP that has been developed by Dr. Wang at UNMC, DASamp2, has shown to be effective against virulent bacteria, including P ...


Data Analytics Pipeline For Rna Structure Analysis Via Shape, Quinn Nelson Mar 2019

Data Analytics Pipeline For Rna Structure Analysis Via Shape, Quinn Nelson

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is a cardiovirulent enterovirus from the family Picornaviridae. The RNA genome houses an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) in the 5’ untranslated region (5’UTR) that enables cap-independent translation. Ample evidence suggests that the structure of the 5’UTR is a critical element for virulence. We probe RNA structure in solution using base-specific modifying agents such as dimethyl sulfate as well as backbone targeting agents such as N-methylisatoic anhydride used in Selective 2’-Hydroxyl Acylation Analyzed by Primer Extension (SHAPE). We have developed a pipeline that merges and evaluates base-specific and SHAPE data together with statistical analyses ...


Large Scale Dynamical Model Of Macrophage/Hiv Interactions, Matthew M. Froid Mar 2019

Large Scale Dynamical Model Of Macrophage/Hiv Interactions, Matthew M. Froid

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Properties emerge from the dynamics of large-scale molecular networks that are not discernible at the individual gene or protein level. Mathematical models - such as probabilistic Boolean networks - of molecular systems offer a deeper insight into how these emergent properties arise. Here, we introduce a non-linear, deterministic Boolean model of protein, gene, and chemical interactions in human macrophage cells during HIV infection. Our model is composed of 713 nodes with 1583 interactions between nodes and is responsive to 38 different inputs including signaling molecules, bacteria, viruses, and HIV viral particles. Additionally, the model accurately simulates the dynamics of over 50 different ...


A Crispr Platform For Rapid And Inducible Genome Editing In Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells, Lloyd Bartley Nov 2018

A Crispr Platform For Rapid And Inducible Genome Editing In Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells, Lloyd Bartley

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for about 85% of lung cancer, which is the leading cause of cancer death in the world. High mortality rate associated with NSCLC is partially attributed to the limited understanding of NSCLC as well as ineffective therapeutic treatments. The initiation and progression of NSCLC involves genetic changes leading to alterations in the control of tissue development and homeostatic maintenance. Better knowledge about these genetic abnormalities is imperative for developing new chemotherapeutic drugs for NSCLC. Recent research demonstrates that the expression of paraoxonase 2 (PON2), a lactonase/arylesterase with anti-oxidant properties, are markedly enhanced in ...


Development Of A Pd-L1 Pet Imaging Biomarker, Caleb Jack Bridgwater Nov 2018

Development Of A Pd-L1 Pet Imaging Biomarker, Caleb Jack Bridgwater

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Immunotherapy strategies are very promising treatments for cancer patients. Specifically, Immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy focusing on the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway shows long-lasting positive results in many cancer patients. Unfortunately, not all the patients can benefit from this highly effective treatment. Hence, there is a great need for predictive biomarkers. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining has been used as a way of predicting patient response, yet shows many problems. For example, IHC utilizes an invasive biopsy and sample fixing, which creates an incomplete and delayed picture of the patient’s biochemistry and the tumor microenvironment, consequently ignoring metastases.

The purpose of this study ...


37 - Degradation Of Cellulose Through Hydrogen Metabolism And Electron Bifurcation, Madison Prchal Nov 2018

37 - Degradation Of Cellulose Through Hydrogen Metabolism And Electron Bifurcation, Madison Prchal

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Cellulose, one of the most abundant polymers on earth, is difficult to break down. Select anaerobic bacteria are capable of metabolizing cellulose into glucose, then splitting the components apart further through glycolysis to produce ATP. During glycolysis, NAD+ is reduced to NADH and cannot continue acting as an electron carrier until NADH returns to an oxidized state. Though a hydrogen producing pathway is the preferred method of electron carrier recycling, an overabundance of hydrogen can impede the cycle. Anerobic organisms in nature have developed efficient pathways to maximize metabolic energy yields when exposed to little hydrogen. Bacteria present in cellulose ...


Mechanisms Mediating The Pro-Fibrotic Effects Of Estradiol, Haley Fulton Nov 2018

Mechanisms Mediating The Pro-Fibrotic Effects Of Estradiol, Haley Fulton

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Scleroderma is a connective tissue disease which promotes fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. Scleroderma patients have upregulated production of fibrotic extracellular matrix proteins and upregulated serum estradiol levels compared to control subjects. Estradiol effects eukaryotic transcription and gene expression when it enters the nucleus via one of its nuclear hormone receptors. Estrogen receptor one/ estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) is present on the nuclear membrane and binds the ligand estrogen. These experiments were designed to study the various isoforms of ESR1 and determine if gene expression of ESR1 was greater in fibroblasts and human skin stimulated with estradiol than ...


Elemental Analysis Of Beer Manufactured In Virginia Satellite Breweries, Jennifer Wiliams Apr 2018

Elemental Analysis Of Beer Manufactured In Virginia Satellite Breweries, Jennifer Wiliams

Student Scholar Showcase

Financial incentives from the state and wider distribution potential have lured many west coast brewers to open satellite breweries in Virginia. Quality control is crucial for any brewery and especially important in satellite breweries that need to imitate the standard set by the parent brewery. Zinc, magnesium, iron, sodium manganese, and calcium are trace elements found in wort and are essential for enzymes that catalyze fermentation reactions. These elements protect against cell stress, play a crucial role in flocculation, and can affect the flavoring and coloration of beer. Barley, water, and hops are the sources of these elements in beer ...


Studies Of Amino Acid Mutations In Drug Resistance Of The Smo Protein, Eunice Wintona Mar 2018

Studies Of Amino Acid Mutations In Drug Resistance Of The Smo Protein, Eunice Wintona

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Smoothened receptor (SMO) is a protein that in humans, is encoded by the SMO gene. A systemic mutation in its binding pocket helps predict the sensitivity of mutant proteins to different drugs. Known as a GPCR-like receptor, it is a component of the hedgehog signaling pathway; a pathway involved in body patterning and the regulation of adult stem cells. An uncontrolled or inappropriate activation of the Hedgehog pathway drives tumor progression in cancers and a number of birth defects. To achieve these goals, the molecular modeling software MOE was used to build small molecules and drug molecules like Vismodegib and ...


Applied Drug Development And Combinatorial Strategies For Antimicrobial Treatment, Steven K. Lai Hing May 2017

Applied Drug Development And Combinatorial Strategies For Antimicrobial Treatment, Steven K. Lai Hing

Andrews Research Conference

Streptococcus mutans JH1140 is a strain of bacteria which produces a lantibiotic product, named mutacin 1140. Mutacin 1140 has been shown to be effective at inhibiting Gram-positive bacterial infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Mutacin 1140 is a ribosomally synthesized peptide antibiotic that undergoes extensive posttranslational modifications (PTM). We have found that Mutacin 1140 and an aminoglycoside, Kanamycin, when combined together, act synergistically against Staphylococcus aureus. This was determined by performing serial kill curve dilution overlays on solid media, followed up with kill curve by microdilution plate, and most recently confirmed with kill curve CFU count plates on ...


Effects Of Aqueous-Organic Solvent Systems On Crystals And The Structure Of The Dna Polymerase From The Apicoplast Of Plasmodium Falciparum, Wesley Metcalfe Apr 2017

Effects Of Aqueous-Organic Solvent Systems On Crystals And The Structure Of The Dna Polymerase From The Apicoplast Of Plasmodium Falciparum, Wesley Metcalfe

Symposium on Undergraduate Research and Creative Expression

Malaria in humans, primarily caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum, is a mosquito-borne disease causing 450,000 deaths annually. Parasites emerging in central Africa, India, southeast Asia, and northern South America exhibit increasing resistance to antimalarial drugs. Malaria vaccines under development have yet to provide broad protection to vulnerable populations. Hence new, potent antimalarial drugs will likely play a central role in the control and eventual eradication of the disease. Plasmodium falciparum contains a plastid called the apicoplast. The apicoplast is absent in humans but necessary for parasite survival. Substances that poison the essential functions of the apicoplast, could serve ...


Optimization Of The Enzymatic Pathway For Udp-Xylose Biosynthesis, Matthew Cook Apr 2017

Optimization Of The Enzymatic Pathway For Udp-Xylose Biosynthesis, Matthew Cook

Symposium on Undergraduate Research and Creative Expression

The plant cell wall is of interest for agriculture and biofuel production; understanding the composition and biosynthesis of plant cell walls is critical for improving the viability of biorenewable energy as a replacement for traditional energy sources. Hemicellulose is a common cell wall constituent that hasn’t undergone much study and contains a significant amount of xylosylated compounds including xylan and xyloglucan. Elucidating properties of xylosylated hemicellulose via characterization of hemicellulosic xylosyltransferases requires the substrate UDP-xylose (UDPX) for in vitro enzymatic assays. The high cost and a single producer of UDPX limits its practical use, while labeled UDPX isn’t ...


Discovering The Secrets Of Biology As Told By A Fruit Fly, Sonia Hall Jan 2017

Discovering The Secrets Of Biology As Told By A Fruit Fly, Sonia Hall

Science and Engineering Saturday Seminars

No abstract provided.


Superhero Robotics, Frank Sup, Brian Umberger, Nick Sawyer Jan 2017

Superhero Robotics, Frank Sup, Brian Umberger, Nick Sawyer

Science and Engineering Saturday Seminars

No abstract provided.


Swimming Mechanisms Of Temperate Forest Ants, Noah D. Gripshover, Evan M. Gora, Stephen P. Yanoviak Nov 2016

Swimming Mechanisms Of Temperate Forest Ants, Noah D. Gripshover, Evan M. Gora, Stephen P. Yanoviak

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Swimming Mechanisms of Temperate Forest Ants (Camponotus pennsylvanicus and Formica subsericea)

Noah D. Gripshover, Evan M. Gora, and Stephen P. Yanoviak

University of Louisville

Abstract

Environmental challenges shape the evolution of animal behavior and morphology. For wingless terrestrial invertebrates like ants, pools of water on the forest floor are particularly dangerous. Here we show that ants can overcome this obstacle using a modified gait to transverse the water surface. We compared the locomotor morphology and swimming performance of two arboreal ant species that are common in Kentucky (Camponotus pennsylvanicus and Formica subsericea). We defined performance as speed and efficiency (deviation ...


Epigenetic Regulation Of Gene Expression During Spermatogenesis, Karishma Nayak May 2016

Epigenetic Regulation Of Gene Expression During Spermatogenesis, Karishma Nayak

Senior Honors Projects

In the US livestock production industry, improving reproductive efficiency will improve animal welfare and maintain reasonable costs of meat and milk for consumers. In recent research, abnormalities in epigenetic markers in sperm during spermatogenesis, has been linked to male subfertility in many species. Epigenetics is the study of changes in organisms caused by modifications of gene expression, including DNA methylation, rather than alteration of the genetic code itself. When this process is disturbed, it can negatively impact semen therefore decreasing its fertility. Through further research on how DNA methylation influences gene expression during spermatogenesis and its impact on sperm quality ...


Thermal Analysis Of Borosilicate Glass For Its Biological Applications, Gregory Humble Apr 2016

Thermal Analysis Of Borosilicate Glass For Its Biological Applications, Gregory Humble

Symposium of Student Scholars

Borosilicate glass doped with varying wt% of cerium oxide is investigated for biological applications. Thermal studies of each formulation were conducted using an SDT Q600 differential scanning calorimeter. 30mg samples of 350 - 425 μm particle size of each type of glass were heated to 1200°C in order to obtain the glass transition, crystallization, and melting temperatures. Samples were then heated to 900°C at several heating rates, ranging from 2°C/min to 100°C/min, then compared against each other as well as against an undoped borosilicate glass.


Skin Lipids Of The Striped Plateau Lizard (Sceloporus Virgatus): Oleic And Stearic Acids As Potential Indicators Of Mate Quality, Tiare Elaine Gill, Stacey Weiss Jan 2016

Skin Lipids Of The Striped Plateau Lizard (Sceloporus Virgatus): Oleic And Stearic Acids As Potential Indicators Of Mate Quality, Tiare Elaine Gill, Stacey Weiss

Summer Research

Chemical signaling, in the form of pheromones, is an important mechanism of sexual selection in reptiles, as it provides a means of communicating mate receptivity and quality during the mating season (Martín and López 2011). Previous research on the chemical profile of Striped Plateau Lizard (Sceloporus virgatus) skin lipids found that lower levels of oleic and stearic acid in female skin lipids correlate with larger egg clutch sizes, suggesting that low levels of the fatty acids might be an attractive mating cue for males (Goldberg et al. submitted). If pheromones are able to communicate mate information, skin lipids sampled through ...


Fatty Acid Recovery And Identification In Mars Analogue Soil Samples, Kimberly E. Lykens Aug 2015

Fatty Acid Recovery And Identification In Mars Analogue Soil Samples, Kimberly E. Lykens

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

A primary goal of NASA’s Mars 2020 mission is to gather and store samples of Mars soil that could possibly be returned to Earth in a future mission for investigations into past or present life. In years leading up to a potential sample return mission on Mars and potentially other worlds, samples taken from Chile’s Atacama Desert, the most arid, biologically limited desert in the world, are valuable in developing a capacity for biosignature detection, specifically when exploring fatty acid abundance. Eighteen samples were collected from two sites in the Atacama characterized by biological soil crusts (BSC). BSCs ...


Repsa-Directed Identification Of Dna-Binding Specificity For Orphan Transcription Factors, Kamir Hiam Apr 2015

Repsa-Directed Identification Of Dna-Binding Specificity For Orphan Transcription Factors, Kamir Hiam

Symposium of Student Scholars

The function of many genes and the biological roles of their encoded products are still not well characterized. Given the sequence-specific DNA-binding properties of transcription factor proteins, it is possible to purify them, identify the responsible polypeptide(s), determine their consensus binding sequences, and identify their genomic binding sites. Thus, one can go from cellular extract to proposed biological regulatory roles in relatively short order. Our goal is to identify and characterize orphan DNA-binding proteins in the model organism E. coli K12 using the novel combinatorial technique, REPSA (Restriction Endonuclease Protection Selection Amplification), as well as further develop the REPSA ...


Gelatin Diffusion Experiment, Jennifer Welborn Jan 2015

Gelatin Diffusion Experiment, Jennifer Welborn

Nanotechnology Teacher Summer Institutes

In this activity, nanotech participants will:

- See how food dyes and gelatin are used to model the delivery of nanoscale medicines to cells in the human body - Measure diffusion distances of 3 different colors of food dye by: Eye, photo image on a computer, ADI software (Analyzing Digital Images) Some useful websites:


Genetic Modification Of Plants, Alice Cheung, Hen-Ming Wu Jan 2014

Genetic Modification Of Plants, Alice Cheung, Hen-Ming Wu

Science and Engineering Saturday Seminars

No abstract provided.


Requirements Of Rab5 Activity In Highly Invasive Breast Cancer Cell Lines, Nicole Porther, M Alejandro Barbieri Dec 2013

Requirements Of Rab5 Activity In Highly Invasive Breast Cancer Cell Lines, Nicole Porther, M Alejandro Barbieri

Nicole Porther

Rab5 expression in cancer has been associated with the disease progression and prognosis. We have previously shown that growth factor-directed cell invasion and migration was dependent on Rab5 activation in non-invasive breast cancer cells. However, hardly any data is available regarding the role of Rab5 in invasive cells in the presence of growth factor.  In our present study, we report that the invasive and migratory properties of the highly invasive breast cancer cell line, MDAMB-231, were abrogated in cells expressing the inactive (GDP-bound) form of Rab5 irrespective of growth factor stimulation; while the invasive potential of breast cancer cell lines ...


Analysis Of The Chondroitinase Operon Of Flavobacterium Columnare, Erin L. Sorlien May 2013

Analysis Of The Chondroitinase Operon Of Flavobacterium Columnare, Erin L. Sorlien

Senior Honors Projects

Analysis of the chondroitinase operon of Flavobacterium columnare

Erin Sorlien

Major

Cell and Molecular Biology, Chemistry

Advisor

Dr. David R. Nelson

Date

May 2, 2013

Keywords

Flavobacterium columnare, columnaris disease, chondroitin AC lyase, complementation, csl operon

Abstract
Flavobacterium columnare, an opportunistic bacterial pathogen of fish, is the causative agent of columnaris disease (CD). The bacterium is a Gram-negative rod that exhibits gliding motility and avidly forms biofilms. CD affects both wild and cultured freshwater fish, and continues to cause large economic losses to the fish farming industry. According to an investigation conducted by the National Animal Health Monitoring System, CD ...


Assessing Tissue Characterization Of Abdominal Organs Using Fuzzy C-Means Cluster Analysis Of Color- Fusion Mr Images, Terrance D. Weeden, H. Keith Brown Apr 2013

Assessing Tissue Characterization Of Abdominal Organs Using Fuzzy C-Means Cluster Analysis Of Color- Fusion Mr Images, Terrance D. Weeden, H. Keith Brown

Terrance Weeden

Color fusion MRI is being investigated for its value in automatic segmentation of tissues. An existing color fusion MRI data set of the liver, pancreas, and kidney of a normal male volunteer was analyzed both visually and statistically. Automatic tissue segmentation can allow better differentiation of abdominal pathologies, as well as pathologies associated with other organs. My research hypothesis is that fuzzy c-means clustering can be used to quantify the confidence levels of the correct classification of renal, pancreatic, and hepatic tissues visualized by the color fusion MRI method. Results from data show that fuzzy c-means clustering can be used ...


Rab5 Function In Breast Cancer Cells, Nicole Porther, M Alejandro Barbieri Dec 2012

Rab5 Function In Breast Cancer Cells, Nicole Porther, M Alejandro Barbieri

Nicole Porther

Metastasis is characterized pathologically by cell invasion, proliferation, migration and angiogenesis. Growth factors, which include epithelial growth factor (EGF), insulin growth factors I and II (IGFI and IGFII); have been associated with most if not all of the features of metastasis.  Our study has highlighted the possible role growth factors may have in mediating cancer metastasis via Rab GTPses.  We determined that the invasive and migratory properties of breast cancer cells were abrogated in cell lines that only expressed the inactive (GDP-bound) form of Rab 5 irrespective of growth factor stimulation. Breast cancer cell lines expressing the wild type and ...


Libraries At The University Of Massachusetts Amherst: Seeking An International Perspective, Maxine G. Schmidt Oct 2012

Libraries At The University Of Massachusetts Amherst: Seeking An International Perspective, Maxine G. Schmidt

Maxine G Schmidt

Presentation delivered to librarians in China, Japan and South Korea as part of my sabbatical research on the use of libraries by Asian students in their home countries.


Arcane Secrets Of The Umass Libraries, Maxine G. Schmidt Sep 2011

Arcane Secrets Of The Umass Libraries, Maxine G. Schmidt

Maxine G Schmidt

No abstract provided.


Maternal Health Behaviours During Pregnancy And Associations With Infant Feeding Factors, Roslyn Tarrant, Katherine Younger, Margaret Sheridan-Pereira, John Kearney Sep 2010

Maternal Health Behaviours During Pregnancy And Associations With Infant Feeding Factors, Roslyn Tarrant, Katherine Younger, Margaret Sheridan-Pereira, John Kearney

Other resources

Maternal health behaviours during pregnancy and associations with postnatal infant feeding practices

Objectives: To examine modifiable maternal health behaviours during pregnancy, including folic acid use peri-conceptually, smoking and alcohol consumption patterns, and relate these factors to maternal postnatal infant feeding practices.

Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study involved the recruitment of 539 pregnant women from a Dublin maternity hospital. Following application of exclusion criteria, 450 mothers were followed up at 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum. Quantitative data on folic acid use, as well as mothers’ smoking and alcohol consumption patterns during pregnancy were collected from the antenatal questionnaire ...


An Entrepreneurial Approach To Librarianship, Flora G. Shrode, Jennifer R. Duncan, Wendy Holliday Apr 2010

An Entrepreneurial Approach To Librarianship, Flora G. Shrode, Jennifer R. Duncan, Wendy Holliday

Library Faculty & Staff Publications

Librarians from Utah State University explain recent efforts to encourage subject librarians to take a more holistic view of their roles. We are shifting from a traditional emphasis primarily on collection development and refocusing on natural connections between collections, instruction, liaison, and reference service. The poster provides background about Utah State University’s situation and explains our approach to analyzing local needs and culture to inform development of a new organizational structure. We describe our vision of subject librarianship, the process by which we assessed librarians’ ideas and goals for performing as subject librarians, and the actions we are taking ...