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Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Science, Physiology, And Nutrition For The Nonscientist, Judi S. Morrill Jul 2019

Science, Physiology, And Nutrition For The Nonscientist, Judi S. Morrill

Open Educational Resources

A wonderful blend of physiology, nutrition, biochemistry, genetics, biology, evolution, chemistry--what we all need to know as informed citizens. A basic knowledge of the life sciences and how our bodies work--to promote our own good health, especially as we're bombarded with misleading advertisements, soundbites, and the like. DNA fingerprinting, calorie requirements, dietary advice, genetic engineering (including gene editing with CRISPR cas9)--all in an easy-to understand book.


Development Of A Biomarker Panel For Identifying Stressed Marine Mammals, Laura Pujade Jan 2019

Development Of A Biomarker Panel For Identifying Stressed Marine Mammals, Laura Pujade

University of the Pacific Theses and Dissertations

Increasing anthropogenic disturbance in marine ecosystems such as fishing, oil-drilling, and noise pollution can have detrimental effects on the reproduction and survival of apex predators such as marine mammals. Stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, resulting in increased circulating glucocorticoid (GCs) hormones, which alter expression of target genes encoding metabolic enzymes and other mediators of stress. Prolonged HPA axis stimulation may increase catabolism of nutrient stores and suppress immune and reproductive functions, impacting the fitness of marine mammals. GCs measurements are used to identify wild animals experiencing stress. However, these measurements may not be sensitive enough to distinguish between an ...


Divergent Responses Of Larval And Juvenile Blue Mussels To Low Salinity Exposure, Melissa A. May May 2017

Divergent Responses Of Larval And Juvenile Blue Mussels To Low Salinity Exposure, Melissa A. May

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In this study, we compared the osmotic stress response of larval and juvenile blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) at the transcriptomic, metabolomic, and whole organism levels. Blue mussels inhabit coastal areas, where they face climate-induced reductions in nearshore salinity. Despite their ecological and economic importance, scientists do not fully understand the underlying transcriptomic and cellular mechanisms of the osmotic stress response in blue mussels or how the ability to respond to stress changes throughout development. Blue mussels spend the first weeks of life developing through several larval stages in the plankton. These early life history stages are more vulnerable to environmental ...


Characterization Of Andrenocortical Tissue Morphology, Histology, And Steroid Synthesis Among Finetooth (Carcharhinus Isodon), Blacktip (Carcharhinus Limbatus), Atlantic Sharpnose (Rhizoprionodon Terraenovae), And Bonnethead (Sphyrna Tiburo) Sharks, Danielle Elizabeth Bailey May 2017

Characterization Of Andrenocortical Tissue Morphology, Histology, And Steroid Synthesis Among Finetooth (Carcharhinus Isodon), Blacktip (Carcharhinus Limbatus), Atlantic Sharpnose (Rhizoprionodon Terraenovae), And Bonnethead (Sphyrna Tiburo) Sharks, Danielle Elizabeth Bailey

Master's Theses

Adrenocortical (interrenal) tissue is composed of steroidogenic cells that produce corticosteroids involved in the stress response and hydromineral balance. Previous research characterizing the elasmobranch interrenal suggests that the number of interrenal bodies that produce the single primary corticosteroid, 1a-hydroxycorticosterone (1a-OHB), varies among species. However, potential species-specific differences in the amount of interrenal tissue and major steroid products produced have been understudied. To address this critical gap in our understanding of elasmobranch biology, this study examined interrenal morphology, cell structure, steroidogenic enzyme distribution (3bHSD), and steroid production in four shark species: Finetooth Carcharhinus isodon, Blacktip Carcharhinus limbatus, Atlantic Sharpnose Rhizoprionodon terraenovae ...


Human Anatomy And Physiology Preparatory Course, Carlos Liachovitzky Jan 2015

Human Anatomy And Physiology Preparatory Course, Carlos Liachovitzky

Open Educational Resources

The overall purpose of this preparatory course textbook is to help students familiarize with some terms and some basic concepts they will find later in the Human Anatomy and Physiology I course.

The organization and functioning of the human organism generally is discussed in terms of different levels of increasing complexity, from the smallest building blocks to the entire body. This Anatomy and Physiology preparatory course covers the foundations on the chemical level, and a basic introduction to cellular level, organ level, and organ system levels. There is also an introduction to homeostasis at the beginning.


From Heart Beats To Health Recipes: The Role Of Fractal Physiology In The Ancestral Health Movement, Aaron P. Blaisdell, Brent Pottenger, John S. Torday Dec 2013

From Heart Beats To Health Recipes: The Role Of Fractal Physiology In The Ancestral Health Movement, Aaron P. Blaisdell, Brent Pottenger, John S. Torday

Journal of Evolution and Health

The human body—an amazing biological system that scales up fractally from its cellular building blocks—exhibits an incredible ability to self heal. Why then, are chronic diseases and degeneration on the rise in the population? Why are we sicker, more obese, and more depressed and stressed than ever before in human history? Why can’t we heal? The answers to these questions may lie in our ancestry, and modern departure from the human ecological niche. The ability to heal requires proper spatio-temporal inputs—nutrition, sleep, stress, activity, and socialization—in order for cellular signaling to occur properly across semi-permeable ...


A Lipid-Anchored Snare Supports Membrane Fusion, Hao Xu, Michael Zick, William T. Wickner, Youngsoo Jun Oct 2011

A Lipid-Anchored Snare Supports Membrane Fusion, Hao Xu, Michael Zick, William T. Wickner, Youngsoo Jun

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Intracellular membrane fusion requires R-SNAREs and Q-SNAREs to assemble into a four-helical parallel coiled-coil, with their hydrophobic anchors spanning the two apposed membranes. Based on the fusion properties of chemically defined SNARE- proteoliposomes, it has been proposed that the assembly of this helical bundle transduces force through the entire bilayer via the transmembrane SNARE anchor domains to drive fusion. However, an R-SNARE, Nyv1p, with a genetically engineered lipid anchor that spans half of the bilayer suffices for the fusion of isolated vacuoles, although this organelle has other R-SNAREs. To demonstrate unequivocally the fusion activity of lipid-anchored Nyv1p, we reconstituted proteoliposomes ...


Minus-End Capture Of Preformed Kinetochore Fibers Contributes To Spindle Morphogenesis, Alexey Khodjakov, Lily Copenagle, Michael B. Gordon, Duane A. Compton, Tarun M. Kapoor Mar 2003

Minus-End Capture Of Preformed Kinetochore Fibers Contributes To Spindle Morphogenesis, Alexey Khodjakov, Lily Copenagle, Michael B. Gordon, Duane A. Compton, Tarun M. Kapoor

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Near-simultaneous three-dimensional fluorescence/differential interference contrast microscopy was used to follow the behavior of microtubules and chromosomes in living alpha-tubulin/GFP-expressing cells after inhibition of the mitotic kinesin Eg5 with monastrol. Kinetochore fibers (K-fibers) were frequently observed forming in association with chromosomes both during monastrol treatment and after monastrol removal. Surprisingly, these K-fibers were oriented away from, and not directly connected to, centrosomes and incorporated into the spindle by the sliding of their distal ends toward centrosomes via a NuMA-dependent mechanism. Similar preformed K-fibers were also observed during spindle formation in untreated cells. In addition, upon monastrol removal, centrosomes established ...


Characterization Of [Alpha]-Adrenoceptor-Mediated Contractile Responses In The Isolated Bovine Tail Artery And Vein And An Investigation Of Nerve-Mediated Contraction In The Bovine Tail Artery In Response To Electrical Field Stimulation , Marina Val Ioudina Jan 2000

Characterization Of [Alpha]-Adrenoceptor-Mediated Contractile Responses In The Isolated Bovine Tail Artery And Vein And An Investigation Of Nerve-Mediated Contraction In The Bovine Tail Artery In Response To Electrical Field Stimulation , Marina Val Ioudina

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to identify alpha-adrenoreceptor types and subtypes mediating contractile responses to adrenergic agonists in the bovine tail artery and vein and to investigate nerve-mediated contraction in the bovine tail artery in response to electrical field stimulation. Isolated tissue bath methods were used to study isometric contractile responses in vessel rings. Electrical field stimulation, under constant current conditions, was used to study vessel contraction as a result of neurotransmitter(s) release from sympathetic nerve terminals;Evidence was obtained for the presence of functional alpha1A- and alpha1D-adrenoceptors in the tail artery. Whether functional alpha 1B-adrenoceptors are present ...


Expression Of Bovine Mammary Gland Ca2+Atpases , Siriwan Prapong Jan 2000

Expression Of Bovine Mammary Gland Ca2+Atpases , Siriwan Prapong

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Control of transcellular Ca2+ fluxes associated with lactation are critical to mammary function and Ca2+ homeostasis. Mammary Ca2+ transport and storage may contribute to the pathological hypocalcemia seen in dairy cows at parturition. RT-PCR and Western Blotting were used to identify which Ca2+ ATPases are present in the bovine mammary gland and in milk fat globule membranes (MFGM). PMCA1, PMCA2 and PMCA4 are plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPases expressed in the bovine mammary gland. A putative Golgi Ca2+ ATPase (bSPCA) is also found in significant amounts in the mammary gland. The expression of Ca2+ ATPases in the bovine mammary gland is ...