Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 7 of 7

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Extracellular Vesicles As Biological Shuttles For Targeted Therapies., Stefania Raimondo, Gianluca Giavaresi, Aurelio Lorico, Riccardo Alessandro Apr 2019

Extracellular Vesicles As Biological Shuttles For Targeted Therapies., Stefania Raimondo, Gianluca Giavaresi, Aurelio Lorico, Riccardo Alessandro

College of Osteopathic Medicine (TUN) Publications and Research

The development of effective nanosystems for drug delivery represents a key challenge for the improvement of most current anticancer therapies. Recent progress in the understanding of structure and function of extracellular vesicles (EVs)-specialized membrane-bound nanocarriers for intercellular communication-suggests that they might also serve as optimal delivery systems of therapeutics. In addition to carrying proteins, lipids, DNA and different forms of RNAs, EVs can be engineered to deliver specific bioactive molecules to target cells. Exploitation of their molecular composition and physical properties, together with improvement in bio-techniques to modify their content are critical issues to target them to specific cells ...


Antisense Oligonucleotides Targeting Angiotensinogen: Insights From Animal Studies, Chia-Hua Wu, Ya Wang, Murong Ma, Adam E. Mullick, Rosanne M. Crooke, Mark J. Graham, Alan Daugherty, Hong S. Lu Jan 2019

Antisense Oligonucleotides Targeting Angiotensinogen: Insights From Animal Studies, Chia-Hua Wu, Ya Wang, Murong Ma, Adam E. Mullick, Rosanne M. Crooke, Mark J. Graham, Alan Daugherty, Hong S. Lu

Saha Cardiovascular Research Center Faculty Publications

Angiotensinogen (AGT) is the unique substrate of all angiotensin peptides. We review the recent preclinical research of AGT antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs), a rapidly evolving therapeutic approach. The scope of the research findings not only opens doors for potentially new therapeutics of hypertension and many other diseases, but also provides insights into understanding critical physiological and pathophysiological roles mediated by AGT.


Quantitative Mass Spectrometry Reveals Changes In Histone H2b Variants As Cells Undergo Inorganic Arsenic-Mediated Cellular Transformation, Matthew Rea, Tingting Jiang, Rebekah Eleazer, Meredith Eckstein, Alan G. Marshall, Yvonne N. Fondufe-Mittendorf May 2016

Quantitative Mass Spectrometry Reveals Changes In Histone H2b Variants As Cells Undergo Inorganic Arsenic-Mediated Cellular Transformation, Matthew Rea, Tingting Jiang, Rebekah Eleazer, Meredith Eckstein, Alan G. Marshall, Yvonne N. Fondufe-Mittendorf

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Exposure to inorganic arsenic, a ubiquitous environmental toxic metalloid, leads to carcinogenesis. However, the mechanism is unknown. Several studies have shown that inorganic arsenic exposure alters specific gene expression patterns, possibly through alterations in chromatin structure. While most studies on understanding the mechanism of chromatin-mediated gene regulation have focused on histone post-translational modifications, the role of histone variants remains largely unknown. Incorporation of histone variants alters the functional properties of chromatin. To understand the global dynamics of chromatin structure and function in arsenic-mediated carcinogenesis, analysis of the histone variants incorporated into the nucleosome and their covalent modifications is required. Here ...


Genetic And Acute Cpeb1 Depletion Ameliorate Fragile X Pathophysiology, Tsuyoshi Udagawa, Natalie Farny, Mira Jakovcevski, Hanoch Kaphzan, Juan Alarcon, Shobha Anilkumar, Maria Ivshina, Jessica Hurt, Kentaro Nagaoka, Vijayalaxmi Nalavadi, Lori Lorenz, Gary Bassell, Schahram Akbarian, Sumantra Chattarji, Eric Klann, Joel Richter Dec 2015

Genetic And Acute Cpeb1 Depletion Ameliorate Fragile X Pathophysiology, Tsuyoshi Udagawa, Natalie Farny, Mira Jakovcevski, Hanoch Kaphzan, Juan Alarcon, Shobha Anilkumar, Maria Ivshina, Jessica Hurt, Kentaro Nagaoka, Vijayalaxmi Nalavadi, Lori Lorenz, Gary Bassell, Schahram Akbarian, Sumantra Chattarji, Eric Klann, Joel Richter

Natalie G. Farny

Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common cause of inherited mental retardation and autism, is caused by transcriptional silencing of FMR1, which encodes the translational repressor fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). FMRP and cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding protein (CPEB), an activator of translation, are present in neuronal dendrites, are predicted to bind many of the same mRNAs and may mediate a translational homeostasis that, when imbalanced, results in FXS. Consistent with this possibility, Fmr1(-/y); Cpeb1(-/-) double-knockout mice displayed amelioration of biochemical, morphological, electrophysiological and behavioral phenotypes associated with FXS. Acute depletion of CPEB1 in the hippocampus of adult Fmr1 ...


Nonenzymatic Glycosylation Of Erythrocyte Membrane Proteins. Relevance To Diabetes, J A. Miller, Ellen M. Gravallese, H F. Bunn Apr 2015

Nonenzymatic Glycosylation Of Erythrocyte Membrane Proteins. Relevance To Diabetes, J A. Miller, Ellen M. Gravallese, H F. Bunn

Ellen M. Gravallese

Nonenzymatic glycosylation of proteins of the erythrocyte membrane was determined by incubating erythrocyte ghosts with [3H]borohydride. The incorporation of tritium into protein provides a reliable assay of ketoamine linkages. The membrane proteins from 18 patients with diabetes incorporated twice as much radioactivity as membrane proteins from normal erythrocytes. After acid hydrolysis, amino acid analysis showed that the majority of radioactivity was localized to glucosyllysine. Autoradiograms showed that all of the major proteins of the erythrocyte membrane, separated by electrophoresis on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels, contained ketoamine linkages. No protein bands in either normal or diabetic erythrocytes showed significant preferential ...


Endogenous Inhibitor Proteins That Connect Ser/Thr Kinases And Phosphatases In Cell Signaling., Masumi Eto, David L Brautigan Sep 2012

Endogenous Inhibitor Proteins That Connect Ser/Thr Kinases And Phosphatases In Cell Signaling., Masumi Eto, David L Brautigan

Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics Faculty Papers

Protein phosphatase activity acts as a primary determinant of the extent and duration of phosphorylation of cellular proteins in response to physiological stimuli. Ser/Thr protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) belongs to the PPP superfamily, and is associated with regulatory subunits that confer substrate specificity, allosteric regulation, and subcellular compartmentalization. In addition, all eukaryotic cells contain multiple heat-stable proteins that originally were thought to inhibit phosphatase catalytic subunits released from the regulatory subunits, as a fail-safe mechanism. However, discovery of C-kinase-activated PP1 inhibitor, Mr of 17 kDa (CPI-17) required fresh thinking about the endogenous inhibitors as specific regulators of particular phosphatase complexes ...


Minus-End Capture Of Preformed Kinetochore Fibers Contributes To Spindle Morphogenesis, Alexey Khodjakov, Lily Copenagle, Michael B. Gordon, Duane A. Compton, Tarun M. Kapoor Mar 2003

Minus-End Capture Of Preformed Kinetochore Fibers Contributes To Spindle Morphogenesis, Alexey Khodjakov, Lily Copenagle, Michael B. Gordon, Duane A. Compton, Tarun M. Kapoor

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Near-simultaneous three-dimensional fluorescence/differential interference contrast microscopy was used to follow the behavior of microtubules and chromosomes in living alpha-tubulin/GFP-expressing cells after inhibition of the mitotic kinesin Eg5 with monastrol. Kinetochore fibers (K-fibers) were frequently observed forming in association with chromosomes both during monastrol treatment and after monastrol removal. Surprisingly, these K-fibers were oriented away from, and not directly connected to, centrosomes and incorporated into the spindle by the sliding of their distal ends toward centrosomes via a NuMA-dependent mechanism. Similar preformed K-fibers were also observed during spindle formation in untreated cells. In addition, upon monastrol removal, centrosomes established ...