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Articles 1 - 12 of 12

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Impact Of Obesity On Ovotoxicity Induced By 7,12-Dimethylbenz[A]Anthracene In Mice, Jackson Nteeba, Shanthi Ganesan, Aileen F. Keating Jul 2019

Impact Of Obesity On Ovotoxicity Induced By 7,12-Dimethylbenz[A]Anthracene In Mice, Jackson Nteeba, Shanthi Ganesan, Aileen F. Keating

Aileen Keating

Insulin, elevated during obesity, regulates xenobiotic biotransformation enzymes, potentially through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling, in extraovarian tissues. PI3K regulates oocyte viability, follicular activation, and ovarian chemical biotransformation. 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), a carcinogen and ovotoxicant, destroys all stages of follicles, leading to premature ovarian failure. Obesity has been reported to promote DMBA-induced tumors, but it remains unknown whether obesity affects ovarian xenobiotic metabolism. Therefore, we investigated ovarian expression of xenobiotic metabolism genes—microsomal epoxide hydrolase (Ephx1), glutathione S-transferase (GST) class Pi (Gstp1) and class mu 1 (Gstm1), and PI3K-signaling members (protein kinase B [AKT] alpha [Akt1], beta [Akt2], and ...


Science, Physiology, And Nutrition For The Nonscientist, Judi S. Morrill Jul 2019

Science, Physiology, And Nutrition For The Nonscientist, Judi S. Morrill

Open Educational Resources

A wonderful blend of physiology, nutrition, biochemistry, genetics, biology, evolution, chemistry--what we all need to know as informed citizens. A basic knowledge of the life sciences and how our bodies work--to promote our own good health, especially as we're bombarded with misleading advertisements, soundbites, and the like. DNA fingerprinting, calorie requirements, dietary advice, genetic engineering (including gene editing with CRISPR cas9)--all in an easy-to understand book.


Tracing Nutrient Sources To Lipid Production In Insects Using Stable Isotope (Δ13c, Δ2h) Tracers: Implications For Nutritional Physiology Of Migratory Species., Libesha Anparasan, Keith A. Hobson Jun 2019

Tracing Nutrient Sources To Lipid Production In Insects Using Stable Isotope (Δ13c, Δ2h) Tracers: Implications For Nutritional Physiology Of Migratory Species., Libesha Anparasan, Keith A. Hobson

Western Research Forum

Using stable isotope measurements of insect tissues to determine origin and migratory patterns is well established. However, isotopically determining nutritional origins of lipids, the primary fuel of migration, has not been as thoroughly researched. We explored isotopic links between diet and stored lipids in laboratory raised True armyworm moths (Mythimna unipuncta) using δ13C and δ2H measurements. Pupae were randomly separated into four groups (n=20) and fed isotopically distinct nectar, each consisting of a combination of high δ13C (C4 sugar), or low δ13C (C3 sugar) carbohydrate, with high δ2H (deuterium ...


Selective Inhibition Of N-Linked Glycosylation Impairs Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Processing, Elsenoor Klaver, Peng Zhao, Melanie May, Heather Flanagan-Steet, Hudson H. Freeze, Reid Gilmore, Lance Wells, Joseph Contessa, Richard Steet Jun 2019

Selective Inhibition Of N-Linked Glycosylation Impairs Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Processing, Elsenoor Klaver, Peng Zhao, Melanie May, Heather Flanagan-Steet, Hudson H. Freeze, Reid Gilmore, Lance Wells, Joseph Contessa, Richard Steet

Open Access Articles

Global inhibition of N-linked glycosylation broadly reduces glycan occupancy on glycoproteins, but identifying how this inhibition functionally impacts specific glycoproteins is challenging. This limits our understanding of pathogenesis in the congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG). We used selective exo-enzymatic labeling of cells deficient in the two catalytic subunits of oligosaccharyltransferase - STT3A and STT3B - to monitor the presence and glycosylation status of cell surface glycoproteins. We show reduced abundance of two canonical tyrosine receptor kinases - the insulin receptor and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) - at the cell surface in STT3A-null cells, due to decreased N-linked glycan site occupancy and proteolytic ...


Adipocyte Acly Facilitates Dietary Carbohydrate Handling To Maintain Metabolic Homeostasis In Females, Sully Fernandez, John M. Viola, Annmarie Torres, Martina Wallace, Sophie Trefely, Steven Zhao, Hayley C. Affronti, Jivani M. Gengatharan, David A. Guertin, Nathaniel W. Snyder, Christian M. Metallo, Kathryn E. Wellen May 2019

Adipocyte Acly Facilitates Dietary Carbohydrate Handling To Maintain Metabolic Homeostasis In Females, Sully Fernandez, John M. Viola, Annmarie Torres, Martina Wallace, Sophie Trefely, Steven Zhao, Hayley C. Affronti, Jivani M. Gengatharan, David A. Guertin, Nathaniel W. Snyder, Christian M. Metallo, Kathryn E. Wellen

Open Access Articles

Sugars and refined carbohydrates are major components of the modern diet. ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY) is upregulated in adipocytes in response to carbohydrate consumption and generates acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) for both lipid synthesis and acetylation reactions. Here, we investigate the role of ACLY in the metabolic and transcriptional responses to carbohydrates in adipocytes and unexpectedly uncover a sexually dimorphic function in maintaining systemic metabolic homeostasis. When fed a high-sucrose diet, Acly(FAT-/-) females exhibit a lipodystrophy-like phenotype, with minimal fat accumulation, insulin resistance, and hepatic lipid accumulation, whereas Acly(FAT-/-) males have only mild metabolic phenotypes. We find that ACLY is ...


Ouabain Enhances Cell-Cell Adhesion Mediated By Beta1 Subunits Of The Na(+),K(+)-Atpase In Cho Fibroblasts, Claudia Andrea Vilchis-Nestor, Maria Luisa Roldan, Angelina Leonardi, Juan G. Navea, Teresita Padilla-Benavides, Liora Shoshani Apr 2019

Ouabain Enhances Cell-Cell Adhesion Mediated By Beta1 Subunits Of The Na(+),K(+)-Atpase In Cho Fibroblasts, Claudia Andrea Vilchis-Nestor, Maria Luisa Roldan, Angelina Leonardi, Juan G. Navea, Teresita Padilla-Benavides, Liora Shoshani

Open Access Articles

Adhesion is a crucial characteristic of epithelial cells to form barriers to pathogens and toxic substances from the environment. Epithelial cells attach to each other using intercellular junctions on the lateral membrane, including tight and adherent junctions, as well as the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. Our group has shown that non-adherent chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with the canine beta1 subunit become adhesive, and those homotypic interactions amongst beta1 subunits of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase occur between neighboring epithelial cells. Ouabain, a cardiotonic steroid, binds to the alpha subunit of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, inhibits the pump activity and induces ...


Exercise Rescues Gene Pathways Involved In Vascular Expansion And Promotes Functional Angiogenesis In Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue, So Yun Min, Heather Learnard, Shashi Kant, Olga Gaelikman, Raziel Rojas-Rodriguez, Tiffany Desouza, Anand Desai, John F. Keaney Jr., Silvia Corvera, Siobhan M. Craige Apr 2019

Exercise Rescues Gene Pathways Involved In Vascular Expansion And Promotes Functional Angiogenesis In Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue, So Yun Min, Heather Learnard, Shashi Kant, Olga Gaelikman, Raziel Rojas-Rodriguez, Tiffany Desouza, Anand Desai, John F. Keaney Jr., Silvia Corvera, Siobhan M. Craige

Open Access Articles

Exercise mitigates chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity; however, the molecular mechanisms governing protection from these diseases are not completely understood. Here we demonstrate that exercise rescues metabolically compromised high fat diet (HFD) fed mice, and reprograms subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT). Using transcriptomic profiling, scWAT was analyzed for HFD gene expression changes that were rescued by exercise. Gene networks involved in vascularization were identified as prominent targets of exercise, which led us to investigate the vasculature architecture and endothelial phenotype. Vascular density in scWAT was found to be compromised in HFD, and exercise rescued this defect ...


Rac1 Activity Is Modulated By Huntingtin And Dysregulated In Models Of Huntington's Disease, Adelaide Tousley, Anastasia Khvorova, Neil Aronin, Kimberly B. Kegel-Gleason Feb 2019

Rac1 Activity Is Modulated By Huntingtin And Dysregulated In Models Of Huntington's Disease, Adelaide Tousley, Anastasia Khvorova, Neil Aronin, Kimberly B. Kegel-Gleason

RNA Therapeutics Institute Publications

BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that Huntingtin, the protein mutated in Huntington's disease (HD), is required for actin based changes in cell morphology, and undergoes stimulus induced targeting to plasma membranes where it interacts with phospholipids involved in cell signaling. The small GTPase Rac1 is a downstream target of growth factor stimulation and PI 3-kinase activity and is critical for actin dependent membrane remodeling.

OBJECTIVE: To determine if Rac1 activity is impaired in HD or regulated by normal Huntingtin.

METHODS: Analyses were performed in differentiated control and HD human stem cells and HD Q140/Q140 knock-in mice. Biochemical methods included ...


A Persistence Detector For Metabolic Network Rewiring In An Animal, Jote T. Bulcha, Gabrielle E. Giese, Zulfikar Ali, Yong-Uk Lee, Melissa D. Walker, Amy D. Holdorf, L. Safak Yilmaz, Robert C. Brewster, Albertha J. M. Walhout Jan 2019

A Persistence Detector For Metabolic Network Rewiring In An Animal, Jote T. Bulcha, Gabrielle E. Giese, Zulfikar Ali, Yong-Uk Lee, Melissa D. Walker, Amy D. Holdorf, L. Safak Yilmaz, Robert C. Brewster, Albertha J. M. Walhout

Open Access Articles

Biological systems must possess mechanisms that prevent inappropriate responses to spurious environmental inputs. Caenorhabditis elegans has two breakdown pathways for the short-chain fatty acid propionate: a canonical, vitamin B12-dependent pathway and a propionate shunt that is used when vitamin B12 levels are low. The shunt pathway is kept off when there is sufficient flux through the canonical pathway, likely to avoid generating shunt-specific toxic intermediates. Here, we discovered a transcriptional regulatory circuit that activates shunt gene expression upon propionate buildup. Nuclear hormone receptor 10 (NHR-10) and NHR-68 function together as a "persistence detector" in a type 1, coherent feed-forward loop ...


Development Of A Biomarker Panel For Identifying Stressed Marine Mammals, Laura Pujade Jan 2019

Development Of A Biomarker Panel For Identifying Stressed Marine Mammals, Laura Pujade

University of the Pacific Theses and Dissertations

Increasing anthropogenic disturbance in marine ecosystems such as fishing, oil-drilling, and noise pollution can have detrimental effects on the reproduction and survival of apex predators such as marine mammals. Stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, resulting in increased circulating glucocorticoid (GCs) hormones, which alter expression of target genes encoding metabolic enzymes and other mediators of stress. Prolonged HPA axis stimulation may increase catabolism of nutrient stores and suppress immune and reproductive functions, impacting the fitness of marine mammals. GCs measurements are used to identify wild animals experiencing stress. However, these measurements may not be sensitive enough to distinguish between an ...


Effects Of Aquatic Acidification On Calcium Uptake In White River Shrimp Litopenaeus Setiferus Gills, Maria-Flora Jacobs Jan 2019

Effects Of Aquatic Acidification On Calcium Uptake In White River Shrimp Litopenaeus Setiferus Gills, Maria-Flora Jacobs

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Previous research regarding aquatic acidification has examined the protonation of the carbonate and does not consider calcium to be a limiting factor. This is the first study to suggest that pH may affect the uptake of calcium in crustacean gills. This project describes ion transport mechanisms present in the cell membranes of white river shrimp Litopenaeus setiferus gill epithelium, and the effects of pH on the uptake of calcium by these means. Partially purified membrane vesicles (PPMV) of shrimp gills were prepared through a homogenization process that has been used previously to define ion transport in crab and lobster gill ...


Of Course, Humans Are Not Unique!, Bernard Wallner Jan 2019

Of Course, Humans Are Not Unique!, Bernard Wallner

Animal Sentience

This commentary focuses on the question of the uniqueness of humans in comparison to other species and on the false assumption that single arguments support logical conclusions. Comparative analysis of genetic data in humans and nonhuman primates regarding the dopaminergic system of the subcortical mesolimbic reward system highlights homologous traits shared and modified by the process of evolution. Such an analytical approach is more relevant than claims of uniqueness.