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Physiology

2015

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Articles 1 - 19 of 19

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Systematic Dissection Of Roles For Chromatin Regulators In Dynamics Of Transcriptional Response To Stress In Yeast: A Dissertation, Hsiuyi V. Chen Dec 2015

Systematic Dissection Of Roles For Chromatin Regulators In Dynamics Of Transcriptional Response To Stress In Yeast: A Dissertation, Hsiuyi V. Chen

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The following work demonstrates that chromatin regulators play far more pronounced roles in dynamic gene expression than they do in steady-state. Histone modifications have been associated with transcription activity. However, previous analyses of gene expression in mutants affecting histone modifications show limited alteration. I systematically dissected the effects of 83 histone mutants and 119 gene deletion mutants on gene induction/repression in response to diamide stress in yeast. Importantly, I observed far more changes in gene induction/repression than changes in steady-state gene expression. The extensive dynamic gene expression profile of histone mutants and gene deletion mutants also allowed me ...


Autophagy And Its Potential Role In Stress And Feed Efficiency Using Avian Lines, Alissa Laura Piekarski Dec 2015

Autophagy And Its Potential Role In Stress And Feed Efficiency Using Avian Lines, Alissa Laura Piekarski

Theses and Dissertations

Autophagy is a highly conserved cellular mechanism that is responsible for the degradation and recycling of damaged organelles. Recently, autophagy has been involved in critical roles during overall development of the organism and degradation of damaged cellular components. This pathway has witnessed dramatic growth in the last few years and has been extensively studied in yeast and mammals, however, there is a paucity of information in avian (non-mammalian) species. First, we characterized genes involved in the autophagy pathway in male and female Jungle Fowl to determine gender and tissue specific differences. Secondly, tissue and genotype differences in Japanese quail selected ...


Hepatic Nutrient And Hormonal Regulation Of The Pancreatic-Derived Factor (Pander) Promoter, Whitney Ratliff Nov 2015

Hepatic Nutrient And Hormonal Regulation Of The Pancreatic-Derived Factor (Pander) Promoter, Whitney Ratliff

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

PANcreatic-DERived factor (PANDER, FAM3B) has been shown to regulate glycemic levels via interactions with both pancreatic islets and the liver. Although PANDER is predominantly expressed from the endocrine pancreas, recent work has provided sufficient evidence that the liver may also be an additional tissue source of PANDER production. At physiological levels, PANDER is capable of disrupting insulin signaling and promoting increased hepatic glucose production. As shown in some animal models, strong expression of PANDER, induced by viral delivery within the liver, induces hepatic steatosis. However, no studies to date have explicitly characterized the transcriptional regulation of PANDER from the liver ...


Roles Of Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 7 And Jumonji Domain-Containing Protein 6 In Adipocyte Differentiation: A Dissertation, Yu-Jie Hu Oct 2015

Roles Of Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 7 And Jumonji Domain-Containing Protein 6 In Adipocyte Differentiation: A Dissertation, Yu-Jie Hu

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Regulation of gene expression comprises a wide range of mechanisms that control the abundance of gene products in response to environmental and developmental changes. These biological processes can be modulated by posttranslational modifications including arginine methylation. Among the enzymes that catalyze the methylation, protein arginine methyltransferase 7 (PRMT7) is known to modify histones to repress gene expression. Jumonji domain-containing protein 6 (JMJD6) is a putative arginine demethylase that potentially antagonize PRMT7. However, the biological significance of these enzymes is not well understood. This thesis summarizes the investigation of both PRMT7 and JMJD6 in cell culture models for adipocyte differentiation. The ...


Investigating The Effects Of Mutant Fus On Stress Response In Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Thesis, Laura J. Kaushansky Aug 2015

Investigating The Effects Of Mutant Fus On Stress Response In Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Thesis, Laura J. Kaushansky

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

During stress, eukaryotes regulate protein synthesis in part through formation of cytoplasmic, non-membrane-bound complexes called stress granules (SGs). SGs transiently store signaling proteins and stalled translational complexes in response to stress stimuli (e.g. oxidative insult, DNA damage, temperature shifts and ER dysfunction). The functional outcome of SGs is proper translational regulation and signaling, allowing cells to overcome stress.

The fatal motor neuron disease Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) develops in an age-related manner and is marked by progressive neuronal death, with cytoplasmic protein aggregation, excitotoxicity and increased oxidative stress as major hallmarks. Fused in Sarcoma/Translocated in Liposarcoma (FUS) is ...


Gating Mechanisms Of The Canonical Trp Channel Isoform Trpc4, Dhananjay P. Thakur Aug 2015

Gating Mechanisms Of The Canonical Trp Channel Isoform Trpc4, Dhananjay P. Thakur

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Non-selective cation channels formed by Transient Receptor Potential Canonical (TRPC) proteins play important roles in regulatory and pathophysiological processes. These channels are known to be activated downstream from phospholipase C (PLC) signaling. However, the mechanism by which the PLC pathway activates TRPC4/C5 remains unclear. Uniquely, TRPC4 is maximally activated only when two separate G protein pathways, Gq/11 and Gi/o, are co-stimulated, making it a coincidence detector of Gq/11- and Gi/o -coupled receptor activation. Using HEK293 cells co-expressing mouse TRPC4β and selected G protein-coupled receptors, I observed that coincident stimulation of G ...


The Characterization Of Amyloid Fibrils And Novel Synthetic Heparin-Binding Peptides Binding To Cell Surfaces, Nicole Marie Hackenbrack May 2015

The Characterization Of Amyloid Fibrils And Novel Synthetic Heparin-Binding Peptides Binding To Cell Surfaces, Nicole Marie Hackenbrack

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Functional Significance Of Gill Claudin Proteins In Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) Osmoregulation, Joanna Katarzyna Bujak May 2015

Functional Significance Of Gill Claudin Proteins In Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) Osmoregulation, Joanna Katarzyna Bujak

Theses and Dissertations

Claudin proteins, a key element of tight junction complexes, are known to control paracellular permeability. In euryhaline fish, changes in claudin abundance and localization are critical during salinity acclimation. In seawater, a leaky paracellular pathway that facilitates sodium extrusion is hypothesized to be controlled by claudin proteins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of Claudin-10c, -10d -10e and Claudin-30 in gill function in freshwater (FW) and seawater (SW) rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). I examined mRNA and protein abundance along with cellular localization. A tissue distribution survey showed that all of the claudins studied were predominantly expressed ...


Role Of Protein Kinase Map4k4 In Energy Metabolism: A Dissertation, Laura V. Danai Apr 2015

Role Of Protein Kinase Map4k4 In Energy Metabolism: A Dissertation, Laura V. Danai

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Systemic glucose regulation is essential for human survival as low or chronically high glucose levels can be detrimental to the health of an individual. Glucose levels are highly regulated via inter-organ communication networks that alter metabolic function to maintain euglycemia. For example, when nutrient levels are low, pancreatic α-cells secrete glucagon, which signals to the liver to promote glycogen breakdown and glucose production. In times of excess nutrient intake, pancreatic β-cells release insulin. Insulin signals to the liver to suppress hepatic glucose production, and signals to the adipose tissue and the skeletal muscle to take up excess glucose via insulin-regulated ...


Improved Methods For Understanding The Gut Microbiome, Justine Woodhouse Debelius Jan 2015

Improved Methods For Understanding The Gut Microbiome, Justine Woodhouse Debelius

Chemistry & Biochemistry Graduate Theses & Dissertations (1986-2018)

The gut microbiome plays a profound role in human health. Over the last decade, much work has been done to define differences between microbial communities in healthy and diseased individuals. Studies of healthy individual have been small, and failed to address the multifactorial influences on the microbiome. However, little effort has focused on comparisons between the effects, in part due to the multivariate and complex nature of the data, which does not fit into the traditional paradigm for effect size calculations. This leaves questions about the relative impact of common practices on the microbiome, in comparison to the impact of ...


Minocycline Treatment And The Necessity To Develop A Novel Outcome Measure For Children With Angelman Syndrome, Joseph Christopher Grieco Jan 2015

Minocycline Treatment And The Necessity To Develop A Novel Outcome Measure For Children With Angelman Syndrome, Joseph Christopher Grieco

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Angelman syndrome (AS) is a rare genetic disorder affecting 1/10,000 to 1/20,000 births. This disorder arises through the genetic disruption of the maternal UBE3A allele, which when coupled with epigenetic silencing of the paternal allele UBE3A allele, gives rise to an absence of UBE3A protein in the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations of the syndrome vary in severity and include poor motor function, deficits in language and severe intellectual impairments. Previous research in the Angelman syndrome mouse model revealed abnormalities in dendritic spine density and morphology of hippocampal pyramidal cells. As seen in humans with AS ...


The Effects Of Hibernation On The Hemostatic Properties Of The American Bullfrog, Rana Catesbeiana, Kiana Cullinan Jan 2015

The Effects Of Hibernation On The Hemostatic Properties Of The American Bullfrog, Rana Catesbeiana, Kiana Cullinan

Honors Program Theses

It is known that hibernating animals display a drastic reduction in metabolic rate, accompanied by reduced heart rate and rate of blood flow through vessels. Sluggish blood flow increases the risk for developing clots, yet it has been observed that hibernators conclusively display elongated clotting times. This observed impairment may be caused by the decrease in body temperature, due to a negative impact on the functioning of the enzymes involved in coagulation. Some hibernating endotherms, or “warm-blooded” animals, employ biological mechanisms as preventative means to prevent clotting during hibernation, such as the down-regulation of certain clotting factors or the production ...


Molecular Mechanisms Underlying The Contralateral Repeated Bout Effect (Crbe) In Human Skeletal Muscle, Ling Xin Jan 2015

Molecular Mechanisms Underlying The Contralateral Repeated Bout Effect (Crbe) In Human Skeletal Muscle, Ling Xin

Doctoral Dissertations

Eccentric (muscle lengthening) exercise induces temporary muscle damage that can lead to long-term muscle adaptation, a process known as the repeated bout effect where subsequent exercise results in less damage. The existence of a contralateral repeated bout effect (CRBE) has been controversial. The primary goals of this study were to: 1) validate the existence of the CRBE; and 2) define the underlying molecular mechanisms.

Thirty-six young men performed 100 maximal eccentric actions of the knee extensors using one leg (bout 1) and repeated the exercise with the contralateral leg five weeks later (bout 2). Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were ...


Physiological Variation Of Garry Oak (Quercus Garryana) Seedlings To Drought Stress, Matthew A. Merz Jan 2015

Physiological Variation Of Garry Oak (Quercus Garryana) Seedlings To Drought Stress, Matthew A. Merz

All Master's Theses

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine physiological differences in drought response among Garry oak (Quercus garryana Douglas ex Hook. [Fagaceae]) seedlings that grow in distinct populations in Washington state, in order to aid in restoration efforts by informing growers of the potential differences between the acorn collection sites. Acorns from six Washington populations east of the Cascades, as well as one population from Whidbey Island, were collected and grown in containers under controlled conditions. The plants were assessed with and without moderate and severe drought stress induced by withholding water. The most extreme differences in photosynthetic characteristics ...


Factors Determining The Effects Of Human Interaction On The Cortisol Levels Of Shelter Dogs, Regina M. Willen Jan 2015

Factors Determining The Effects Of Human Interaction On The Cortisol Levels Of Shelter Dogs, Regina M. Willen

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

Dogs admitted to animal shelters experience psychological stressors resulting in elevated plasma cortisol. We previously found 30 min of human interaction reduced this response. The present study further characterized this effect, with the aim of developing a practical means of reducing stress of shelter dogs. We found that a second day of 30 min of petting reduced cortisol levels as effectively as the first. Further, 15 min of this interaction was as effective as 30 min. During petting, signs of excitation (vocalizations) and anxiety (panting) as well as escaped attempts were reduced, and social solicitation (tail-wagging) increased. However, cortisol levels ...


The Effect Of Scalp Tissue On Current Shunting During Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (Tdcs), Mark Patrick Jackson Jan 2015

The Effect Of Scalp Tissue On Current Shunting During Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (Tdcs), Mark Patrick Jackson

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) has been used to treat various mental and neurological illnesses. Rodent models have been used to examine physiological changes in the brain after tDCS, as well as to develop safety standards. However, most animal tDCS studies implant an electrode on the brain, potentially altering the path of current during stimulation. Additionally, no studies have been completed specifically examining maximum safe anodal tDCS limits, and a pilot study conducted to determine an electrode montage to examine biological changes of learning and memory from anodal tDCS indicated brain lesion was occurring before a commonly cited lesion threshold ...


Effects Of Sleep Deprivation On Performance In A Water Radial Arm Maze (Wram) Task, Saline Hughes Jan 2015

Effects Of Sleep Deprivation On Performance In A Water Radial Arm Maze (Wram) Task, Saline Hughes

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

Sleep deprivation causes many adverse effects on work performance. Many experiments in both human and rodent models reveal detriments that sleep deprivation has on learning and memory, including performance in a water radial arm maze (WRAM) task. This study utilizes the modified multiple platform method (MMPM) of sleep deprivation; rats were sleep deprived in order to study memory errors they may make during the WRAM task. The findings indicate that 6 hours of sleep deprivation for 2 five-day week periods did not affect performance in the WRAM task except on the initial day compared to the large platform group. The ...


Spontaneous Pancreatitis Caused By Tissue-Specific Gene Ablation Of Hhex In Mice, Mark Ferreira Jan 2015

Spontaneous Pancreatitis Caused By Tissue-Specific Gene Ablation Of Hhex In Mice, Mark Ferreira

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Background & Aims: Perturbations in pancreatic ductal bicarbonate secretion often result in chronic pancreatitis. Although the physiological mechanism of ductal secretion is known, its transcriptional control is not well characterized. Here, we investigate the role of the transcription factor Hematopoietically-expressed homeobox protein (Hhex) in pancreatic secretion and pancreatitis.

Methods: We derived mice with pancreas-specific, Cre-mediated Hhex gene ablation to determine the requirement of Hhex in the pancreatic duct in early life and in adult stages. Histological and immunostaining analyses were used to detect the presence of pathology. Pancreatic primary ductal cells (PDCs) were isolated to discover differentially expressed transcripts upon acute ...


Crebh, A Novel Liver Clock Keeper For Energy Metabolism, Ze Zheng Jan 2015

Crebh, A Novel Liver Clock Keeper For Energy Metabolism, Ze Zheng

Wayne State University Dissertations

Circadian rhythms play crucial roles in orchestrating diverse physiological processes that are critical for health and disease. Cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein 3-like 3 (CREB3L3, also known as CREBH) is a liver-enriched, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-tethered transcription factor known to regulate hepatic acute-phase response and energy homeostasis under stress conditions. Here, we demonstrate that CREBH is regulated by the circadian clock and functions as a diurnal regulator of hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism. CREBH is required to maintain circadian profiles of blood triglycerides, fatty acids, and glucose as well as hepatic glycogen storage. CREBH rhythmically regulates expression levels and ...